Synergetic effect of non-complementary 5' AT-rich sequences on the development of a multiplex TaqMan real-time PCR for specific and robust detection of Clavibacter michiganensis and C. michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis.
ABSTRACT: Clavibacter is an agriculturally important genus comprising a single species, Clavibacter michiganensis, and multiple subspecies, including, C. michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis which causes Goss's wilt/blight of corn, accounts for high yield losses and is listed among the five most significant diseases of corn in the United States of America. Our research objective was to develop a robust and rapid multiplex TaqMan real-time PCR (qPCR) to detect C. michiganensis in general and C. michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis with enhanced reliability and accuracy by adding non-complementary AT sequences to the 5' end of the forward and reverse primers. Comparative genomic analyses were performed to identify unique and conserved gene regions for primer and probe design. The unique genomic regions, ABC transporter ATP-binding protein CDS/ABC-transporter permease and MFS transporter were determined for specific detection of C. michiganensis and C. m. subsp. nebraskensis, respectively. The AT-rich sequences at the 5' position of the primers enhanced the reaction efficiency and sensitivity of rapid qPCR cycling; the reliability, accuracy and high efficiency of the developed assay was confirmed after testing with 59 strains from inclusivity and exclusivity panels-no false positives or false negatives were detected. The assays were also validated through naturally and artificially infected corn plant samples; all samples were detected for C. michiganensis and C. m. subsp. nebraskensis with 100% accuracy. The assay with 5' AT-rich sequences detected up to 10- and 100-fg of C. michiganensis and C. michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis genome targets, respectively. No adverse effect was observed when sensitivity assays were spiked with host genomic DNA. Addition of 5' AT-rich sequences enhanced the qPCR reaction efficiency from 0.82 (M = -3.83) and 0.91 (M = -3.54) to 1.04 (with optimum slope value; M = -3.23) for both C. michiganensis and C. michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis, respectively; an increase of 10-fold sensitivity was also obtained with C. michiganensis primer set. The methodology proposed here can be used to optimize reaction efficiency and to harmonize diagnostic protocols which have prodigious applications in routine diagnostics, biosecurity and microbial forensics.
Project description:In 2014, the pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis was isolated from symptomatic corn leaves in Manitoba, Canada. We report the draft genome sequence of C. michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis DOAB 397, consisting of 3.059 Mb with 73.0% G+C content, 2,922 predicted protein-coding sequences, 45 tRNAs, 3 rRNAs, and 37 pseudogenes.
Project description:Bacteriophage CMP1 is a member of the Siphoviridae family that infects specifically the plant-pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. The linear double- stranded DNA is terminally redundant and not circularly permuted. The complete nucleotide sequence of the bacteriophage CMP1 genome consists of 58,652 bp including the terminal redundant ends of 791 bp. The G+C content of the phage (57%) is significantly lower than that of its host (72.66%). 74 potential open reading frames were identified and annotated by different bioinformatic tools. Two large clusters which encode the early and the late functions could be identified which are divergently transcribed. There are only a few hypothetical gene products with conserved domains and significant similarity to sequences from the databases. Functional analyses confirmed the activity of four gene products, an endonuclease, an exonuclease, a single-stranded DNA binding protein and a thymidylate synthase. Partial genomic sequences of CN77, a phage of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis, revealed a similar genome structure and significant similarities on the level of deduced amino acid sequences. An endolysin with peptidase activity has been identified for both phages, which may be good tools for disease control of tomato plants against Clavibacter infections.
Project description:It has previously been shown that the tomato pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis secretes a 14-kDa protein, C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis AMP-I (CmmAMP-I), that inhibits growth of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus, the causal agent of bacterial ring rot of potato. Using sequences obtained from tryptic fragments, we have identified the gene encoding CmmAMP-I and we have recombinantly produced the protein with an N-terminal intein tag. The gene sequence showed that CmmAMP-I contains a typical N-terminal signal peptide for Sec-dependent secretion. The recombinant protein was highly active, with 50% growth inhibition (IC50) of approximately 10 pmol, but was not toxic to potato leaves or tubers. CmmAMP-I does not resemble any known protein and thus represents a completely new type of bacteriocin. Due to its high antimicrobial activity and its very narrow inhibitory spectrum, CmmAMP-1 may be of interest in combating potato ring rot disease.
Project description:The genus Clavibacter comprises one species and five subspecies of plant-pathogenic bacteria, four of which are classified as quarantine organisms due to the high economic threat they pose. Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis is one of the most important pathogens of tomato, but the recommended diagnostic tools are not satisfactory due to false-negative and/or -positive results. To provide a robust analysis of the genetic relatedness among a worldwide collection of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis strains, relatives (strains from the four other C. michiganensis subspecies), and nonpathogenic Clavibacter-like strains isolated from tomato, we performed multilocus sequence-based analysis and typing (MLSA and MLST) based on six housekeeping genes (atpD, dnaK, gyrB, ppK, recA, and rpoB). We compared this "framework" with phenotypic and genotypic characteristics such as pathogenicity on tomato, reaction to two antisera by immunofluorescence and to five PCR identification tests, and the presence of four genes encoding the main C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis pathogenicity determinants. We showed that C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis is monophyletic and is distinct from its closest taxonomic neighbors. The nonpathogenic Clavibacter-like strains were identified as C. michiganensis using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. These strains, while cross-reacting with C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis identification tools, are phylogenetically distinct from the pathogenic strains but belong to the C. michiganensis clade. C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis clonal complexes linked strains from highly diverse geographical origins and also strains isolated over long periods of time in the same location. This illustrates the importance of seed transmission in the worldwide dispersion of this pathogen and its survival and adaptation abilities in a new environment once introduced.
Project description:Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicusis is a Gram-positive actinomycete that is the causative agent of the potato disease ring rot. Here, we announce the complete genome sequence of the Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicusis siphophage CN1A. CN1A is only the second fully sequenced Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicusis phage reported to date. Core and unique features of its genome are described.
Project description:Subspecies of Clavibacter michiganensis are important phytobacterial pathogens causing devastating diseases in several agricultural crops. The genome organizations of these pathogens are poorly understood. Here, the complete genomes of 5 subspecies (C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, Cmi; C. michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus, Cms; C. michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis, Cmn; C. michiganensis subsp. insidiosus, Cmi and C. michiganensis subsp. capsici, Cmc) were analyzed. This study assessed the taxonomic position of the subspecies based on 16S rRNA and genome-based DNA homology and concludes that there is ample evidence to elevate some of the subspecies to species-level. Comparative genomics analysis indicated distinct genomic features evident on the DNA structural atlases and annotation features. Based on orthologous gene analysis, about 2300 CDSs are shared across all the subspecies; and Cms showed the highest number of subspecies-specific CDS, most of which are mobile elements suggesting that Cms could be more prone to translocation of foreign genes. Cms and Cmi had the highest number of pseudogenes, an indication of potential degenerating genomes. The stress response factors that may be involved in cold/heat shock, detoxification, oxidative stress, osmoregulation, and carbon utilization are outlined. For example, the wco-cluster encoding for extracellular polysaccharide II is highly conserved while the sucrose-6-phosphate hydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of sucrose-6-phosphate yielding glucose-6-phosphate and fructose is highly divergent. A unique second form of the enzyme is only present in Cmn NCPPB 2581. Also, twenty-eight plasmid-borne CDSs in the other subspecies were found to have homologues in the chromosomal genome of Cmn which is known not to carry plasmids. These CDSs include pathogenesis-related factors such as Endocellulases E1 and Beta-glucosidase. The results presented here provide an insight of the functional organization of the genomes of five core C. michiganensis subspecies, enabling a better understanding of these phytobacteria.
Project description:Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis is a plant-pathogenic actinomycete that causes bacterial wilt and canker of tomato. The nucleotide sequence of the genome of strain NCPPB382 was determined. The chromosome is circular, consists of 3.298 Mb, and has a high G+C content (72.6%). Annotation revealed 3,080 putative protein-encoding sequences; only 26 pseudogenes were detected. Two rrn operons, 45 tRNAs, and three small stable RNA genes were found. The two circular plasmids, pCM1 (27.4 kbp) and pCM2 (70.0 kbp), which carry pathogenicity genes and thus are essential for virulence, have lower G+C contents (66.5 and 67.6%, respectively). In contrast to the genome of the closely related organism Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus, the genome of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis lacks complete insertion elements and transposons. The 129-kb chp/tomA region with a low G+C content near the chromosomal origin of replication was shown to be necessary for pathogenicity. This region contains numerous genes encoding proteins involved in uptake and metabolism of sugars and several serine proteases. There is evidence that single genes located in this region, especially genes encoding serine proteases, are required for efficient colonization of the host. Although C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis grows mainly in the xylem of tomato plants, no evidence for pronounced genome reduction was found. C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis seems to have as many transporters and regulators as typical soil-inhabiting bacteria. However, the apparent lack of a sulfate reduction pathway, which makes C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis dependent on reduced sulfur compounds for growth, is probably the reason for the poor survival of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis in soil.
Project description:We have previously demonstrated that inoculation of tomato plants with 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG)- and hydrogen cyanide (HCN)-producing Pseudomonas brassicacearum LBUM300 could significantly reduce bacterial canker symptoms caused by Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis In this study, in order to better characterize the population dynamics of LBUM300 in the rhizosphere of tomato plants, we characterized the role played by DAPG and HCN production by LBUM300 on rhizosphere colonization of healthy and C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis-infected tomato plants. The impact of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis presence on the expression of DAPG and HCN biosynthetic genes in the rhizosphere was also examined. In planta assays were performed using combinations of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis and wild-type LBUM300 or DAPG (LBUM300?phlD) or HCN (LBUM300?hcnC) isogenic mutant strains. Populations of LBUM300 and phlD and hcnC gene expression levels were quantified in rhizosphere soil at several time points up to 264 h postinoculation using culture-independent quantitative PCR (qPCR) and reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) TaqMan assays, respectively. The presence of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis significantly increased rhizospheric populations of LBUM300. In C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis-infected tomato rhizospheres, the populations of wild-type LBUM300 and strain LBUM300?hcnC, both producing DAPG, were significantly higher than the population of strain LBUM300?phlD A significant upregulation of phlD expression was observed in the presence of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, while hcnC expression was only slightly increased in the mutant strain LBUM300?phlD when C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis was present. Additionally, biofilm production was found to be significantly reduced in strain LBUM300?phlD compared to the wild-type and LBUM300?hcnC strains.IMPORTANCE The results of this study suggest that C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis infection of tomato plants contributes to increasing rhizospheric populations of LBUM300, a biocontrol agent, as well as the overexpression of the DAPG biosynthetic operon in this bacterium. The increasing rhizospheric populations of LBUM300 represent one of the key factors in controlling C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis in tomato plants, as DAPG-producing bacteria have shown the ability to decrease bacterial canker symptoms in tomato plants.
Project description:Although the genus Clavibacter was originally proposed to accommodate all phytopathogenic coryneform bacteria containing B2? diaminobutyrate in the peptidoglycan, reclassification of all but one species into other genera has resulted in the current monospecific status of the genus. The single species in the genus, Clavibacter michiganensis, has multiple subspecies, which are all highly host-specific plant pathogens. Whole genome analysis based on average nucleotide identity and digital DNA-DNA hybridization as well as multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) of seven housekeeping genes support raising each of the C. michiganensis subspecies to species status. On the basis of whole genome and MLSA data, we propose the establishment of two new species and three new combinations: Clavibacter capsici sp. nov., comb. nov. and Clavibacter tessellarius sp. nov., comb. nov., and Clavibacter insidiosus comb. nov., Clavibacter nebraskensis comb. nov. and Clavibacter sepedonicus comb. nov.
Project description:Tomato bacterial canker caused by Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis is one of the most important seed-borne tomato diseases around the globe. The disease was initially reported in 1993 in Iran, and it became a rising threat for the multibillion dollar tomato industry of the country during the last decade. In this study, using phylogeographic analyses, we determined genetic diversity and geographic distribution of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis in Iran. Our field surveys showed that the pathogen is expanding into the southern and eastern areas of the country. Furthermore, multilocus sequence analysis and typing (MLSA/MLST) using the sequences of five housekeeping genes (atpD, gyrB, ppk, recA, and rpoB) revealed that 37 C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis strains isolated in Iran had high genetic diversity and placed in 15 sequence types (STs), while all the available 184 worldwide C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis sequences were placed in 43 STs. MLSA divided the worldwide C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis strains into two phylogroups (I and II). Among the 37 strains isolated in Iran, 30 strains clustered in phylogroup I, while 7 strains clustered in phylogroup II. Phylogeographic data inferred from the allelic profile of the five housekeeping genes suggested multiple introductions of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis inoculum into Iran, while the geographic origin of the Iranian C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis strains remains undetermined. Further analyses using higher numbers of strains are warranted to decipher the evolutionary history of C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis in Iran. Additionally, stricter seed/transplant inspections are recommended to reduce the risk of pathogen expansion to areas with no history of the disease.IMPORTANCE Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, the causal agent of tomato bacterial canker disease, is one of the economically important pathogens of solanaceous crops (e.g., eggplant, pepper, and tomato) around the world. The disease occurs in many countries, with a particular importance in regions characterized by high precipitation and humid environmental conditions. As a seed-borne pathogen, C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis is included in the A2 (high risk) list of quarantine pathogens by the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization (EPPO). Bacterial canker disease was reported for the first time in 1993 in Iran, while the geographic distribution, genetic diversity, and phylogenetic position of the causal agent remain undetermined. In this study, using the multilocus sequence analysis and typing (MLSA/MLST) approach, we provided a phylogeographic scheme for the C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis strains isolated in Iran. Furthermore, global-scale phylogenetic analyses led to determination of phylogenetic position of Iranian C. michiganensis subsp. michiganensis strains among worldwide population of the pathogen. Based on diversity parameters and population structure, we suggest relatively higher genetic diversity of the bacterial canker pathogen in Iran than has so far been observed in the other areas of the world. Results obtained in this study provide a novel insight into the genetic diversity and population structure of the bacterial canker pathogen on a global scale.