Antitumor Effects and Related Mechanisms of Ethyl Acetate Extracts of Polygonum perfoliatum L.
ABSTRACT: Polygonum perfoliatum L. belongs to the genus Polygonaceae and has a long history to be used as a Chinese medicinal herb to reduce swelling, control body temperature, and promote detoxification. However, its anticancer activity and mechanisms of action have not been evaluated yet. In the present study, we used several cell lines and xenograft models from different cancers to demonstrate the broad-spectrum anticancer activity of P. perfoliatum L as well as its underlying mechanisms of action in vitro and in vivo. The ethyl acetate extract of P. perfoliatum L showed good anticancer activity and was further fractioned to obtain five active components, including PEA to PEE. Among these fractions, PEC showed the strongest cytotoxicities against various cancer cell lines. It was further observed that PEC inhibited cancer cell growth, arrested cells at G2 phase, and induced apoptosis in vitro and suppressed tumor growth and angiogenesis in vivo in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, PEC decreased the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and micro-vascular density (MVD) in tumor tissues in vivo. It also promoted the proliferation of T and B lymphocytes, increased the activities of natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), enhanced the secretion of interleukin 2 (IL-2) by spleen cells, and raised the levels of IgG, IgG2a, and IgG2b antibodies in tumor-bearing mice in vivo, which were at least partially responsible for the anticancer activity of PEC. In summary, PEC has shown broad-spectrum anticancer activities without causing any host toxicity in vitro and in vivo and may be developed as a preventive and therapeutic agent against human cancer. Further studies are urgently needed to determine the anticancer compounds in PEC and their detailed molecular mechanisms.
Project description:This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the four kinds of additives on the silage quality and the relevant bacterial community diversity by Illumina HiSeq 16S rRNA sequencing. The four kinds of additives were Lactobacillus plantarum (LP), organic acids including gallic acid (GA) and phenyllactic acid (PA), pectin (PEC), and enzymes including pectinase (PEE) and cellulase (CE). After 30 d of fermentation, the pH value was shown to have the lowest value in the PEE and PEC groups, followed by the PA group, and then in CE and GA groups; the highest value of pH was found in both LP and control groups. The ammonia nitrogen concentration was lower in the PEE group compared to the other groups except for the PA group. In the comparisons among the seven groups, Lactobacillus was higher in the LP group, Paracoccus was higher in the GA group, Weissella was higher in the PA group, Leuconostoc was higher in the PEC group, Bacillus, Aeromonas, and Curvibacter were higher in the PEE group, and Coriobacteriaceae_UCG_002 was higher in the CE group compared to the other groups. This study proposed that the addition of PEC and PEE improved the fermentation quality of alfalfa silage compared to other additives by improving the bacterial community of Leuconostoc, and Bacillus and Aeromonas, respectively. Moreover, the enhanced fermentation quality of alfalfa silage by the supplementation of PEC and PEE might be attributed to other unclassified genera. This study provides an implication that pectin degradation is an important determinant for alfalfa silage fermentation through the rescheduling of bacterial community diversity.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Ethnomedicinally, the family Polygonaceae is famous for the management of cancer. Various species of this family have been reported with anticancer potentials. This study was designed to isolate anticancer compounds from ethnomedicinally important species Polygonum barbatum. METHODS:The column chromatography was used for the isolation of compounds from the solvent fraction of P. barbatum. The characterization of isolated compounds was performed by various spectroscopic techniques like UV, IR, mass spectrometry and 1D-2D NMR spectroscopy. Keeping in view the ethnomedicinal importance of the family, genus and species of P. barbatum, the isolated compounds (1-3) were screened for anticancer potentials against oral cancer (CAL-27) and lungs cancer (NCI H460) cell lines using MTT assay. Active compound was further investigated for apoptosis by using morphological changes and flow cytometry analysis. In vivo anti-angiogenic study of the isolated compounds was also carried using chorioallantoic membrane assay. Docking studies were carried out to explore the mechanism of anticancer activity. RESULTS:Three dihydrobenzofuran derivatives (1-3) have been isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of P. barbatum. The structures of isolated compounds were elucidated as methyl (2S,3S)-2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-4-((E)-3-ethoxy-3-oxoprop-1-en-1-yl)-7-methoxy-2,3-dihydrobenzo-furan-3-carboxylate (1), (E)-3-((2S,3S)-2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-7-methoxy-3-(methoxy carbonyl)-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-4-yl)acrylic acid (2) and (2S,3S)-4-((E)-2-carboxyvinyl)-2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-7-hydroxy-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-3-carboxylic acid (3). The compound 1 was found to be more potent with IC50 of 48.52?±?0.95 and 53.24?±?1.49 against oral cancer cells as compared to standard drug (IC50?=?97.76?±?3.44 ?M). Both compound also inhibited lung cancer cells but at higher concentrations. Morphological and flow cytometry analysis further confirms that compound 1 induces apoptosis after 24 to 48 h treatment. In antiangiogenesis assay, compounds 1, 2 and 3 exhibited IC50 values of 8.2?±?1.1, 13.4?±?1.1 and 57.7?±?0.3 ?M respectively. The docking studies revealed that the compounds under study have the potential to target the DNA and thymidylate synthase (TS). CONCLUSION:Based on its overwhelming potency against the tested cell lines and in angiogenesis assay, compound 1 can be further evaluated mechanistically and can be developed as anticancer drug candidate.
Project description:The family Polygonaceae is known for its traditional use in the management of various neurological disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD). In search of new anti-AD drugs, ?-sitosterol isolated from Polygonum hydropiper was subjected to in vitro, in vivo, behavioral and molecular docking studies to confirm its possibility as a potential anti-Alzheimer's agent. The in vitro AChE, BChE inhibitory potentials of ?-sitosterol were investigated following Ellman's assay. The antioxidant activity was tested using DPPH, ABTS and H2O2 assays. Behavioral studies were performed on a sub-strain of transgenic mice using shallow water maze (SWM), Y-maze and balance beam tests. ?-sitosterol was tested for in vivo inhibitory potentials against cholinesterase's and free radicals in the frontal cortex (FC) and hippocampus (HC). The molecular docking study was performed to predict the binding mode of ?-sitosterol in the active sites of AChE and BChE as inhibitor. Considerable in vitro and in vivo cholinesterase inhibitory effects were observed in the ?-sitosterol treated groups. ?-sitosterol exhibited an IC50 value of 55 and 50 ?g/ml against AChE and BChE respectively. Whereas, the activity of these enzymes were significantly low in FC and HC homogenates of transgenic animals. Molecular docking studies also support the binding of ?-sitosterol with the target enzyme and further support the in vitro and in vivo results. In the antioxidant assays, the IC50 values were observed as 140, 120, and 280 ?g/ml in the DPPH, ABTS and H2O2 assays respectively. The free radicals load in the brain tissues was significantly declined in the ?-sitosterol treated animals as compared to the transgenic-saline treated groups. In the memory assessment and coordination tasks including SWM, Y-maze and balance beam tests, ?-sitosterol treated transgenic animals showed gradual improvement in working memory, spontaneous alternation behavior and motor coordination. These results conclude that ?-sitosterol is a potential compound for the management of memory deficit disorders like AD.
Project description:Medicinal mushrooms in recent years have been the subject of many experiments searching for anticancer properties. We previously screened thirteen mushrooms for their potential in inhibiting tumor growth, and found that the water extract of Amauroderma rude exerted the highest activity. Previous studies have shown that the polysaccharides contained in the water extract were responsible for the anticancer properties. This study was designed to explore the potential effects of the polysaccharides on immune regulation and tumor growth. Using the crude Amauroderma rude extract, in vitro experiments showed that the capacities of spleen lymphocytes, macrophages, and natural killer cells were all increased. In vivo experiments showed that the extract increased macrophage metabolism, lymphocyte proliferation, and antibody production. In addition, the partially purified product stimulated the secretion of cytokines in vitro, and in vivo. Overall, the extract decreased tumor growth rates. Lastly, the active compound was purified and identified as polysaccharide F212. Most importantly, the purified polysaccharide had the highest activity in increasing lymphocyte proliferation. In summary, this molecule may serve as a lead compound for drug development.
Project description:Tumor growth is often accompanied by the accumulation of myeloid cells in the tumors and lymphoid organs. These cells can suppress T cell immunity, thereby posing an obstacle to T cell-targeted cancer immunotherapy. In this study, we tested the possibility of activating tumor-associated myeloid cells to mediate antitumor effects. Using the peritoneal model of B16 melanoma, we show that peritoneal cells (PEC) in tumor-bearing mice (TBM) had reduced ability to secrete nitric oxide (NO) following in vitro stimulation with interferon gamma and lipopolysaccharide, as compared to PEC from control mice. This reduced function of PEC was accompanied by the influx of CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) myeloid cells to the peritoneal cavity. Nonadherent PEC were responsible for most of the NO production in TBM, whereas in naïve mice NO was mainly secreted by adherent CD11b(+) F4/80(+) macrophages. Sorted CD11b(+) Gr-1(-) monocytic and CD11b(+) Gr-1(+) granulocytic PEC from TBM had a reduced ability to secrete NO following in vitro stimulation (compared to naïve PEC), but effectively suppressed proliferation of tumor cells in vitro. In vivo, treatment of mice bearing established peritoneal B16 tumors with anti-CD40 and CpG resulted in activation of tumor-associated PEC, reduction in local tumor burden and prolongation of mouse survival. Inhibition of NO did not abrogate the antitumor effects of stimulated myeloid cells. Taken together, the results indicate that in tumor-bearing hosts, tumor-associated myeloid cells can be activated to mediate antitumor effects.
Project description:<label>CONTEXT</label>Prunus domestica Linn (Rosaceae) has been considered a functional food, owing to its various pharmacological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic and anticancer.<label>OBJECTIVE</label>This placebo-controlled, randomized study was framed to check the beneficial activity of prune essence concentrates (PEC) in corroboration with intestinal function and lipid profile in mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects.<label>MATERIALS AND METHODS</label>Sixty healthy mild hypercholesterolemic subjects were randomly chosen and segregated into three groups as placebo (consume 50?mL of simulated prune drink), PEC I (consume 50?mL of PEC/day) and PEC II (consume 100?mL of PEC/day) for 4 weeks with 2 weeks of follow-up without PEC consumption.<label>RESULTS</label>Intake of PEC (I and II) for 4 weeks substantially ameliorated (p?<?0.05) the colony number of Bifidobacterium spp. (1.18- and 1.19-fold) and Lactobacillus spp. (1.07- and 1.16-fold), but markedly lowered (p?<?0.05) the colony number of Clostridium perfringens (5.97 and 8.35%) and Escherichia coli (6.25 and 9.38%). Meanwhile, the total cholesterol (TC; 5.90 and 6.99%) levels and LDL-c (6.68 and 6.53%) were significantly reduced (p?<?0.05), but no change in other lipid parameters. Whereas, the antioxidant capacity was also concomitantly elevated (p?<?0.05) upon administration with PEC.<label>DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION</label>Overall, the results suggest that the use of PEC may positively regulate the intestinal microflora and thereby effectively lower the TC levels and thus act as a hypocholesterolemic agent.
Project description:<h4>Introduction</h4>Cytokine-induced killer cells (CIK cells) are a heterogeneous subset of ex-vivo expanded T lymphocytes which are characterized with a MHC-unrestricted tumor-killing activity and a mixed T-NK phenotype. Adoptive CIK cells transfer, one of the adoptive immunotherapy represents a promising nontoxic anticancer therapy. However, in clinical studies, the therapeutic activity of adoptive CIK cells transfer is not as efficient as anticipated. Possible explanations are that abnormal tumor vasculature and hypoxic tumor microenvironment could impede the infiltration and efficacy of lymphocytes. We hypothesized that antiangiogenesis therapy could improve the antitumor activity of CIK cells by normalizing tumor vasculature and modulating hypoxic tumor microenvironment.<h4>Methods</h4>We combined recombinant human endostatin (rh-endostatin) and CIK cells in the treatment of lung carcinoma murine models. Intravital microscopy, dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, immunohistochemistry, and flow cytometry were used to investigate the tumor vasculature and hypoxic microenvironment as well as the infiltration of immune cells.<h4>Results</h4>Our results indicated that rh-endostatin synergized with adoptive CIK cells transfer to inhibit the growth of lung carcinoma. We found that rh-endostatin normalized tumor vasculature and reduced hypoxic area in the tumor microenvironment. Hypoxia significantly inhibited the proliferation, cytotoxicity and migration of CIK cells in vitro and impeded the homing of CIK cells into tumor parenchyma ex vivo. Furthermore, we found that treatment with rh-endostatin significantly increased the homing of CIK cells and decreased the accumulation of suppressive immune cells in the tumor tissue. In addition, combination therapy produced higher level of tumor-infiltration lymphocytes compared with other treatments.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our results demonstrate that rh-endostatin improves the therapeutic effect of adoptive CIK cells therapy against lung carcinomas and unmask the mechanisms of the synergistic antitumor efficacy, providing a new rationale for combining antiangiogenesis therapy with immunotherapy in the treatment of lung cancer.
Project description:FTY720 sequesters lymphocytes in secondary lymphoid organs through effects on sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptors. However, at higher doses than are required for immunosuppression, FTY720 also functions as an anticancer agent in multiple animal models. Our published work indicates that the anticancer effects of FTY720 do not depend on actions at S1P receptors but instead stem from FTY720s ability to restrict access to extracellular nutrients by down-regulating nutrient transporter proteins. This result was significant because S1P receptor activation is responsible for FTY720s dose-limiting toxicity, bradycardia, that prevents its use in cancer patients. Here, we describe diastereomeric and enantiomeric 3- and 4-C-aryl 2-hydroxymethyl pyrrolidines that are more active than the previously known analogues. Of importance is that these compounds fail to activate S1P1 or S1P3 receptors in vivo but retain inhibitory effects on nutrient transporter proteins and anticancer activity in solid tumor xenograft models. Our studies reaffirm that the anticancer activity of FTY720 does not depend upon S1P receptor activation and uphold the promise of using S1P receptor-inactive azacyclic FTY720 analogues in human cancer patients.
Project description:IGF-1 is one of the key molecules in cancer biology; however, little is known about the role of the preferential expression of the premature IGF-1 isoforms in prostate cancer. We have examined the role of the cleaved COO- terminal peptide (PEc) of the third IGF-1 isoform, IGF-1Ec, in prostate cancer. Our evidence suggests that endogenously produced PEc induces cellular proliferation in the human prostate cancer cells (PC-3) in vitro and in vivo, by activating the ERK1/2 pathway in an autocrine/paracrine manner. PEc overexpressing cells and tumors presented evidence of epithelial to mesenchymal transition, whereas the orthotopic injection of PEc-overexpressing, normal prostate epithelium cells (HPrEC) in SCID mice was associated with increased metastatic rate. In humans, the IGF-1Ec expression was detected in prostate cancer biopsies, where its expression correlates with tumor stage. Our data describes the action of PEc in prostate cancer biology and defines its potential role in tumor growth, progression and metastasis.
Project description:Background: Breast cancer is the most common female cancer with considerable metastatic potential, which urges the need for developing novel potential drug candidate to inhibit tumor metastasis. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) have critical roles in cancer growth and metastasis and have been confirmed as a promising anticancer target. Here, we report our finding with pectolinarigenin, a flavonoid compound isolated from the aerial parts of Cirsium chanroenicum. Methods: The role of Pec. in cell proliferation, cell apoptosis, and cell migration and invasion in three breast cancer cells (4T1, MDA-MB-231, MCF-7) was investigated. Cell proliferation was determined by MTT assay, cell apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry, and protein expression was detected by western blotting. Tumor xenograft mice model and breast tumor metastasis model in vivo were built to further assess the effects of Pec. on 4T1 cells. Results: Intraperitoneal administrations of pectolinarigenin significantly inhibited breast cancer metastasis to lungs without affecting the tumor growth of incubated 4T1 breast cancer cells. Pectolinarigenin could also recruit CD8+ T cells to mediate tumor immune response. Furthermore, pectolinarigenin markedly impaired cancer cell migration and invasion by down-regulating phosphorylated-Stat3, and expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, while up-regulating the expression of TIMP2. We also found that pectolinarigenin inhibited breast cancer cell proliferation and induced apoptosis via mitochondrial-related apoptosis pathway, reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and the expression of Bcl-2, increased expression of Bax, and cleaved caspase-3 as well as disturbed the ROS generation. Conclusions: Pectolinarigenin might potentially be a candidate for metastasis of breast cancer by mediating Stat3 pathway.