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Factors Associated With Excess Myocardial Infarction Risk in HIV-Infected Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.


ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:To estimate the pooled relative risk (RR) of incident acute myocardial infarction (AMI) among HIV-infected adults compared with HIV-uninfected controls and explore the contribution of traditional and HIV-related risk factors. BACKGROUND:Understanding AMI risk and associated risk factors in HIV-infected populations has the potential to inform clinical management and prevention strategies. METHODS:We systematically identified cohort studies of HIV-infected or HIV-infected and matched uninfected adults reporting AMI incidence rates published up to January 1, 2017. Random-effects meta-analysis models were used to estimate the aggregate RR of AMI by HIV status. Subgroup analysis and meta-regression were used to explore factors affecting risk. RESULTS:Sixteen studies (N = 1,619,690, median age 38.5 years, 78.9% male, mean follow-up of 6.5 years) were included. In pooled analyses of HIV-infected and matched uninfected cohorts (n = 5), HIV-infected individuals had higher AMI incidence rates (absolute risk difference = 2.2 cases per 1000 persons per year) and twice the risk of AMI [RR = 1.96 (1.5-2.6)] compared with matched HIV-uninfected controls. In a multivariate meta-regression, each additional percentage point in the proportion of male participants [odds ratio (OR) = 1.20 (1.14-1.27)] and each additional percentage point in the prevalence of hypertension [OR = 1.19 (1.12-1.27)], dyslipidemia [OR = 1.09 (1.07-1.11)], and smoking [OR = 1.09 (1.05-1.13)] were independently associated with increased AMI risk in HIV-infected adults. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:Chronic HIV infection is associated with a 2-fold higher AMI risk. Traditional risk factors such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, and smoking are significant contributors to AMI risk among HIV-infected adults and should be aggressively targeted in routine HIV care.

SUBMITTER: Rao SG 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC6622459 | BioStudies | 2019-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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