A Novel Densovirus Isolated From the Asian Tiger Mosquito Displays Varied Pathogenicity Depending on Its Host Species.
ABSTRACT: Mosquito-borne viral diseases (MBVDs) continue to pose a significant global public health burden. Mosquito control remains a core intervention strategy in integrated mosquito management (IMM) programs to reduce the transmission of MBVDs. Mosquito densoviruses (MDVs) are mosquito-specific entomopathogenic viruses, and their attractive biological and pathogenic characteristics make MDVs potential biological control agents as alternatives to traditional chemical pesticides. However, different viral strains vary greatly in their pathogenicity against different mosquito species, which poses an obstacle for the wide application of MDVs in vector control. In this study, a novel MDV, Aedes albopictus densovirus-7 (AalDV-7), was isolated from field-collected Aedes albopictus in the dengue-endemic area of Guangzhou, China. The complete 4,048 nt genome of AalDV-7 was cloned and sequenced, and the transcription and translation of three open reading frames (ORFs) were characterized. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that AalDV-7 clustered with MDVs mostly isolated from indigenous mosquitoes. The pathogenicity of AalDV-7 to A. albopictus, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae was completely different, and the median lethal dose (LD50) of AalDV-7 in A. albopictus which was 109.48 genome equivalents per ml (geq/ml) was 12 and 46 times lower than those in A. aegypti (1010.56 geq/ml) and C. quinquefasciatus (1011.15 geq/ml). Furthermore, the median lethal time (LT50) value in A. albopictus (7.72 days) was 25% and 26% shorter than those in A. aegypti (10.24 days) and C. quinquefasciatus (10.42 days) at a titer of 1011 geq/ml. Furthermore, the mortality of AalDV-7-infected mosquitoes increased in a dose-dependent manner, and the highest mortality was found in A. albopictus larvae exposed to 1011 geq/ml AalDV-7 (82.00%). Sublethal effects analysis also showed that AalDV-7 infection significantly decreased pupation and emergence rates. The 1st-2nd instar larvae of all three mosquito species showed a near 100% infection rate, and the highest relative vial titer (305.97 ± 67.57 geq/ng) was observed in the 1st-2nd instar larvae of C. quinquefasciatus. These pathogenic characteristics make AalDV-7 a potential MBVDs control agent in China, whereas its negligible pathogenicity and high infection rate and viral dose in vivo make it a good candidate for gene delivery vectors in C. quinquefasciatus gene function analysis. In conclusion, the continuous discovery and isolation of new MDVs enrich the pool of mosquito entomopathogenic viruses and provide a variety of choices for optimal MDVs or combinations of MDVs to target certain mosquitoes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Mosquito-borne diseases (MBDs) cause a significant proportion of the global infectious disease burden. Vector control remains the primary strategy available to reduce the transmission of MBDs. However, long-term, wide-scale and large-scale traditional chemical pesticide application has caused significant and increased negative effects on ecosystems and broader emerging insecticide resistance in vectors; therefore, the development of a novel alternative approach is urgently needed. Mosquito densoviruses (MDVs) are entomopathogenic viruses that exhibit a narrow host range and multiple transmission patterns, making MDVs a great potential bioinsecticide. However, the application process has been relatively stagnant over the past three decades. The major obstacle has been that viruses must be produced in mosquito cell lines; therefore, the production process is both expensive and time-consuming. METHODS:In our study, two wild-type (wt) MDVs, AaeDV and AalDV-3, and a recombinant rAaeDV-210 were used to infect the Aag2 and C6/36 mosquito cell lines and the 1st-2nd-instar and 3rd-4th-instar larvae of Ae. albopictus, Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus. Viral titers and yields in cells, media, larvae and rearing water and total viral yield were evaluated. Three kinds of virus displayed higher maximum virus titers in vivo than in vitro, and they displayed higher maximum viral yields in rearing water. RESULTS:The three viruses displayed higher total maximum viral yields in C6/36 cells than in Aag2 cells. The three viruses displayed higher total maximum viral yields in Aedes mosquitoes than in Culex mosquitoes. Higher viral yields were produced by 1st-2nd-instar larvae compared to 3rd-4th-instar larvae. The recombinant viruses did not display significantly lower yields than wt viruses in nearly all samples. In summary, by using 100 1st-2nd-instar Aedes mosquito larvae in 200 ml of rearing water, more than 1013 genome equivalents (geq) MDV yield can be obtained. CONCLUSIONS:Considering the lower production cost, this in vivo method has great potential for the large-scale production of MDVs. MDVs exhibit promising prospects and great potential for mosquito control in the future.
Project description:In China, the prevention and control of Zika virus disease has been a public health threat since the first imported case was reported in February 2016. To determine the vector competence of potential vector mosquito species, we experimentally infected Aedes aegypti, Ae. albopictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes and determined infection rates, dissemination rates, and transmission rates. We found the highest vector competence for the imported Zika virus in Ae. aegypti mosquitoes, some susceptibility of Ae. albopictus mosquitoes, but no transmission ability for Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. Considering that, in China, Ae. albopictus mosquitoes are widely distributed but Ae. aegypti mosquito distribution is limited, Ae. albopictus mosquitoes are a potential primary vector for Zika virus and should be targeted in vector control strategies.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana has been widely used to kill mosquito larvae and adults in the laboratory and field. However, its slow action of killing has hampered its widespread application. In our study, the B. bassiana fungus was genetically modified to express the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin Cyt2Ba to improve its efficacy in killing mosquitoes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:The efficacy of the wild type (WT) of B. bassiana and a transgenic strain expressing Cyt2Ba toxin (Bb-Cyt2Ba) was evaluated against larval and adult Aedes mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus) using insect bioassays. The Bb-Cyt2Ba displayed increased virulence against larval and adult Aedes mosquitoes compared with the WT: for Ae. aegypti adults, the median lethal time (LT50) was decreased by 33% at the concentration of 1× 108 conidia/ml, 19% at 1× 107 conidia/ml and 47% at 1× 106 conidia/ml. The LT50 for Ae. albopictus adults was reduced by 20%, 23% and 29% at the same concentrations, respectively. The LT50 for Ae. aegypti larvae was decreased by 42% at 1× 107 conidia/ml and 25% at 1× 106 conidia/ml, and that for Ae. albopictus larvae was reduced by 33% and 31% at the same concentrations, respectively. In addition, infection with Bb-Cyt2Ba resulted in a dramatic reduction in the fecundity of Aedes mosquitoes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:In conclusion, our study demonstrated that the virulence of B. bassiana against mosquitoes can be significantly improved by introducing the Bt toxin gene Cyt2Ba into the genome to express the exogenous toxin in the fungus. The transgenic strain Bb-Cyt2Ba significantly reduced the survival and fecundity of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus compared with the WT strain, which suggested that this recombinant B. bassiana has great potential for use in mosquito control.
Project description:Several mosquito species have been described as vectors for the Zika virus (ZIKV), such as those in the Aedes, Anopheles, Mansonia and Culex genera. Our previous survey studies were found the ZIKV RNA positive in both male, female and larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus Say and Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquitoes collected from active ZIKV infected patients' homes in Thailand. Therefore, the aims of this study were to investigate whether ZIKV could be vertically transmitted in Cx. quinquefasciatus, Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Laboratory and field colonies of these mosquito species were maintained and artificially fed with ZIKV in human blood. Fully engorged mosquitoes (F0) were selected and reared for the vertical transmission study. The subsequent mosquito generations were fed with human blood without the virus. ZIKV in the mosquitoes was detected by hemi-nested RT-PCR and sequencing. C6/36 cells were used to isolate ZIKV from samples that tested positive by hemi-nested RT-PCR. Moreover, ZIKV was identified by immunocytochemical staining 7 days after infection in several organs of infected F0 females, including the salivary glands, midguts, yoke granules and facet cells of the eye. The localization of the ZIKV antigen was identified by the presence of the specific antibody in the salivary glands, midguts, yoke granules and facet cells. ZIKV was detected in female and male Cx. quinquefasciatus until the F6 and F2 generations, respectively. The isolated virus showed cytopathic effects in C6/36 cells by 5 days postinfection. The results suggested that the vertical transmission of ZIKV occurs in Cx. quinquefasciatus in the laboratory. However, we were able to detect the presence of ZIKV in Ae. aegypti in only the F1 generation in both male and female mosquitoes, and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes were not able to vertically transmit the virus at all. Data obtained from this study could be valuable for developing a better understanding of the role of Cx. quinquefasciatus as a potential vector for ZIKV transmission in Thailand and may be useful in creating more effective mosquito vector control strategies in the future.
Project description:Newly emerging or re-emerging arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are important causes of human morbidity and mortality worldwide. Arboviruses such as Dengue (DENV), Zika (ZIKV), Chikungunya (CHIKV), and West Nile virus (WNV) have undergone extensive geographic expansion in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. In the Americas the main vectors of DENV, ZIKV, and CHIKV are mosquito species adapted to urban environments, namely Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, whereas the main vector of WNV is Culex quinquefasciatus. Given the widespread distribution in the Americas and high permissiveness to arbovirus infection, these mosquito species may play a key role in the epidemiology of other arboviruses normally associated with sylvatic vectors. Here, we test this hypothesis by determining the vector competence of Ae. aegypti, Ae. albopictus, and Cx. quinquefasciatus to Mayaro (MAYV) virus, a sylvatic arbovirus transmitted mainly by Haemagogus janthinomys that has been causing an increasing number of outbreaks in South America, namely in Brazil. Using field mosquitoes from Brazil, female mosquitoes were experimentally infected, and their competence for infection and transmission rates of MAYV was evaluated. We found consistent infection rate for MAYV in Ae. aegypti (57.5%) and Ae. albopictus (61.6%), whereas very low rates were obtained for Cx. quinquefasciatus (2.5%). Concordantly, we observed high potential transmission ability in Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus (69.5% and 71.1% respectively), in contrast to Cx. quinquefasciatus, which could not transmit the MAYV. Notably, we found that very low quantities of virus present in the saliva (undetectable by RT-qPCR) were sufficiently virulent to guarantee transmission. Although Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes are not the main vectors for MAYV, our studies suggest that these mosquitoes could play a significant role in the transmission of this arbovirus, since both species showed significant vector competence for MAYV (Genotype D), under laboratory conditions.
Project description:Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus are vectors of dengue fever and West Nile virus diseases. This study was conducted to determine the toxicity, mechanism of action and the binding interaction of three active phenylpropanoids from Piper sarmentosum (Piperaceae) toward late 3rd or early 4th larvae of above vectors. A bioassay guided-fractionation on the hexane extract from the roots of Piper sarmentosum led to the isolation and identification of three active phenylpropanoids; asaricin 1, isoasarone 2 and trans-asarone 3. The current study involved evaluation of the toxicity and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition of these compounds against Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. Asaricin 1 and isoasarone 2 were highly potent against Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae causing up to 100% mortality at ? 15 ?g/mL concentration. The ovicidal activity of asaricin 1, isoasarone 2 and trans-asarone 3 were evaluated through egg hatching. Asaricin 1 and isoasarone 2 showed potent ovicidal activity. Ovicidal activity for both compounds was up to 95% at 25?g/mL. Asaricin 1 and isoasarone 2 showed strong inhibition on acetylcholinesterase with relative IC50 values of 0.73 to 1.87 ?g/mL respectively. These findings coupled with the high AChE inhibition may suggest that asaricin 1 and isoasarone 2 are neuron toxic compounds toward Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus. Further computational docking with Autodock Vina elaborates the possible interaction of asaricin 1 and isoasarone 2 with three possible binding sites of AChE which includes catalytic triads (CAS: S238, E367, H480), the peripheral sites (PAS: E72, W271) and anionic binding site (W83). The binding affinity of asaricin 1 and isoasarone 2 were relatively strong with asaricin 1 showed a higher binding affinity in the anionic pocket.
Project description:Mosquitoes are insects of interest because several species vector disease-causing pathogens to humans and other vertebrates. We previously reported that mosquitoes from long-term laboratory cultures require living bacteria in their gut to develop, but development does not depend on particular species of bacteria. Here, we focused on three distinct but interrelated areas of study to better understand the role of bacteria in mosquito development by studying field and laboratory populations of Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus from the southeastern United States. Sequence analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicons showed that bacterial community composition differed substantially in larvae from different collection sites, whereas larvae from the same site shared similarities. Although previously unknown to be infected by Wolbachia, results also indicated that Ae. aegypti from one field site hosted a dual infection. Regardless of collection site or factors like Wolbachia infection, however, each mosquito species required living bacteria in their digestive tract to develop. Results also identified several concerns in using antibiotics to eliminate the bacterial community in larvae in order to study its developmental consequences. Altogether, our results indicate that several mosquito species require living bacteria for development. We also hypothesize these species do not rely on particular bacteria because larvae do not reliably encounter the same bacteria in the aquatic habitats they develop in.
Project description:In the Western Hemisphere, Zika virus is thought to be transmitted primarily by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. To determine the extent to which Ae. albopictus mosquitoes from the United States are capable of transmitting Zika virus and the influence of virus dose, virus strain, and mosquito species on vector competence, we evaluated multiple doses of representative Zika virus strains in Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. Virus preparation (fresh vs. frozen) significantly affected virus infectivity in mosquitoes. We calculated 50% infectious doses to be 6.1-7.5 log 10 PFU/mL; minimum infective dose was 4.2 log 10 PFU/mL. Ae. albopictus mosquitoes were more susceptible to infection than Ae. aegypti mosquitoes, but transmission efficiency was higher for Ae. aegypti mosquitoes, indicating a transmission barrier in Ae. albopictus mosquitoes. Results suggest that, although Zika virus transmission is relatively inefficient overall and dependent on virus strain and mosquito species, Ae. albopictus mosquitoes could become major vectors in the Americas.
Project description:Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is an emerging and re-emerging arbovirus disease that is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes. ZIKV infections were first described in Thailand in 1954 from the sera of indigenous residents and several travelers returning from Thailand in 2014. However, reported cases in Thailand have been increasing since 2015 and 2016, and epidemiological information about the vectors of ZIKV is unclear. We investigated the molecular epidemiology and genetic diversity of ZIKV from mosquitoes collected from different geographic regions experiencing ZIKV outbreaks in Thailand. Polymerase chain reaction was used to amplify the non-structural protein (NS5) gene of ZIKV, which was then sequenced. A total of 1026 mosquito samples (626 females, 367 males, and 33 larvae) were collected from active ZIKV patients' houses. ZIKV was detected in 79 samples (7.7%), including Aedes aegypti (2.24% female, 1.27% male, and 0.19% larvae), Culex quinquefasciatus (1.85% female, 1.66% male, and 0.29% larvae), and Armigeres subalbatus (0.1% female and 0.1% male), whereas no ZIKV was detected in Aedes albopictus. Phylogenetic analysis of the 79 positive samples were classified into two clades: Those closely related to a previous report in Thailand, and those related to ZIKV found in the Americas. This is the first report of the detection of ZIKV in Ae. aegypti, Cx. quinquefasciatus, and Ar. subalbatus mosquitoes, and genetic variations of ZIKV in the mosquitoes collected from several geographic regions of Thailand were examined. Detection of ZIKV in male and larval mosquitoes suggests that vertical transmission of ZIKV occurred in these mosquito species. This study provides a more in-depth understanding of the patterns and epidemiologic data of ZIKV in Thailand; the data could be used for future development of more effective prevention and control strategies of ZIKV in Thailand.
Project description:Zika virus (ZIKV) has caused severe epidemics in South America beginning in 2015, following its spread through the Pacific. We comparatively assessed the vector competence of ten populations of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus from Brazil and two of Ae. aegypti and one of Culex quinquefasciatus from New Caledonia to transmit three ZIKV isolates belonging to African, Asian and American lineages. Recently colonized mosquitoes from eight distinct sites from both countries were orally challenged with the same viral load (107 TCID50/mL) and examined after 7, 14 and 21 days. Cx. quinquefasciatus was refractory to infection with all virus strains. In contrast, although competence varied with geographical origin, Brazilian and New Caledonian Ae. aegypti could transmit the three ZIKV lineages, with a strong advantage for the African lineage (the only one reaching saliva one-week after challenge). Brazilian Ae. albopictus populations were less competent than Ae. aegypti populations. Ae. albopictus generally exhibited almost no transmission for Asian and American lineages, but was efficient in transmitting the African ZIKV. Viral surveillance and mosquito control measures must be strengthened to avoid the spread of new ZIKV lineages and minimize the transmission of viruses currently circulating.