Analysis of Long Non-Coding RNA and mRNA Expression Profiling in Immature and Mature Bovine (Bos taurus) Testes.
ABSTRACT: Testis development and spermatogenesis are strictly regulated by numbers of genes and non-coding genes. However, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) as key regulators in multitudinous biological processes have not been systematically identified in bovine testes during sexual maturation. In this study, we comprehensively analyzed lncRNA and mRNA expression profiling of six bovine testes at 3 days after birth and 13 months by RNA sequencing. 23,735 lncRNAs and 22,118 mRNAs were identified, in which 540 lncRNAs (P-value < 0.05) and 3,525 mRNAs (P-adjust < 0.05) were significantly differentially expressed (DE) between two stages. Correspondingly, the results of RT-qPCR analysis showed well correlation with the transcriptome data. Moreover, GO and KEGG enrichment analyses showed that DE genes and target genes of DE lncRNAs were enriched in spermatogenesis. Furthermore, we constructed lncRNA-gene interaction networks; consequently, 15 DE lncRNAs and 12 cis-target genes were involved. The target genes (SPATA16, TCF21, ZPBP, PACRG, ATP8B3, COMP, ACE, and OSBP2) were found associated with bovine sexual maturation. In addition, the expression of lncRNAs and cis-target genes was detected in bovine Leydig cells, Sertoli cells, and spermatogonia. Our study identified and analyzed lncRNAs and mRNAs in testis tissues, suggesting that lncRNAs may regulate testis development and spermatogenesis. Our findings provided new insights for further investigation of biological function in bovine lncRNA.
Project description:Sperm motility is one of the most important indicators in assessing semen quality, and it is used to evaluate poultry fertility. Many long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) and mRNAs are involved in regulating testis development and spermatogenesis. In this study, we employed RNA sequencing to analyse the testis transcriptome (lncRNA and mRNA) of ten pigeons with high and low sperm motility. In total, 46,117 mRNAs and 17,463 lncRNAs were identified, of which 2673 mRNAs and 229 lncRNAs (P < 0.05) were significantly differentially expressed (DE) between the high and low sperm motility groups. Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) annotation analysis showed that target genes of DE lncRNAs and DE mRNAs were related to calcium ion binding, ATP binding, and spermatogenesis. Moreover, we found that UBB, a target gene of lncRNA MSTRG.7787.5, was involved in germ cell development. Our study provided a catalogue of lncRNAs and mRNAs associated with sperm motility, and they deserve further study to deepen the understanding of biological processes in the pigeon testis.
Project description:Among all tissues of the metazoa, the transcritpome of testis displays the highest diversity and specificity. However, its composition and dynamics during spermatogenesis have not been fully understood. Here, we have identified 20,639 message RNAs (mRNAs), 7,168 long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and 15,101 circular RNAs (circRNAs) in mouse spermatogenic cells, and found many of them were specifically expressed in testes. lncRNAs are significantly more testis-specific than mRNAs. At all stages, mRNAs are generally more abundant than lncRNAs, and linear transcripts are more abundant than circRNAs. We showed that the productions of circRNAs and piRNAs were highly regulated instead of random processes. Based on the results of a small-scale functional screening experiment using cultured mouse spermatogonial stem cells, many evolutionarily conserved lncRNAs are likely to play roles in spermatogenesis. Typical classes of transcription factor binding sites are enriched in the promoters of testis-specific m/lncRNA genes. Target genes of CREM and RFX2, 2 key TFs for spermatogenesis, were further validated by using ChIP-chip assays and RNA-seq on RFX2-knockout spermatogenic cells. Our results contribute to the current understanding of the transcriptomic complexity of spermatogenic cells and provide a valuable resource from which many candidate genes may be selected for further functional studies.
Project description:Spermatogenesis can be affected by nutrition, which operates through normal physiological processes by changing the testicular mass and hormone levels profoundly. However, little is known regarding how testis development is regulated by long noncoding RNA (lncRNA). In this study, we investigated the effects of high-grain (HG) feeding on testis development during sexual maturation mediated by lncRNA. The HG diet group showed an increase in growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and testosterone (T) levels, and in the number of sperm in the seminiferous tubules compared with the hay-fed group (p? <?0.05). Moreover, we found 59 differentially expressed (DE) lncRNAs and 229 DE mRNAs in sheep testis between the two groups. qRT-PCR results of 20 randomly selected DE lncRNAs and mRNAs were also consistent with the RNA-seq data. Through functional enrichment analysis and lncRNA-mRNA interaction network analysis, we screened several lncRNAs that may be enriched for male reproduction such as spermatogenesis, sperm motility, steroid hormones, MAPK and ErbB signaling pathways. This study provides a first insight into the development of the testis with HG feeding in sheep and shows that these changes are associated with alterations in lncRNA expression.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The gonad is the major factor affecting animal reproduction. The regulatory mechanism of the expression of protein-coding genes involved in reproduction still remains to be elucidated. Increasing evidence has shown that ncRNAs play key regulatory roles in gene expression in many life processes. The roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in reproduction have been investigated in some species. However, the regulatory patterns of miRNA and lncRNA in the sex biased expression of protein coding genes remains to be elucidated. In this study, we performed an integrated analysis of miRNA, messenger RNA (mRNA), and lncRNA expression profiles to explore their regulatory patterns in the female ovary and male testis of Pelodiscus sinensis. RESULTS:We identified 10,446 mature miRNAs, 20,414 mRNAs and 28,500 lncRNAs in the ovaries and testes, and 633 miRNAs, 11,319 mRNAs, and 10,495 lncRNAs showed differential expression. A total of 2814 target genes were identified for miRNAs. The predicted target genes of these differentially expressed (DE) miRNAs and lncRNAs included abundant genes related to reproductive regulation. Furthermore, we found that 189 DEmiRNAs and 5408 DElncRNAs showed sex-specific expression. Of these, 3 DEmiRNAs and 917 DElncRNAs were testis-specific, and 186 DEmiRNAs and 4491 DElncRNAs were ovary-specific. We further constructed complete endogenous lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA networks using bioinformatics, including 103 DEmiRNAs, 636 DEmRNAs, and 1622 DElncRNAs. The target genes for the differentially expressed miRNAs and lncRNAs included abundant genes involved in gonadal development, including Wt1, Creb3l2, Gata4, Wnt2, Nr5a1, Hsd17, Igf2r, H2afz, Lin52, Trim71, Zar1, and Jazf1. CONCLUSIONS:In animals, miRNA and lncRNA as master regulators regulate reproductive processes by controlling the expression of mRNAs. Considering their importance, the identified miRNAs, lncRNAs, and their targets in P. sinensis might be useful for studying the molecular processes involved in sexual reproduction and genome editing to produce higher quality aquaculture animals. A thorough understanding of ncRNA-based cellular regulatory networks will aid in the improvement of P. sinensis reproductive traits for aquaculture.
Project description:Mammalian testis development and spermatogenesis play critical roles in male fertility and continuation of a species. Previous research into the molecular mechanisms of testis development and spermatogenesis has largely focused on the role of protein-coding genes and small non-coding RNAs, such as microRNAs and piRNAs. Recently, it has become apparent that large numbers of long (>200 nt) non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are transcribed from mammalian genomes and that lncRNAs perform important regulatory functions in various developmental processes. However, the expression of lncRNAs and their biological functions in post-natal testis development remain unknown. In this study, we employed microarray technology to examine lncRNA expression profiles of neonatal (6-day-old) and adult (8-week-old) mouse testes. We found that 8,265 lncRNAs were expressed above background levels during post-natal testis development, of which 3,025 were differentially expressed. Candidate lncRNAs were identified for further characterization by an integrated examination of genomic context, gene ontology (GO) enrichment of their associated protein-coding genes, promoter analysis for epigenetic modification, and evolutionary conservation of elements. Many lncRNAs overlapped or were adjacent to key transcription factors and other genes involved in spermatogenesis, such as Ovol1, Ovol2, Lhx1, Sox3, Sox9, Plzf, c-Kit, Wt1, Sycp2, Prm1 and Prm2. Most differentially expressed lncRNAs exhibited epigenetic modification marks similar to protein-coding genes and tend to be expressed in a tissue-specific manner. In addition, the majority of differentially expressed lncRNAs harbored evolutionary conserved elements. Taken together, our findings represent the first systematic investigation of lncRNA expression in the mammalian testis and provide a solid foundation for further research into the molecular mechanisms of lncRNAs function in mammalian testis development and spermatogenesis.
Project description:Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) plays a crucial role in the hypothalamic-pituitary-testis (HPT) axis associated with sheep reproduction. The pituitary plays a connecting role in the HPT axis. However, little is known of their expression pattern and potential roles in the pituitary gland. To explore the potential lncRNAs that regulate the male sheep pituitary development and sexual maturation, we constructed immature and mature sheep pituitary cDNA libraries (three-month-old, TM, and nine-month-old, NM, respectively, n = 3) for lncRNA and mRNA high-throughput sequencing. Firstly, the expression of lncRNA and mRNA were comparatively analyzed. 2417 known lncRNAs and 1256 new lncRNAs were identified. Then, 193 differentially expressed (DE) lncRNAs and 1407 DE mRNAs were found in the pituitary between the two groups. Moreover, mRNA-lncRNA interaction network was constructed according to the target gene prediction of lncRNA and functional enrichment analysis. Five candidate lncRNAs and their targeted genes HSD17B12, DCBLD2, PDPK1, GPX3 and DLL1 that enriched in growth and reproduction related pathways were further filtered. Lastly, the interaction of candidate lncRNA TCONS_00066406 and its targeted gene HSD17B12 were validated in in vitro of sheep pituitary cells. Our study provided a systematic presentation of lncRNAs and mRNAs in male sheep pituitary, which revealed the potential role of lncRNA in male reproduction.
Project description:Small Tail Han Sheep is a highly valued local breed in China because of their precocity, perennial estrus, and high fecundity. The average annual lambing rate of ewes is as high as 180-270%, the semen of ram has characteristics of high yield, high density, and good motility. To reveal the key miRNAs and miRNA-targets underlying testis development and spermatogenesis in male Small Tail Han Sheep, integrated analysis of miRNA and mRNA expression profiles in 2-, 6-, and 12-month-old testes was performed by RNA-seq technology and bioinformatics methods. The results showed that total of 153 known sheep miRNAs and 2712 novel miRNAs were obtained in 2-,6 - and 12-month-old Small Tail Han Sheep testes; 5, 1, and 4 differentially expressed (DE) known sheep miRNAs, and 132, 105, and 24 DE novel miRNAs were identified in 2- vs. 6-, 6- vs. 12-, and 2- vs. 12-month-old testes, respectively. We combined miRNA results of this study and the mRNA results obtained in our previous study to predict the target mRNAs of DE known sheep miRNAs; 131, 10, and 15 target mRNAs of DE known sheep miRNAs and 76, 1, and 11 DE miRNA-targets were identified in the three groups, respectively. GO and KEGG analyses showed that: in 2- vs. 6-month-olds, the target genes of DE known sheep miRNAs were involved in 100 biological processes and 11 signaling pathways; in 6- vs. 12-month-olds, the target genes of DE known sheep miRNAs were involved in 4 biological processes; and in 2- vs. 12-month-olds, the target genes of DE known sheep miRNAs were involved in 17 biological processes and 4 signaling pathways. Three miR-target regulatory networks were constructed based on these DE miRNA-targets. The key miRNA-Targets involved in testis development and spermatogenesis were screened. 6 known sheep miRNAs and 6 novel miRNAs were selected to validate the accuracy of miRNA sequencing data by qRT-PCR. The binding sites of oar-miR-379-5p with WNT8A was validated by a dual luciferase reporter gene detection system.
Project description:Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), a recently discovered class of cellular RNAs, play important roles in the regulation of many cellular developmental processes. Although lncRNAs have been systematically identified in various systems, most of them have not been functionally characterized in vivo in animal models. In this study, we identified 128 testis-specific Drosophila lncRNAs and knocked out 105 of them using an optimized three-component CRISPR/Cas9 system. Among the lncRNA knockouts, 33 (31%) exhibited a partial or complete loss of male fertility, accompanied by visual developmental defects in late spermatogenesis. In addition, six knockouts were fully or partially rescued by transgenes in a trans configuration, indicating that those lncRNAs primarily work in trans Furthermore, gene expression profiles for five lncRNA mutants revealed that testis-specific lncRNAs regulate global gene expression, orchestrating late male germ cell differentiation. Compared with coding genes, the testis-specific lncRNAs evolved much faster. Moreover, lncRNAs of greater functional importance exhibited higher sequence conservation, suggesting that they are under constant evolutionary selection. Collectively, our results reveal critical functions of rapidly evolving testis-specific lncRNAs in late Drosophila spermatogenesis.
Project description:Increasing studies have shown that mature spermatozoa contain many transcripts including mRNAs and miRNAs. However, the expression profile of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in mammalian sperm has not been systematically investigated. Here, we used highly purified RNA to investigate lncRNA expression profiles in mouse mature sperm by stranded-specific RNA-seq. We identified 20,907 known and 4,088 novel lncRNAs transcripts, and the existence of intact lncRNAs was confirmed by RT-PCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization on two representative lncRNAs. Compared to round spermatids, 1,794 upregulated and 165 downregulated lncRNAs and 4,435 upregulated and 3,920 downregulated mRNAs were identified in sperm. Based on the "Cis and Trans" RNA-RNA interaction principle, we found 14,259 targeted coding genes of differently expressed lncRNAs. In terms of Gene ontology (GO) analysis, differentially expressed lncRNAs targeted genes mainly related to nucleic acid metabolic, protein modification, chromatin and histone modification, heterocycle compound metabolic, sperm function, spermatogenesis and other processes. In contrast, differentially expressed transcripts of mRNAs were highly enriched for protein metabolic process and RNA metabolic, spermatogenesis, sperm motility, cell cycle, chromatin organization, heterocycle and aromatic compound metabolic processes. Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis showed that the differentially expressed lncRNAs were involved in RNA transport, mRNA surveillance pathway, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, AMPK signaling pathway, protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum. Metabolic pathways, mRNA surveillance pathway, AMPK signaling pathway, cell cycle, RNA transport splicesome and endocytosis incorporated with the differentially expressed mRNA. Furthermore, many lncRNAs were specifically expressed in testis/sperm, and 880 lncRNAs were conserved between human and mouse. In summary, this study provides a preliminary database valuable for identifying lncRNAs critical in the late stage of spermatogenesis or important for sperm function regulation, fertilization and early embryo development.
Project description:This study aimed to characterize the long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) expression in the bovine mammary gland and to infer their functions in dietary response to 5% linseed oil (LSO) or 5% safflower oil (SFO). Twelve cows (six per treatment) in mid lactation were fed a control diet for 28 days followed by a treatment period (control diet supplemented with 5% LSO or 5% SFO) of 28 days. Mammary gland biopsies were collected from each animal on day-14 (D-14, control period), D+7 (early treatment period) and D+28 (late treatment period) and were subjected to RNA-Sequencing and subsequent bioinformatics analyses. Functional enrichment of lncRNA was performed via potential cis regulated target genes located within 50 kb flanking regions of lncRNAs and having expression correlation of >0.7 with mRNAs. A total of 4955 lncRNAs (325 known and 4630 novel) were identified which potentially cis targeted 59 and 494 genes in LSO and SFO treatments, respectively. Enrichments of cis target genes of lncRNAs indicated potential roles of lncRNAs in immune function, nucleic acid metabolism and cell membrane organization processes as well as involvement in Notch, cAMP and TGF-? signaling pathways. Thirty-two and 21 lncRNAs were differentially expressed (DE) in LSO and SFO treatments, respectively. Six genes (KCNF1, STARD13, BCL6, NXPE2, HHIPL2 and MMD) were identified as potential cis target genes of six DE lncRNAs. In conclusion, this study has identified lncRNAs with potential roles in mammary gland functions and potential candidate genes and pathways via which lncRNAs might function in response to LSO and SFA.