Interrogation of nonconserved human adipose lincRNAs identifies a regulatory role of linc-ADAL in adipocyte metabolism.
ABSTRACT: Long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) have emerged as important modulators of cellular functions. Most lincRNAs are not conserved among mammals, raising the fundamental question of whether nonconserved adipose-expressed lincRNAs are functional. To address this, we performed deep RNA sequencing of gluteal subcutaneous adipose tissue from 25 healthy humans. We identified 1001 putative lincRNAs expressed in all samples through de novo reconstruction of noncoding transcriptomes and integration with existing lincRNA annotations. One hundred twenty lincRNAs had adipose-enriched expression, and 54 of these exhibited peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) or CCAAT/enhancer binding protein ? (C/EBP?) binding at their loci. Most of these adipose-enriched lincRNAs (~85%) were not conserved in mice, yet on average, they showed degrees of expression and binding of PPAR? and C/EBP? similar to those displayed by conserved lincRNAs. Most adipose lincRNAs differentially expressed (n = 53) in patients after bariatric surgery were nonconserved. The most abundant adipose-enriched lincRNA in our subcutaneous adipose data set, linc-ADAL, was nonconserved, up-regulated in adipose depots of obese individuals, and markedly induced during in vitro human adipocyte differentiation. We demonstrated that linc-ADAL interacts with heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U (hnRNPU) and insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA binding protein 2 (IGF2BP2) at distinct subcellular locations to regulate adipocyte differentiation and lipogenesis.
Project description:Thousands of human long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) have been detected in human adipose tissue. Here we characterized the function of one human adipse lincRNA, linc-ADAL (chr5:115292235-115296985) in mature adipcoytes through loss-of-function studies. Our results indicate that knockdown of linc-ADAL in differentiated adipocytes modulated expression of lipid metabolism genes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cytokine responses to activation of innate immunity differ between individuals, yet the genomic and tissue-specific transcriptomic determinants of inflammatory responsiveness are not well understood. We hypothesized that tissue-specific mRNA and long intergenic noncoding RNA (lincRNA) induction differs between individuals with divergent evoked inflammatory responses. METHODS:In the GENE Study (Genetics of Evoked Response to Niacin and Endotoxemia), we performed an inpatient endotoxin challenge (1 ng/kg lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) in healthy humans. We selected individuals in the top (high responders) and bottom (low responders) extremes of inflammatory responses and applied RNA sequencing to CD14 monocytes (N=15) and adipose tissue (N=25) before and after LPS administration. RESULTS:Although only a small number of genes were differentially expressed at baseline, there were clear differences in the magnitude of the transcriptional response post-LPS between high and low responders, with a far greater number of genes differentially expressed by endotoxemia in high responders. Furthermore, tissue responses differed during inflammation, and we found a number of tissue-specific differentially expressed lincRNAs post-LPS, which we validated. Relative to nondifferentially expressed lincRNAs, differentially expressed lincRNAs were equally likely to be nonconserved as conserved between human and mouse, indicating that conservation is not a predictor of lincRNAs associated with human inflammatory pathophysiology. Differentially expressed genes also were enriched for signals with inflammatory and cardiometabolic disease in published genome-wide association studies. CTB-41I6.2 ( AC002091.1), a nonconserved human-specific lincRNA, is one of the top lincRNAs regulated by endotoxemia in monocytes, but not in adipose tissue. Knockdown experiments in THP-1 monocytes suggest that this lincRNA enhances LPS-induced interleukin 6 ( IL6) expression in monocytes, and we now refer to this as monocyte LPS-induced lincRNA regulator of IL6 ( MOLRIL6). CONCLUSIONS:We highlight mRNAs and lincRNAs that represent novel candidates for modulation of innate immune and metabolic responses in humans. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT00953667.
Project description:Long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) have emerged as key regulators of cellular functions and physiology. Yet functional lincRNAs often have low, context-specific and tissue-specific expression. We hypothesized that many human monocyte and adipose lincRNAs would be absent in current public annotations due to lincRNA tissue specificity, modest sequencing depth in public data, limitations of transcriptome assembly algorithms, and lack of dynamic physiological contexts. Deep RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) was performed in peripheral blood CD14+ monocytes (monocytes; average ~247 million reads per sample) and adipose tissue (average ~378 million reads per sample) collected before and after human experimental endotoxemia, an in vivo inflammatory stress, to identify tissue-specific and clinically relevant lincRNAs. Using a stringent filtering pipeline, we identified 109 unannotated lincRNAs in monocytes and 270 unannotated lincRNAs in adipose. Most unannotated lincRNAs are not conserved in rodents and are tissue specific, while many have features of regulated expression and are enriched in transposable elements. Specific subsets have enhancer RNA characteristics or are expressed only during inflammatory stress. A subset of unannotated lincRNAs was validated and replicated for their presence and inflammatory induction in independent human samples and for their monocyte and adipocyte origins. Through interrogation of public genome-wide association data, we also found evidence of specific disease association for selective unannotated lincRNAs. Our findings highlight the critical need to perform deep RNA-Seq in a cell-, tissue-, and context-specific manner to annotate the full repertoire of human lincRNAs for a complete understanding of lincRNA roles in dynamic cell functions and in human disease.
Project description:Long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) are transcripts longer than 200 nucleotides that are transcribed from non-coding loci yet undergo biosynthesis similar to coding mRNAs. The disproportional number of lincRNAs expressed in testes suggests that lincRNAs are important during gametogenesis, but experimental evidence has implicated very few lincRNAs in this process. We took advantage of the relatively limited number of lincRNAs in the genome of the nematode <i>Caenorhabditis elegans</i> to systematically analyse the functions of lincRNAs during meiosis. We deleted six lincRNA genes that are highly and dynamically expressed in the <i>C. elegans</i> gonad and tested the effects on central meiotic processes. Surprisingly, whereas the lincRNA deletions did not strongly impact fertility, germline apoptosis, crossovers, or synapsis, <i>linc-4</i> was required for somatic growth. Slower growth was observed in <i>linc-4</i>-deletion mutants and in worms depleted of <i>linc-4</i> using RNAi, indicating that <i>linc-4</i> transcripts are required for this post-embryonic process. Unexpectedly, analysis of worms depleted of <i>linc-4</i> in soma versus germline showed that the somatic role stems from <i>linc-4</i> expression in germline cells. This unique feature suggests that some lincRNAs, like some small non-coding RNAs, are required for germ-soma interactions.
Project description:Long noncoding RNAs are emerging as important regulators of cellular functions, but little is known of their role in the human immune system. Here we investigated long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) in 13 subsets of T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes by next-generation sequencing-based RNA sequencing (RNA-seq analysis) and de novo transcriptome reconstruction. We identified over 500 previously unknown lincRNAs and described lincRNA signatures. Expression of linc-MAF-4, a chromatin-associated lincRNA specific to the TH1 subset of helper T cells, was inversely correlated with expression of MAF, a TH2-associated transcription factor. Downregulation of linc-MAF-4 skewed T cell differentiation toward the TH2 phenotype. We identified a long-distance interaction between the genomic regions of the gene encoding linc-MAF-4 and MAF, where linc-MAF-4 associated with the chromatin modifiers LSD1 and EZH2; this suggested that linc-MAF-4 regulated MAF transcription through the recruitment of chromatin modifiers. Our results demonstrate a key role for lincRNA in T lymphocyte differentiation.
Project description:Long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) play important roles in disease, but the vast majority of these transcripts remain uncharacterized. We defined a set of 54 944 human lincRNAs by drawing on four publicly available lincRNA datasets, and annotated ?2.5 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from each of 15 cardiometabolic genome-wide association study datasets into these lincRNAs. We identified hundreds of lincRNAs with at least one trait-associated SNP: 898 SNPs in 343 unique lincRNAs at 5% false discovery rate, and 469 SNPs in 146 unique lincRNAs meeting Bonferroni-corrected P < 0.05. An additional 64 trait-associated lincRNAs were identified using a class-level testing strategy at Bonferroni-corrected P < 0.05. To better understand the genomic context and prioritize trait-associated lincRNAs, we examined the pattern of linkage disequilibrium between SNPs in the lincRNAs and SNPs that met genome-wide-significance in the region (±500 kb of lincRNAs). A subset of the lincRNA-trait association findings was replicated in independent Genome-wide association studies data from the Pakistan Risk of Myocardial Infarction Study study. For trait-associated lincRNAs, we also investigated synteny and conservation relative to mouse, expression patterns in five cardiometabolic-relevant tissues, and allele-specific expression in RNA sequencing data for adipose tissue and leukocytes. Finally, we revealed a functional role in human adipocytes for linc-NFE2L3-1, which is expressed in adipose and is associated with waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI. This comprehensive profile of trait-associated lincRNAs provides novel insights into disease mechanism and serves as a launching point for interrogation of the biology of specific lincRNAs in cardiometabolic disease.
Project description:Thousands of long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) have been identified in the human and mouse genomes, some of which play important roles in fundamental biological processes. The pig is an important domesticated animal, however, pig lincRNAs remain poorly characterized and it is unknown if they were involved in the domestication of the pig. Here, we used available RNA-seq resources derived from 93 samples and expressed sequence tag data sets, and identified 6,621 lincRNA transcripts from 4,515 gene loci. Among the identified lincRNAs, some lincRNA genes exhibit synteny and sequence conservation, including linc-sscg2561, whose gene neighbor Dnmt3a is associated with emotional behaviors. Both linc-sscg2561 and Dnmt3a show differential expression in the frontal cortex between domesticated pigs and wild boars, suggesting a possible role in pig domestication. This study provides the first comprehensive genome-wide analysis of pig lincRNAs.
Project description:Prostate cancer (PCa) is a leading cause of cancer-related death of men worldwide. There is an urgent need to develop novel biomarkers for PCa prognosis and diagnosis in the post prostate-specific antigen era. Long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) play essential roles in many physiological processes and can serve as alternative biomarkers for prostate cancer, but there has been no systematic investigation of lincRNAs in PCa yet.Nine lincRNA co-expression modules were identified from PCa RNA-Seq data. The association between the principle component of each module and the PCa phenotype was examined by calculating the Pearson's correlation coefficients. Three modules (M1, M3, and M5) were found associated with PCa. Two modules (M3 and M5) were significantly enriched with lincRNAs, and one of them, M3, may be used as a lincRNA module-biomarker for PCa diagnosis. This module includes seven essential lincRNAs: TCONS_l2_00001418, TCONS_l2_00008237, TCONS_l2_00011130, TCONS_l2_00013175, TCONS_l2_00022611, TCONS_l2_00022670 and linc-PXN-1. The clustering analysis and microRNA enrichment analysis further confirmed our findings.The correlation between lincRNAs and protein-coding genes is helpful for further exploration of functional mechanisms of lincRNAs in PCa. This study provides some important insights into the roles of lincRNAs in PCa and suggests a few lincRNAs as candidate biomarkers for PCa diagnosis and prognosis.
Project description:It has become clear that long intergenic noncoding RNAs (lincRNAs) are an important layer of genome regulation. Thousands have been identified in mammals, yet only a few have been tested through genetic ablation in animal models. Of the few that have, many yields weak to unobservable phenotypes, raising the question of their in vivo relevance. To more broadly investigate the functional relevance of lincRNAs in physiological conditions, we developed a collection of 18 lincRNA knockout strains. We found that two knockout strains, linc-Sox2 and linc-Foxf1a (Fendrr), exhibit perinatal lethal phenotypes in addition to multiple developmental abnormalities. Notably, in depth analysis of a third mutant strain, linc-Brn1b-/-, revealed defects in brain development, with distinct abnormalities in class-specific generation of upper layer II/III-IV neurons in the neocortex. Thus far, we found at least 6 of 18 mutant strains exhibit distinct developmental or lethality phenotypes. Therefore, this study demonstrates that lincRNAs are required for life and play critical roles during mammalian development, highlighting the importance of studying them further to better understand the molecular mechanisms leading to disease. Minimum 2 replicates each of select wild type and lincRNA knockout embryonic and postnatal tissues for three distinct lincRNA knockout mouse strains.
Project description:Thousands of long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) are encoded by the mammalian genome. However, the function of most of these lincRNAs has not been identified in vivo. Here, we demonstrate a role for a novel lincRNA, linc-MYH, in adult fast-type myofiber specialization. Fast myosin heavy chain (MYH) genes and linc-MYH share a common enhancer, located in the fast MYH gene locus and regulated by Six1 homeoproteins. linc-MYH in nuclei of fast-type myofibers prevents slow-type and enhances fast-type gene expression. Functional fast-sarcomeric unit formation is achieved by the coordinate expression of fast MYHs and linc-MYH, under the control of a common Six-bound enhancer.