Characteristics of patients initiated on edoxaban in Europe: baseline data from edoxaban treatment in routine clinical practice for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) in Europe (ETNA-AF-Europe).
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Non-vitamin K antagonist (VKA) oral anticoagulants (NOACs) have substantially improved anticoagulation therapy for prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). The available routine care data have demonstrated the safety of different NOACs; however, such data for edoxaban are scarce. Here, we report baseline characteristics of 13,638 edoxaban-treated patients with AF enrolled between November 2016 and February 2018. METHODS:ETNA-AF-Europe is a multinational, multi-centre, post-authorisation, observational study conducted in 825 sites in 10 European countries. Patients will be followed up for four years. RESULTS:Overall, 13,980 patients were enrolled of which 342 patients were excluded from the analysis. Mean patient age was 73.6?years with an average creatinine clearance of 69.4?mL/min. 56.6% were male. The calculated CHA2DS2-VASc and HAS-BLED mean scores were 3.1 and 2.6, respectively. Overall, 3.3, 14.6 and 82.0% of patients had low (CHA2DS2-VASc?=?0), intermediate (CHA2DS2-VASc?=?1) and high (CHA2DS2-VASc?2) risks of stroke, respectively. High-risk patients (those with prior stroke, prior major bleeding, prior intracranial bleed or CHA2DS2-VASc ?4) comprised 38.4% of the overall population. For 75.1% of patients edoxaban was their first anticoagulant prescription, whilst 16.9% switched from a VKA and 8.0% from another NOAC. A total of 23.4% of patients in ETNA-AF-Europe received the reduced dose of edoxaban 30?mg. Overall, 83.8% of patients received an edoxaban dose in line with the criteria outlined in the label. CONCLUSION:Edoxaban was predominantly initiated in older, often anticoagulation-naïve, unselected European patients with AF, with a good overall adherence to the approved label. TRIAL REGISTRATION:NCT02944019; Date of registration: October 24, 2016.
Project description:<h4>Aims</h4>Non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants are safe and effective for stroke prevention in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Data on the safety and efficacy of edoxaban in routine care are limited in Europe. We report 1-year outcomes in patients with AF treated with edoxaban in routine care.<h4>Methods and results</h4>ETNA-AF-Europe is a prospective, multicentre, post-authorization, observational study enrolling patients treated with edoxaban in 10 European countries, the design of which was agreed with the European Medicines Agency as part of edoxaban's post-approval safety plan. Altogether 13 092 patients in 852 sites completed the 1-year follow-up [mean age: 73.6 ± 9.5 years; 57% male, mean follow-up: 352 ± 49 days (median: 366 days)]. Most patients had associated comorbidities (mean CHA2DS2-VASc score: 3.1 ± 1.4). Stroke or systemic embolism was reported in 103 patients (annualized event rate: 0.82%/year), and major bleeding events were reported in 132 patients (1.05%/year). Rates of intracranial haemorrhage were low [30 patients (0.24%/year)]. Death occurred in 442 patients (3.50%/year); cardiovascular (CV) death occurred in 206 patients (1.63%/year). The approved dosing of edoxaban was chosen in 83%. All-cause and CV mortality were higher in patients receiving edoxaban 30 mg vs. 60 mg, in line with the higher age and more frequent comorbidities of the 30 mg group. Major bleeding was also numerically more common in patients receiving edoxaban 30 mg vs. 60 mg.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The rates of stroke, systemic embolism, and major bleeding are low in this large unselected cohort of high-risk AF patients routinely treated with edoxaban.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Studies on the use of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants in unselected patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) show that clinical characteristics and dosing practices differ per region, but lack data on edoxaban.<h4>Methods</h4>With data from Edoxaban Treatment in routiNe clinical prActice for patients with AF in Europe (ETNA-AF-Europe), a large prospective observational study, we compared clinical characteristics (including the dose reduction criteria for edoxaban: creatinine clearance 15-50?ml/min, weight ?60?kg, and/or use of strong p?glycoprotein inhibitors) of patients from Belgium and the Netherlands (BeNe) with those from other European countries (OEC).<h4>Results</h4>Of all 13,639 patients in ETNA-AF-Europe, 2579 were from BeNe. BeNe patients were younger than OEC patients (mean age: 72.3 vs 73.9 years), and had lower CHA<sub>2</sub>DS<sub>2</sub>-VASc (mean: 2.8 vs 3.2) and HAS-BLED scores (mean: 2.4 vs 2.6). Patients from BeNe less often had hypertension (61.6% vs 80.4%), and/or diabetes mellitus (17.3% vs 23.1%) than patients from OEC. Moreover, relatively fewer patients in BeNe were prescribed the reduced dose of 30?mg edoxaban (14.8%) than in OEC (25.4%). Overall, edoxaban was dosed according to label in 83.1% of patients. Yet, 30?mg edoxaban was prescribed in the absence of any dose reduction criteria in 36.9% of 30?mg users (5.5% of all patients) in BeNe compared with 35.5% (9.0% of all patients) in OEC.<h4>Conclusion</h4>There were several notable differences between BeNe and OEC regarding clinical characteristics and dosing practices in patients prescribed edoxaban, which are relevant for the local implementation of dose evaluation and optimisation.<h4>Trial registration</h4>NCT02944019; Date of registration 24 October 2016.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Extremes of body weight may alter exposure to non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants and thereby impact clinical outcomes. This ETNA-AF-Europe sub-analysis assessed 1-year outcomes in routine care patients with atrial fibrillation across a range of body weight groups treated with edoxaban.<h4>Methods</h4>ETNA-AF-Europe is a multinational, multicentre, observational study conducted in 825 sites in 10 European countries. Overall, 1310, 5565, 4346 and 1446 enrolled patients were categorised into ≤60 kg, >60-≤80 kg (reference weight group), >80-≤100 kg and >100 kg groups.<h4>Results</h4>Patients weighing ≤60 kg were older, more frail and had a higher CHA<sub>2</sub>DS<sub>2</sub>-VASc score vs. the other weight groups. The rates of stroke/systemic embolism, major bleeding and ICH were low at 1 year (0.82, 1.05 and 0.24%/year), with no significant differences among weight groups. The annualised event rates of all-cause death were 3.50%/year in the overall population. After adjustment for eGFR and CHA<sub>2</sub>DS<sub>2</sub>-VASc score, the risk of all-cause death was significantly higher in extreme weight groups vs. the reference group.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Low rates of stroke and bleeding were reported with edoxaban, independent of weight. The risk of all-cause death was higher in extremes of weight vs. the reference group after adjustment for important risk modifiers, thus no obesity paradox was observed.
Project description:It is unclear whether the two once-daily dosing non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs), edoxaban and rivaroxaban, have similar effectiveness and safety in Asian patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF). This study aimed to compare the effectiveness and safety of edoxaban and rivaroxaban in a Korean population with non-valvular AF. Using the Korean National Health Insurance Service database from January 2014 to December 2016, we compared the risk of ischemic stroke, intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), hospitalization for gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, hospitalization for major bleeding, all-cause death, and composite outcome in a 3:1 propensity score matched cohort in patients with AF who were naïve to rivaroxaban (n?=?12,369) and edoxaban (n?=?4,123). Hazard ratios for the six clinical outcomes were analyzed using Cox regression analysis with rivaroxaban as the reference. Baseline characteristics were balanced between the two groups (median age, 71 years; median CHA<sub>2</sub>DS<sub>2</sub>-VASc score, 3; 56% of patients received a reduced dose). Edoxaban users showed comparable results in all six clinical outcomes (all p?=?nonsignificant) when compared to rivaroxaban users for total, standard, and reduced doses. We provide for the first time the comparison of effectiveness and safety between the two once-daily NOACs in a large-scale Asian AF population. In both standard and reduced dose regimens, edoxaban showed comparable effectiveness and safety compared to rivaroxaban.
Project description:Edoxaban is approved for stroke prevention in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF) patients in numerous countries. Outcome data are sparse on edoxaban treatment in AF patients from routine clinical practice, especially in Asian patients. Global ETNA (Edoxaban in rouTine cliNical prActice) is a noninterventional study that integrates data from patients from multiple regional registries into one database. Here, we report the 1-year clinical events from AF patients receiving edoxaban in South Korea and Taiwan. Clinical events assessed included bleeding, strokes, systemic embolic events, transient ischemic attacks (TIAs), and all-cause and cardiovascular death. Overall, 2677 patients (mean (range) age 72 (66-78) years, male 59.7%, mean CHA<sub>2</sub>DS<sub>2</sub>-VASc score ± standard deviation 3.1 ± 1.4) were treated with 60 or 30 mg edoxaban and had 1-year follow-up data. The annualized event rates for major bleeding and clinically relevant non-major (CRNM) bleeding were 0.78% and 0.47%, respectively. Annualized event rates for ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke were 0.90% and 0.19%, respectively. Event rates for major and CRNM bleeding and rates of ischemic stroke and TIA were higher in Taiwanese patients than in Korean patients. Event rates were low and similar to those found in other studies of edoxaban in Korean and Taiwanese AF patients, thus supporting the safety and effectiveness of edoxaban in this population.
Project description:Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic metabolic disease which is independently associated with unfavorable clinical outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Few real-world data are available about the clinical performance of non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants (NOACs) among patients with atrial fibrillation and diabetes. The aim of our propensity score-matched cohort study was to compare the safety and effectiveness of Edoxaban versus well-controlled vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) therapy among this population. In this study, we considered patients with AF and diabetes on Edoxaban or VKAs therapy included in the multicenter Atrial Fibrillation Research Database (NCT03760874). The occurrence of major bleedings (MB) and thromboembolic events (a composite of ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack, systemic embolism) was respectively considered primary safety and effectiveness outcome. We identified 557 AF patients with diabetes who received Edoxaban (n: 230) or VKAs (n: 327) treatment. After propensity score matching analysis, 135 Edoxaban and 135 VKA recipients with similar clinical characteristics were evaluated. The mean follow-up was 27 ± 3 months. The incidence rate of thromboembolic events (TE) was 3.0 per 100 person-years (1.11 in Edoxaban vs. 1.9 in the VKA group, hazard ratio (HR): 0.59; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.14 to 2.52; p = 0.48). The incidence rate of major bleedings (MB) was 3.7 per 100 person-years (1.2 in Edoxaban vs. 2.7 in the VKA group, HR: 0.43; 95% CI, 0.10 to 1.40; p = 0.14). The incidence rate of intracranial hemorrhage was 0.35 per 100 person-years in Edoxaban vs. 0.74 in the VKA group (HR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.05 to 5.54; p = 0.56). A positive net clinical benefit (NCB) of Edoxaban over VKAs was found (+1.39). Insulin therapy (HR: 1.76, p = 0.004) and glycated hemoglobin (HR: 1.17, p = 0.002) were found to be independent predictors of TE; moreover, the concomitant use of antiplatelet drugs (HR: 2.41, p = 0.001) was an independent predictor of MB. Conclusions: Our data support the hypothesis of the safety and efficacy of Edoxaban for use in patients with AF and diabetes, justified by a favorable NCB over VKAs.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:We identified factors associated with thromboembolic and bleeding events in two contemporary cohorts of anticoagulated patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), treated with either vitamin K antagonists (VKA) or non-VKA oral anticoagulants (NOACs). DESIGN:Prospective, multicentre observational study. SETTING:461 centres in seven European countries. PARTICIPANTS:5310 patients receiving a VKA (PREvention oF thromboembolic events - European Registry in Atrial Fibrillation (PREFER in AF), derivation cohort) and 3156 patients receiving a NOAC (PREFER in AF Prolongation, validation cohort) for stroke prevention in AF. OUTCOME MEASURES:Risk factors for thromboembolic events (ischaemic stroke, systemic embolism) and major bleeding (gastrointestinal bleeding, intracerebral haemorrhage and other life-threatening bleeding). RESULTS:The mean age of patients enrolled in the PREFER in AF registry was 72±10 years, 40% were female and the mean CHA2DS2-VASc Score was 3.5±1.7. The incidence of thromboembolic and major bleeding events was 2.34% (95% CI 1.93% to 2.74%) and 2.84% (95% CI 2.41% to 3.33%) after 1-year of follow-up, respectively.Abnormal liver function, prior stroke or transient ischaemic attack, labile international normalised ratio (INR), concomitant therapy with antiplatelet or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, heart failure and older age (≥75 years) were independently associated with both thromboembolic and major bleeding events.With the exception of unstable INR values, these risk factors were validated in patients treated with NOACs (PREFER in AF Prolongation Study, 72±9 years, 40% female, CHA2DS2-VASc 3.3±1.6). For each single point decrease on a modifiable bleeding risk scale we observed a 30% lower risk for major bleeding events (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.64 to 0.76, p<0.01) and a 28% lower rate of thromboembolic events (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.82, p<0.01). CONCLUSION:Attending to modifiable risk factors is an important treatment target in anticoagulated AF patients to reduce thromboembolic and bleeding events. Initiation of anticoagulation in those at risk of stroke should not be prevented by elevated bleeding risk scores.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Randomized controlled trials showed the nonvitamin K oral anticoagulant (NOAC) edoxaban was effective and safe for stroke and systemic embolism prevention in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF) and for the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE; including pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis). Additional research is needed to evaluate the effects of edoxaban in routine clinical practice. Therefore, the Edoxaban Treatment in routine cliNical prActice (ETNA) program is being conducted to provide routine clinical care data on characteristics and outcomes in patients with AF or VTE receiving edoxaban.<h4>Methods</h4>The Global ETNA program integrates prospectively collected data from edoxaban patients in regional ETNA noninterventional studies across Europe, Japan, and East and Southeast Asia into indication-specific databases for AF and VTE. Targeted enrollment is >31 000 patients (AF >26 000; VTE >4500), with a follow-up of 2 years for AF and 1 year for VTE. Data integration will be possible using consistent terminology, parameter definitions, and data collection across the regional noninterventional studies. Safety and effectiveness data will be assessed. Crude rates of outcomes including bleeding and thromboembolic events will be reported.<h4>Results</h4>Globally, enrollment began in early 2015 and is ongoing.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Global ETNA will generate the largest integrated prospective repository of routine clinical care data for a single NOAC in patients with AF or VTE. It will provide important information on the safety of edoxaban in routine clinical care and gather further information on its effectiveness.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Patients with AF often have multimorbidity (the presence of ≥2 concomitant chronic conditions).<h4>Objective</h4>To describe baseline characteristics, patterns of antithrombotic therapy, and factors associated with oral anticoagulant (OAC) prescription in patients with AF and ≥2 concomitant, chronic, comorbid conditions.<h4>Methods</h4>Phase III of the GLORIA-AF Registry enrolled consecutive patients from January 2014 through December 2016 with recently diagnosed AF and CHA2DS2-VASc score ≥1 to assess the safety and effectiveness of antithrombotic treatment.<h4>Results</h4>Of 21,241 eligible patients, 15,119 (71.2%) had ≥2 concomitant, chronic, comorbid conditions. The proportions of patients with multimorbidity receiving non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) and vitamin K antagonists (VKA) were 60.2% and 23.6%, respectively. The proportion with paroxysmal AF was 57.0% in the NOAC group and 45.4% in the VKA group. Multivariable log-binomial regression analysis found the following factors were associated with no OAC prescription: pattern of AF (paroxysmal, persistent, or permanent), coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, prior bleeding, smoking status, and region (Asia, North America, or Europe). Factors associated with OAC prescriptions were age, body mass index, renal function, hypertension, history of cerebral ischemic symptoms, and AF ablation.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Multimorbid AF patients prescribed NOACs have fewer comorbidities than those prescribed VKAs. Age, AF pattern, comorbidities, and renal function are associated with OAC prescription.
Project description:AIMS:Edoxaban is a direct factor Xa inhibitor approved for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (AF). Uninterrupted edoxaban therapy in patients undergoing AF ablation has not been tested. METHODS AND RESULTS:The ELIMINATE-AF trial, a multinational, multicentre, randomized, open-label, parallel-group study, was conducted to assess the safety and efficacy of once-daily edoxaban 60?mg (30?mg in patients indicated for dose reduction) vs. vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) in AF patients undergoing catheter ablation. Patients were randomized 2:1 to edoxaban vs. VKA. The primary endpoint (per-protocol population) was time to first occurrence of all-cause death, stroke, or International Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis-defined major bleeding during the period from the end of the ablation procedure to end of treatment (90?days). Overall, 632 patients were enrolled, 614 randomized, and 553 received study drug and underwent ablation; 177 subjects underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging to assess silent cerebral infarcts. The primary endpoint (only major bleeds occurred) was observed in 0.3% (1 patient) on edoxaban and 2.0% (2 patients) on VKA [hazard ratio (95% confidence interval): 0.16 (0.02-1.73)]. In the ablation population (modified intent-to-treat population including patients with ablation), the primary endpoint was observed in 2.7% of edoxaban (N?=?10) and 1.7% of VKA patients (N?=?3) between start of ablation and end of treatment. There were one ischaemic and one haemorrhagic stroke, both in patients on edoxaban. Cerebral microemboli were detected in 13.8% (16) patients who received edoxaban and 9.6% (5) patients in the VKA group (nominal P?=?0.62). CONCLUSION:Uninterrupted edoxaban therapy represents an alternative to uninterrupted VKA treatment in patients undergoing AF ablation.