Protease-Sensitive Pancreatic Lipase Variants Are Associated With Early Onset Chronic Pancreatitis.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:Premature activation of the digestive protease trypsin within the pancreatic parenchyma is a critical factor in the pathogenesis of pancreatitis. Alterations in genes that affect intrapancreatic trypsin activity are associated with chronic pancreatitis (CP). Recently, carboxyl ester lipase emerged as a trypsin-independent risk gene. Here, we evaluated pancreatic lipase (PNLIP) as a potential novel susceptibility gene for CP. METHODS:We analyzed all 13 PNLIP exons in 429 nonalcoholic patients with CP and 600 control subjects from Germany, in 632 patients and 957 controls from France, and in 223 patients and 1,070 controls from Japan by DNA sequencing. Additionally, we analyzed selected exons in further 545 patients with CP and 1,849 controls originating from Germany, United States, and India. We assessed the cellular secretion, lipase activity, and proteolytic stability of recombinant PNLIP variants. RESULTS:In the German discovery cohort, 8/429 (1.9%) patients and 2/600 (0.3%) controls carried a PNLIP missense variant (P = 0.02, odds ratio [OR] = 5.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1-38.9). Variants detected in patients were prone to proteolytic degradation by trypsin and chymotrypsin. In the French replication cohort, protease-sensitive variants were also enriched in patients with early-onset CP (5/632 [0.8%]) vs controls (1/957 [0.1%]) (P = 0.04, OR = 7.6, 95% CI = 0.9-172.9). In contrast, we detected no protease-sensitive variants in the non-European populations. In the combined European data, protease-sensitive variants were found in 13/1,163 cases (1.1%) and in 3/3,000 controls (0.1%) (OR = 11.3, 95% CI = 3.0-49.9, P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS:Our data indicate that protease-sensitive PNLIP variants are novel genetic risk factors for the development of CP.
Project description:A sustained imbalance of pancreatic proteases and their inhibitors seems to be important for the development of chronic pancreatitis (CP). Mesotrypsin (PRSS3) can degrade intrapancreatic trypsin inhibitors that protect against CP. Genetic variants that cause higher mesotrypsin activity might increase the risk for CP.We analyzed all 5 exons and the adjacent non-coding sequences of PRSS3 by direct sequencing of 313 CP patients and 327 controls. Additionally, exon 4 was investigated in 855 patients and 1,294 controls and a c.454+191G>A variant in 855 patients and 1,467 controls. The c.499A>G (p.T167A) variant was analyzed functionally using transiently transfected HEK 293T cells.In the exonic regions, the previously described common c.94_96delGAG (p.E32del) variant and a novel p.T167A non-synonymous alteration were identified. Extended analysis of the p.T167A variant revealed no association to CP and in functional assays p.T167A showed normal secretion and activity. Variants of the intronic regions, including the extensively analyzed c.454+191G>A alteration, were not associated with the disease. Haplotype reconstruction using variants with a minor allele frequency of >1% revealed no CP-associated haplotype.Although the trypsin inhibitor-degrading activity qualified PRSS3 as a candidate for a novel CP susceptibility gene, we found no association between a specific variant or haplotype and CP in our cohort with a high suspicion of genetically determined disease.
Project description:Acute lipolysis of visceral fat or circulating triglycerides may worsen acute pancreatitis (AP)-associated local and systemic injury. The pancreas expresses pancreatic triacylglycerol lipase (PNLIP), pancreatic lipase-related protein 2 (PNLIPRP2), and carboxyl ester lipase (CEL), which may leak into the visceral fat or systemic circulation during pancreatitis. We, thus, aimed to determine the pancreatic lipase(s) regulating lipotoxicity during AP. For this AP, associated fat necrosis was analyzed using Western blot analysis. Bile acid (using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry) and fatty acid (using gas chromatography) concentrations were measured in human fat necrosis. The fat necrosis milieu was simulated in vitro using glyceryl trilinoleate because linoleic acid is increased in fat necrosis. Bile acid requirements to effectively hydrolyze glyceryl trilinoleate were studied using exogenous or overexpressed lipases. The renal cell line (HEK 293) was used to study lipotoxic injury. Because dual pancreatic lipase knockouts are lethal, exocrine parotid acini lacking lipases were used to verify the results. PNLIP, PNLIPRP2, and CEL were increased in fat necrosis. Although PNLIP and PNLIPRP2 were equipotent in inducing lipolysis and lipotoxic injury, CEL required bile acid concentrations higher than in human fat necrosis. The high bile acid requirements for effective lipolysis make CEL an unlikely mediator of lipotoxic injury in AP. It remains to be explored whether PNLIP or PNLIPRP2 worsens AP severity in vivo.
Project description:Visceral adipose tissue plays a critical role in numerous diseases. Although imaging studies often show adipose involvement in abdominal diseases, their outcomes may vary from being a mild self-limited illness to one with systemic inflammation and organ failure. We therefore compared the pattern of visceral adipose injury during acute pancreatitis and acute diverticulitis to determine its role in organ failure. Acute pancreatitis-associated adipose tissue had ongoing lipolysis in the absence of adipocyte triglyceride lipase (ATGL). Pancreatic lipase injected into mouse visceral adipose tissue hydrolyzed adipose triglyceride and generated excess nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs), which caused organ failure in the absence of acute pancreatitis. Pancreatic triglyceride lipase (PNLIP) increased in adipose tissue during pancreatitis and entered adipocytes by multiple mechanisms, hydrolyzing adipose triglyceride and generating excess NEFAs. During pancreatitis, obese PNLIP-knockout mice, unlike obese adipocyte-specific ATGL knockouts, had lower visceral adipose tissue lipolysis, milder inflammation, less severe organ failure, and improved survival. PNLIP-knockout mice, unlike ATGL knockouts, were protected from adipocyte-induced pancreatic acinar injury without affecting NEFA signaling or acute pancreatitis induction. Therefore, during pancreatitis, unlike diverticulitis, PNLIP leaking into visceral adipose tissue can cause excessive visceral adipose tissue lipolysis independently of adipocyte-autonomous ATGL, and thereby worsen organ failure.
Project description:Patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP) frequently have genetic risk factors for disease. Many of the identified genes have been connected to trypsinogen activation or trypsin inactivation. The description of CP in patients with mutations in the variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) domain of carboxyl ester lipase (CEL) presents an opportunity to study the pathogenesis of CP independently of trypsin pathways. We tested the hypothesis that a deletion and frameshift mutation (C563fsX673) in the CEL VNTR causes CP through proteotoxic gain-of-function activation of maladaptive cell signaling pathways including cell death pathways. HEK293 or AR42J cells were transfected with constructs expressing CEL with 14 repeats in the VNTR (CEL14R) or C563fsX673 CEL (CEL maturity onset diabetes of youth with a deletion mutation in the VNTR (MODY)). In both cell types, CEL MODY formed intracellular aggregates. Secretion of CEL MODY was decreased compared with that of CEL14R. Expression of CEL MODY increased endoplasmic reticulum stress, activated the unfolded protein response, and caused cell death by apoptosis. Our results demonstrate that disorders of protein homeostasis can lead to CP and suggest that novel therapies to decrease the intracellular accumulation of misfolded protein may be successful in some patients with CP.
Project description:Pancreatic triacylglycerol lipase (PNLIP) are primary lipases that are critical for triacylglyceride digestion in human. Since reduced metabolism of triacylglyceride might be a plausible concept for weight loss, we screened for potential PNLIP inhibitors from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with the aim to identify weight loss candidate compounds. TCM candidates Aurantiamide, Cnidiadin, and 2-hexadecenoic acid exhibited higher Dock Scores than the commercial drug Orlistat, and were also predicted to have inhibitory characteristics against PNLIP using constructed MLR (R(2) = 0.8664) and SVM (R(2) = 0.9030) models. Molecular dynamics indicated that the TCM-PNLIP complexes formed were stable. We identified that the PNLIP binding site has several residues that can serve as anchors, and a hydrophobic corridor that provides additional stability to the complex. Aurantiamide, Cnidiadin, and 2-hexadecenoic acid all have features that correspond to these binding site features, indicating their potential as candidates for PNLIP inhibitors. The information presented in this study may provide helpful insights to designing novel weight-control drugs.
Project description:We investigated whether ?-adrenergic antagonists attenuates dietary fat absorption through the regulation of pancreatic lipase (PNLIP) expression in pancreatic acinar cells in the context of high fat diet feeding. Male six-week-old C57BL/6 mice were assigned into an ad libitum fed control diet (CON) and a high fat diet (HIGH). Within each diet group, subgroups of mice were treated with vehicle (VEH) or propranolol, a ?-adrenergic antagonist (BB). Over 12 weeks, body weight gain observed in HIGHVEH was mitigated in HIGHBB (+103% vs. +72%). Increase in fecal fat amount observed in HIGHVEH was further increased in HIGHBB. Increase in PNLIP expressions observed in HIGHVEH pancreatic tissues was abolished in HIGHBB. PNLIP expression in mouse primary pancreatic acinar cells and 266-6 cell lines increased with isoproterenol treatment, which was blocked by propranolol. Isoproterenol increased PNLIP expression in a cAMP/protein kinase A/ cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB)-dependent manner. CREB directly bound to the CRE on the mouse PNLIP promoter and transactivated PNLIP expression. These results suggest that sympathetic activation increases dietary fat absorption through the upregulation of PNLIP expression and that a ?-adrenergic antagonist attenuates obesity development partly through the downregulation of PNLIP expression and inhibition of dietary fat absorption in the context of high fat diet feeding.
Project description:Congenital pancreatic lipase (PNLIP) deficiency is a rare monoenzymatic form of exocrine pancreatic failure characterized by decreased absorption of dietary fat and greasy voluminous stools, but apparent normal development and an overall good state of health. While considered to be an autosomal recessive state affecting a few dozens of individuals world-wide and involving the PNLIP gene, no causative mutations for this phenotype were so far reported. Here, we report the identification of the homozygote missense mutation, Thr221Met [c.662C>T], in two brothers from a consanguineous family of Arab ancestry. The observed genotypes among the family members were concordant with an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance but moreover a clear segregation between the genotype state and the serum PNLIP activity was evident. Based on biophysical computational tools, we suggest the mutation disrupts the protein's stability and impairs its normal function. Although the role of PNLIP is well established, our observations provide genetic evidence that PNLIP mutations are causative for this phenotype.
Project description:Polysaccharide is efficient in attenuation of metabolic ailments and modulation of gut microbiota as prebiotics. The therapeutic effect of Inonotus obliquus polysaccharide (IOP) on chronic pancreatitis (CP) in mice has been validated in our previous study. However, it is not clear whether IOP is conducive to maintaining the homeostasis between gut microbiota and host. The aim of this study is to testify the potential effects of IOP on gut microbiota composition and diversity in mice with CP. The changes in glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), total antioxidant capacity (TAOC), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?), lipase and trypsin levels were measured by commercial assay kits, meanwhile the gut microbiota composition and diversity were analyzed by high throughput sequencing. The IOP treatment increased GSH-PX and TAOC levels, and decreased TNF-?, TGF-?, lipase and trypsin levels in CP mice. It was also observed that gut microbiota in IOP treated groups were less diverse than others in terms of lower Shannon diversity index and Chao 1 estimator. IOP increased the proportion of Bacteroidetes and decreased that of Firmicutes at phylum level. Bacteroidetes was found positively correlated with GSH-PX and TAOC, and Firmicutes correlated with TNF-?, TGF-?, and lipase. In conclusion, administration of IOP could regulate gut microbiota composition and diversity to a healthy profile in mice with CP, and some bacterial phylum significantly correlated with characteristic parameters.
Project description:Genetic variants contribute to the risk of chronic pancreatitis (CP) in adults and children. The risk variant CEL-HYB1, a recombinant hybrid allele of CEL and its neighboring pseudogene (CELP), encodes a pathogenic variant of the pancreatic digestive enzyme carboxyl ester lipase (CEL). We previously identified combinations of two non-synonymous SNPs, c.1463T>C (p. Ile488Thr) and c.1643C>T (p. Thr548Ile), in the break point region of CEL-HYB1. Herein, we tested whether these missense variants alter CP risk and their impact on functional properties of the CEL-HYB1 protein. Examination of CEL-HYB1 haplotypes in European patients and controls revealed that the combinationThr488-Ile548 was present only in cases (p???.001). The lipase activity of purified recombinant CEL-HYB1 variants showed normal or near normal activity. CEL-HYB variants expressed in HEK293T cells all had decreased secretion compared with CEL, formed intracellular protein aggregates, and triggered endoplasmic reticulum stress. Thus, we propose that the presence of missense variants in CEL-HYB increases the pathogenicity of CEL-HYB1 through misfolding and gain-of-function proteotoxicity. Interestingly, Thr488-Ile548 and Thr488-Thr548 were equally pathogenic in the functional assays even though only the Thr488-Ile548 haplotype was significantly enriched in cases. The explanation for the mismatch between genetic and functional data requires further investigation.
Project description:As the most species-rich class of tetrapod vertebrates, Aves possesses diverse feeding habits, with multiple origins of insectivory, carnivory, frugivory, nectarivory, granivory and omnivory. Since digestive enzymes mediate and limit energy and nutrient uptake, we hypothesized that genes encoding digestive enzymes have undergone adaptive evolution in birds. To test this general hypothesis, we identified 16 digestive enzyme genes (including seven carbohydrase genes (hepatic amy, pancreatic amy, salivary amy, agl, g6pc, gaa and gck), three lipase genes (cyp7a1, lipf and pnlip), two protease genes (ctrc and pgc), two lysozyme genes (lyz and lyg) and two chitinase genes (chia and chit1)) from the available genomes of 48 bird species. Among these 16 genes, three (salivary amy, lipf and chit1) were not found in all 48 avian genomes, which was further supported by our synteny analysis. Of the remaining 13 genes, eight were single-copy and five (chia, gaa, lyz, lyg and pgc) were multi-copy. Moreover, the multi-copy genes gaa, lyg and pgc were predicted to exhibit functional divergence among copies. Positively selected sites were detected in all of the analyzed digestive enzyme genes, except agl, g6pc, gaa and gck, suggesting that different diets may have favored differences in catalytic capacities of these enzymes. Furthermore, the analysis also revealed that the pancreatic amylase gene and one of the lipase genes (cyp7a1) have higher ? (the ratio of nonsynonymous to the synonymous substitution rates) values in species consuming a larger amount of seeds and meat, respectively, indicating an intense selection. In addition, the gck carbohydrase gene in species consuming a smaller amount of seeds, fruits or nectar, and a lipase gene (pnlip) in species consuming less meat were found to be under relaxed selection. Thus, gene loss, gene duplication, functional divergence, positive selection and relaxed selection have collectively shaped the evolution of digestive enzymes in birds, and the evolutionary flexibility of these enzymes may have facilitated their dietary diversification.