The inpatient hospital burden of comorbidities in HCV-infected patients: A population-based study in two Italian regions with high HCV endemicity (The BaCH study).
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND & AIMS:Hepatitis C (HCV) is associated with several extrahepatic manifestations, and estimates of the hospitalization burden related to these comorbidities are still limited. The aim of this study is to quantify the hospitalization risk associated with comorbidities in an Italian cohort of HCV-infected patients and to assess which of these comorbidities are associated with high hospitalization resource utilization. METHODS:Individuals aged 18 years and older with HCV-infection were identified in the Abruzzo's and Campania's hospital discharge abstracts during 2011-2014 with 1-year follow-up. Cardio-and cerebrovascular disease, diabetes and renal disease were grouped as HCV-related comorbidities. Negative binomial models were used to compare the hospitalization risk in patients with and without each comorbidity. Logistic regression model was used to identify the characteristics of being in the top 20% of patients with the highest hospitalization costs (high-cost patients). RESULTS:15,985 patients were included; 19.9% had a liver complication and 48.6% had one or more HCV-related comorbidities. During follow-up, 36.0% of patients underwent at least one hospitalization. Liver complications and the presence of two or more HCV-related comorbidities were the major predictors of hospitalization and highest inpatient costs. Among those, patients with cardiovascular disease had the highest risk of hospitalization (Incidence Rate Ratios = 1.42;95%CI:1.33-1.51) and the highest likelihood of becoming high-cost patients (Odd Ratio = 1.37;95%CI:1.20-1.57). CONCLUSION:Beyond advanced liver disease, HCV-related comorbidities (especially cardiovascular disease) are the strongest predictors of high hospitalization rates and costs. Our findings highlight the potential benefit that early identification and treatment of HCV might have on the reduction of hospitalization costs driven by extrahepatic conditions.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Since HIV+ treatment has become more effective, the average age of people living with HIV (PLWHIV) has increased, and consequently the incidence of developing comorbidities, making the clinical and economic management of HIV+ patients more complex. Limited literature exists regarding the management of comorbidities costs. This study is aimed at defining and comparing the total annual costs of comorbidities, in an Italian cohort of HIV and HIV/HCV patients, from the National Healthcare Service perspective. The authors hypothesised that there are higher costs, for patients with multiple comorbidities, and a greater consumption of resources for HIV/HCV co-infected patients versus HIV mono-infected patients. METHODS:An observational retrospective multi-centre health-economics study, enrolling HIV+ and HIV/HCV consecutive patients with at least one comorbidity, was conducted. The consecutive cases, provided by three Italian infectious diseases centres, were related to the year 2016. The enrolled patients were on a stable antiviral therapy for at least six months. Demographic and clinical information was recorded. Costs related to HIV and HCV therapies, other treatments, medical examinations, hospitalizations and outpatient visits were evaluated. Data from mono-infected and co-infected groups of patients were compared, and the statistical analysis was performed by t-tests, chi-square and ANOVA. A sub-analysis excluding HCV therapy costs, was also conducted. The hierarchical sequential linear regression model was used to explore the determinants of costs, considering the investigated comorbidities. All analyses were conducted with a significant level of 0.05. RESULTS:A total of 676 patients, 82% male, mean age 52, were identified and divided into groups (338 mono-infected HIV+ and 338 co-infected HIV/HCV patients), comparable in terms of age, gender, and demographic characteristics. A trend towards higher annual costs, for patients with multiple comorbidities was observed in HIV mono-infected patients (respectively € 8272.18 for patients without comorbidities and € 12,532.49 for patients with three or more comorbidities, p-value: 0.001). Excluding anti-HCV therapies costs, HIV/HCV co-infected patients generally required more resources, with statistically significant differences related to cardiovascular events (€10,116.58 vs €11,004.28, p-value: 0.001), and neurocognitive impairments events (€7706.43 vs €11,641.29 p- value: <?0.001). CONCLUSIONS:This study provides a differentiated and comprehensive analysis of the healthcare resources needed by HIV and HIV/HCV patients with comorbidities and may contribute to the decision process of resources allocation, in the clinical management of different HIV+ patient populations.
Project description:Background. ?Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a leading cause of cirrhosis and the primary cause of liver transplantation in the United States, and coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) increases the risk of comorbidities. However, healthcare utilization (HCU) patterns among HIV/HCV-coinfected patients are poorly understood. This study compared the rates of HCU and reasons for hospital admission among HCV-infected, HIV-infected, and HIV/HCV-coinfected veterans. Methods. ?Hepatitis C virus- and HIV-infected and HIV/HCV-coinfected veterans in care with the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) from 1998 to 2009 (n = 335 371, n = 28 179, n = 13 471, respectively) were identified by HIV- and HCV-associated International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes from the clinical case registry. We assessed rates of HCU using emergency department (ED) visits, outpatient visits, and hospitalization and primary diagnoses associated with hospitalization. Independent risk factors associated with hospitalization were also examined. Results. ?Rates of outpatient and ED visits increased over the 11-year study period for all groups, with inpatient admission rates remaining stable. The HCU rates were consistently higher for the coinfected than other cohorts. The primary reason for hospital admission for all groups was psychiatric disease/substance use, accounting for 44% of all admissions. Nadir CD4 <350 cells/mm3 was associated with higher rates of hospitalization versus nadir CD4 >500 cells/mm3. Conclusions. ?As the current population of HCV-infected, HIV-infected, and HIV/HCV-coinfected veterans age, they will continue to place a substantial and increasing demand on the US healthcare system, particularly in their utilization of ED and outpatient services. These data suggest the need for an ongoing investment in mental health and primary care within the VA healthcare system.
Project description:Hepatitis C virus (HCV) remains a significant public health threat as new 1.75 million HCV infections emerged worldwide. The majority of these infections become persistently infected, while around 30 % spontaneously eliminate the virus. Clinical factors for viral clarification are related to HCV interaction with host immune system, but little is known about the consequences after HCV spontaneous resolution. These individuals are difficult to recruit and study as acute infection is usually asymptomatic, and they will not be identified unless it progress to chronic infection. The study of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of these patients is crucial, as PBMCs are one of the main HCV extrahepatic reservoirs, and its transcriptional profile provide us information of innate and adaptive immune response against HCV infection. Our research shows novel insight on molecular consequences of spontaneous resolution after an acute HCV infection. 96 Individuals with different HCV exposure status were recruited: spontaneous resolved, chronic infected and healthy controls; and the microRNA profile of their PBMCs were analyzed. Our results indicate similar disruption of miRNA expression on HCV chronic patients and those who spontaneously clarified the infection, compared to control patients. The disrupted miRNAs formed a signature of 21 miRNAs that mainly regulate lipid metabolism. This is the first report showing miRNA profile similarities between chronic HCV patients and spontaneous resolved individuals. Thus, our results suggest that HCV infection promotes molecular alterations in PBMCs that will last longer after HCV spontaneous eradication. This evidences open up new prospects in the management of individuals who spontaneously clarified infection, as they should be monitored and followed to dismiss future HCV-related complications, such us liver diseases complications. The identified miRNA signature could be used as biomarker to monitor HCV fingerprint on HCV-exposed patients.
Project description:Hepatitis C virus (HCV) predominantly infects hepatocytes, although it is known that receptors for viral entry are distributed on a wide array of target cells. Chronic HCV infection is indeed characterized by multiple non-liver manifestations, suggesting a more complex HCV tropism extended to extrahepatic tissues and remains to be fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the gastrointestinal mucosa (GIM) as a potential extrahepatic viral replication site and its contribution to HCV recurrence.We analyzed GIM biopsies from a cohort of 76 patients, 11 of which were HCV-negative and 65 HCV-positive. Of these, 54 biopsies were from liver-transplanted patients. In 29 cases, we were able to investigate gastrointestinal biopsies from the same patient before and after transplant. To evaluate the presence of HCV, we looked for viral antigens and genome RNA, whilst to assess viral replicative activity, we searched for the replicative intermediate minus-strand RNA. We studied the genetic diversity and the phylogenetic relationship of HCV quasispecies from plasma, liver and gastrointestinal mucosa of HCV-liver-transplanted patients in order to assess HCV compartmentalization and possible contribution of gastrointestinal variants to liver re-infection after transplantation.Here we show that HCV infects and replicates in the cells of the GIM and that the favorite hosts were mostly enteroendocrine cells. Interestingly, we observed compartmentalization of the HCV quasispecies present in the gastrointestinal mucosa compared to other tissues of the same patient. Moreover, the phylogenetic analysis revealed a high similarity between HCV variants detected in gastrointestinal mucosa and those present in the re-infected graft.Our results demonstrated that the gastrointestinal mucosa might be considered as an extrahepatic reservoir of HCV and that could contribute to viral recurrence. Moreover, the finding that HCV infects and replicates in neuroendocrine cells opens new perspectives on the role of these cells in the natural history of HCV infection.
Project description:Extrahepatic replication has important implications for the transmission and treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV). We analyzed longitudinal HCV diversity in peripheral-blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and serum during HCV monoinfection and HCV/HIV coinfection to determine whether distinct amino acid signatures characterized HCV replicating within PBMCs. Analysis of E1-HVR1 sequences demonstrated higher serum genetic distances among HCV/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-coinfected persons. Moreover, consensus PBMC sequences were rarely identical to those in the corresponding serum, suggesting divergence in these 2 compartments. Three of 5 HCV/HIV-coinfected participants showed evidence of HCV compartmentalization in PBMCs. Additionally, signature sequence analysis identified PBMC-specific amino acids in all HCV/HIV-coinfected persons. To our knowledge, this is the first study to identify specific amino acids that may distinguish HCV variants replicating in PBMCs. It is provocative to speculate that extrahepatic HCV diversity may be an important determinant of treatment response and thus warrants additional study, particularly during HCV/HIV coinfection.
Project description:The highest recorded hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence worldwide is in Egypt. A high prevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in chronic liver disease has been reported. The aim of this study was to study prevalence, incidence, and outcome of HCV infection in an Egyptian Nile Delta village and the relation between HEV infection and HCV-related chronic hepatic affection. This prospective cohort study included 2085 Nagreej village residents. Mass HCV screening was conducted and testing for HEV antibodies among HCV-infected patients performed. The annual incidence of HCV was recorded. Five hundred five (24.22%) of the tested villagers were positive for HCV RNA. Prevalence escalated with age and male sex. The main recorded risk factors were a history of surgery, dental procedures, hospitalization, blood transfusion, and antischistosomal treatment. HEV IgG antibody was positive in 71.4% of individuals with chronic HCV and 96.1% with advanced liver disease (cirrhosis ± hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)). After 1 year, 29 of the 1390 HCV Ab negative villagers had a positive HCV PCR, placing an annual incidence of new HCV infections at 2.09%. The Egyptian HCV prevalence remains high with infection particularly among the elderly. The annual incidence in a small Nile Delta village is 2.086%. HCV-HEV co-infection may lead to a worse prognosis among Egyptians with chronic liver disease.
Project description:Despite guideline recommendations, access to hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment is frequently restricted, with some payers approving therapy for only those with advanced disease or cirrhosis. However, delaying potentially curative treatment until the development of advanced liver disease may have costly consequences in terms of both hepatic complications and extrahepatic manifestations (EHMs) of HCV. Using a large claims database from the United States, we measured the risks and medical costs of 20 EHMs and investigated the role of treatment in different stages of liver fibrosis for mitigating the clinical and economic burden of these EHMs. After adjusting for potential confounders, including comorbid liver disease, patients with HCV had a significantly higher risk for any EHM (adjusted odds ratio, 2.23; P?<?0.05) and higher EHM-related annual medical costs (adjusted medical cost difference, $6,458; P?<?0.05) compared to matched patients without HCV. HCV treatment can offset the higher medical costs in patients with HCV by saving ?$25,000 in all-cause medical costs per patient per year, with a large proportion attributable to savings in EHM-related medical costs (adjusted cost difference $12,773, P?<?0.05). Finally, additional EHM-related medical costs could be saved by initiating HCV therapy in early stage fibrosis as opposed to late-stage fibrosis (adjusted medical cost difference, $10,409; P?<?0.05). Conclusion: The clinical and economic burden of EHMs is substantial and can be reduced through viral eradication, especially if treatment is initiated early and not delayed until fibrosis advances. Considering that the wholesale acquisition cost of a 12-week course of therapy ranges from $55,000 to $147,000, the results of the current study suggest the cost of these treatments could be offset within 3 to 6 years by savings in all-cause medical costs. (Hepatology Communications 2017;1:439-452).
Project description:Objective. Treating complications associated with diabetes and hypertension imposes significant costs on health care systems. This study estimated the hospitalization costs for inpatients in a public hospital in Zimbabwe. Methods. The study was retrospective and utilized secondary data from medical records. Total hospitalization costs were estimated using generalized linear models. Results. The median cost and interquartile range (IQR) for patients with diabetes, $994 (385-1553) mean $1319 (95% CI: 981-1657), was higher than patients with hypertension, $759 (494-1147) mean $914 (95% CI: 825-1003). Female patients aged below 65 years with diabetes had the highest estimated mean costs ($1467 (95% CI: 1177-1828)). Wound care had the highest estimated mean cost of all procedures, $2884 (95% CI: 2004-4149) for patients with diabetes and $2239 (95% CI: 1589-3156) for patients with hypertension. Age below 65 years, medical procedures (amputation, wound care, dialysis, and physiotherapy), the presence of two or more comorbidities, and being prescribed two or more drugs were associated with significantly higher hospitalization costs. Conclusion. Our estimated costs could be used to evaluate and improve current inpatient treatment and management of patients with diabetes and hypertension and determine the most cost-effective interventions to prevent complications and comorbidities.
Project description:Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection can lead to advanced liver disease (AdvLD), including cirrhosis, decompensated cirrhosis, and liver cancer. The aim of this study was to determine recent historical rates of HCV patient progression to AdvLD and to project AdvLD prevalence through 2015. We first determined total 2008 US chronic HCV prevalence from the National Health and Nutrition Evaluation Surveys. Next, we examined disease progression and associated non-pharmacological costs of diagnosed chronic HCV-infected patients between 2007-2009 in the IMS LifeLink and CMS Medicare claims databases. A projection model was developed to estimate AdvLD population growth through 2015 in patients diagnosed and undiagnosed as of 2008, using the 2007-2009 progression rates to generate a "worst case" projection of the HCV-related AdvLD population (i.e., scenario where HCV treatment is the same in the forecasted period as it was before 2009). We found that the total diagnosed chronic HCV population grew from 983,000 to 1.19 million in 2007-2009, with patients born from 1945-1964 accounting for 75.0% of all patients, 83.7% of AdvLD patients, and 79.2% of costs in 2009, indicating that HCV is primarily a disease of the "baby boomer" population. Non-pharmacological costs grew from $7.22 billion to $8.63 billion, with the majority of growth derived from the 60,000 new patients that developed AdvLD in 2007-2009, 91.5% of whom were born between 1945 and 1964. The projection model estimated the total AdvLD population would grow from 195,000 in 2008 to 601,000 in 2015, with 73.5% of new AdvLD cases from patients undiagnosed as of 2008. AdvLD prevalence in patients diagnosed as of 2008 was projected to grow 6.5% annually to 303,000 patients in 2015. These findings suggest that strategies to diagnose and treat HCV-infected patients are urgently needed to increase the likelihood that progression is interrupted, particularly for patients born from 1945-1964.
Project description:Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with increased systemic oxidative stress, which leads to cardiovascular events, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease. Similarly, cataract is also associated with increased oxidative stress. The association between HCV infection and increased risk of cataract remains unclear.A total of 11,652 HCV-infected patients and 46,608 age- and sex-matched non-HCV infected patients were identified during 2003-2011. All patient data were tracked until a diagnosis of cataract, death, or the end of 2011. Cumulative incidences and hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated.The mean follow-up durations were 5.29 and 5.86 years for the HCV and non-HCV cohorts, respectively. The overall incidence density rate for cataract was 1.36 times higher in the HCV cohort than in the non-HCV cohort (1.86 and 1.37 per 100 person-y, respectively). After adjusting for age, sex, comorbidities of diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, coronary artery disease, and anxiety, patients with HCV infection had an increased risk of cataract compared with those without HCV infection [adjusted HR = 1.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.14-1.32]. HCV-infected patients receiving interferon-ribavirin therapy had a 1.83 times higher (95% CI = 1.40-2.38) risk of cataract than non-HCV infected patients did.HCV infection, even without the complication of cirrhosis, is associated with an increased risk of cataract, and this risk is higher in HCV-infected patients undergoing interferon-ribavirin therapy.