Comparison of the epidemiological aspects of acute infectious diseases between foreign and native imported cases in the border counties of Southwest China, 2008-2017.
ABSTRACT: This study analysed the epidemiological characteristics of imported cases of acute infectious diseases and compared these features by nationality in 25 border counties of Yunnan Province from 2008 to 2017 to inform prevention strategies. Surveillance data for the imported cases collected in the border counties were analysed to determine disease variety, seasonal patterns, infection site and personal demographics and these features were compared by patient nationality. A total of 12 820 imported cases were reported in the 25 border counties, with 5610 foreign cases and 7210 native cases. The disease spectrum was more diverse among foreign cases than among native cases. Both foreign and native cases were mostly imported from Myanmar. The shift in the number of foreign cases was greater than that of native cases after 2016. Ruili, a city, that shares a border with Myanmar, exhibited the greatest number of imported infections. Farmers, businessmen, women and preschool children were frequently diagnosed with infections. Multiple prevention strategies including disease screening at the border, health education before departure and health service provision to foreigners should be carried out to reduce the risk of autochthonous spreading and to avoid potential outbreaks. Furthermore, international collaboration in terms of sharing infectious disease data should be improved between China and neighbouring countries.
Project description:The surveillance and response system remains one of the biggest challenges to malaria elimination along the China-Myanmar border. In China, "1-3-7" approach was developed to guide elimination activities according to the National Malaria Elimination Program, which is a simplified set of targets that delineates responsibilities and actions. The time frame of the approach has been incorporated into the nationwide web-based disease reporting system: 1, case reporting within 1 day after diagnosis; 3, case investigation within 3 days; and 7, focus investigation and action within 7 days. Herein, the data on malaria cases in 2005-2014 and after the "1-3-7" implementation in 2013-2014 of the 18 counties at the China-Myanmar border are reviewed and analyzed. Results showed that the total cases decreased while the proportion of imported cases rose. The "1-3-7" was well executed, except for the "3" indicator, which was 96.3% accomplished on average in the 18 border counties, but needs to be further strengthened. More efforts are highlighted for timely and accurate case detection as well as proactive mapping of disease transmission hot spots to facilitate the elimination of border malaria.
Project description:This report describes emergency response following an imported vaccine derived poliovirus (VDPV) case from Myanmar to Yunnan Province, China and the cross-border collaboration between China and Myanmar. Immediately after confirmation of the VDPV case, China disseminated related information to Myanmar with the assistance of the World Health Organization.A series of epidemiological investigations were conducted, both in China and Myanmar, including retrospective searches of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases, oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) coverage assessment, and investigation of contacts and healthy children.All children <2 years of age had not been vaccinated in the village where the VDPV case had lived in the past 2 years. Moreover, most areas were not covered for routine immunization in this township due to vaccine shortages and lack of operational funds for the past 2 years.Cross-border collaboration may have prevented a potential outbreak of VDPV in Myanmar. It is necessary to reinforce cross-border collaboration with neighboring countries in order to maximize the leverage of limited resources.
Project description:The China-Myanmar border region presents a great challenge in malaria elimination in China, and it is essential to understand the relationship between malaria vulnerability and population mobility in this region.A community-based, cross-sectional survey was performed in five villages of Yingjiang county during September 2016. Finger-prick blood samples were obtained to identify asymptomatic infections, and imported cases were identified in each village (between January 2013 and September 2016). A stochastic simulation model (SSM) was used to test the relationship between population mobility and malaria vulnerability, according to the mechanisms of malaria importation.Thirty-two imported cases were identified in the five villages, with a 4-year average of 1 case/year (range: 0-5 cases/year). No parasites were detected in the 353 blood samples from 2016. The median density of malaria vulnerability was 0.012 (range: 0.000-0.033). The average proportion of mobile members of the study population was 32.56% (range: 28.38-71.95%). Most mobile individuals lived indoors at night with mosquito protection. The SSM model fit the investigated data (?2?=?0.487, P?=?0.485). The average probability of infection in the members of the population that moved to Myanmar was 0.011 (range: 0.0048-0.1585). The values for simulated vulnerability increased with greater population mobility in each village.A high proportion of population mobility was associated with greater malaria vulnerability in the China-Myanmar border region. Mobile population-specific measures should be used to decrease the risk of malaria re-establishment in China.
Project description:The southwestern region of China, along the Myanmar border, has accounted for the highest number of cases of imported malaria since China shifted from a malaria control program to an elimination strategy in 2010. We conducted a retrospective study, in which 623 medical charts were analyzed to provide an epidemiological characterization of malaria cases that were diagnosed and treated at the People's Hospital of Tengchong County (PHTC), located in southwestern China, from 2008 to 2013. Our aim was to understand the characteristics of malaria in this region, which is a high-endemic region with imported cases. The majority of patients were male (91.7%), and the average age was 32.4 years. Most of the patients (86.4%) had visited Myanmar; labor was the purpose of travel for 63.9% of the patients. Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum were responsible for 53.8% and 34.9% of the infections, respectively. The number of hospitalized patients rose gradually from 2008 to 2010 and reached its peak in 2010 (191). After 2010, the number of hospitalized cases fell rapidly from 191 (2010) to 45 (2013), and the proportion of patients who lived in the forest and the number infected with P. falciparum also fell. In conclusion, the number of hospitalized patients in the southwestern region of China, Tengchong county, decreased after China implemented a malaria elimination strategy in 2010. However, migrant workers returning from Myanmar remained important contributors to cases of imported malaria. The management of imported malaria should be targeted by the malaria elimination program in China.
Project description:Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein-1 (PvMSP1) gene codes for a major malaria vaccine candidate antigen. However, its polymorphic nature represents an obstacle to the design of a protective vaccine. In this study, we analyzed the genetic polymorphism and natural selection of the C-terminal 42 kDa fragment within PvMSP1 gene (Pv MSP142) from 77 P. vivax isolates, collected from imported cases of China-Myanmar border (CMB) areas in Yunnan province and the inland cases from Anhui, Yunnan, and Zhejiang province in China during 2009-2012. Totally, 41 haplotypes were identified and 30 of them were new haplotypes. The differences between the rates of non-synonymous and synonymous mutations suggest that PvMSP142 has evolved under natural selection, and a high selective pressure preferentially acted on regions identified of PvMSP133. Our results also demonstrated that PvMSP142 of P. vivax isolates collected on China-Myanmar border areas display higher genetic polymorphisms than those collected from inland of China. Such results have significant implications for understanding the dynamic of the P. vivax population and may be useful information towards China malaria elimination campaign strategies.
Project description:Malaria importation and local vector susceptibility to imported Plasmodium vivax infection are a continuing risk along the China-Myanmar border. Malaria transmission has been prevented in 3 border villages in Tengchong County, Yunnan Province, China, by use of active fever surveillance, integrated vector control measures, and intensified surveillance and response.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Tak Province, at the Thai-Myanmar border, is one of three high malaria incidence areas in Thailand. This study aimed to describe and identify possible factors driving the spatiotemporal trends of disease incidence from 2012 to 2015. METHODS:Climate variables and forest cover were correlated with malaria incidence using Pearson's r. Statistically significant clusters of high (hot spots) and low (cold spots) annual parasite incidence per 1000 population (API) were identified using Getis-Ord Gi* statistic. RESULTS:The total number of confirmed cases declined by 76% from 2012 to 2015 (Plasmodium falciparum by 81%, Plasmodium vivax by 73%). Incidence was highly seasonal with two main annual peaks. Most cases were male (62.75%), ≥ 15 years (56.07%), and of Myanmar (56.64%) or Thai (39.25%) nationality. Median temperature (1- and 2-month lags), average temperature (1- and 2-month lags) and average relative humidity (2- and 3-month lags) correlated positively with monthly total, P. falciparum and P. vivax API. Total rainfall in the same month correlated with API for total cases and P. vivax but not P. falciparum. At sub-district level, percentage forest cover had a low positive correlation with P. falciparum, P. vivax, and total API in most years. There was a decrease in API in most sub-districts for both P. falciparum and P. vivax. Sub-districts with the highest API were in the Tha Song Yang and Umphang Districts along the Thai-Myanmar border. Annual hot spots were mostly in the extreme north and south of the province. CONCLUSIONS:There has been a large decline in reported clinical malaria from 2012 to 2015 in Tak Province. API was correlated with monthly climate and annual forest cover but these did not account for the trends over time. Ongoing elimination interventions on one or both sides of the border are more likely to have been the cause but it was not possible to assess this due to a lack of suitable data. Two main hot spot areas were identified that could be targeted for intensified elimination activities.
Project description:Currently in China, the trend of Plasmodium vivax cases imported from Southeast Asia was increased especially in the China-Myanmar border area. Driven by the increase in P. vivax cases and stronger need for vaccine and drug development, several P. vivax isolates genome sequencing projects are underway. However, little is known about the genetic variability in this area until now.The sequencing of the first P. vivax isolate from China-Myanmar border area (CMB-1) generated 120 million paired-end reads. A percentage of 10.6 of the quality-evaluated reads were aligned onto 99.9% of the reference strain Sal I genome in 62-fold coverage with an average of 4.8 SNPs per kb. We present a 539-SNP marker data set for P. vivax that can identify different parasites from different geographic origins with high sensitivity. We also identified exceptionally high levels of genetic variability in members of multigene families such as RBP, SERA, vir, MSP3 and AP2. The de-novo assembly yielded a database composed of 8,409 contigs with N50 lengths of 6.6 kb and revealed 661 novel predicted genes including 78 vir genes, suggesting a greater functional variation in P. vivax from this area.Our result contributes to a better understanding of P. vivax genetic variation, and provides a fundamental basis for the geographic differentiation of vivax malaria from China-Myanmar border area using a direct sequencing approach without leukocyte depletion. This novel sequencing method can be used as an essential tool for the genomic research of P. vivax in the near future.
Project description:Cross-border malaria transmission is an important problem for national malaria control programmes. The epidemiology of cross-border malaria is further complicated in areas where Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax are both endemic. By combining passive case detection data with entomological data, a transmission scenario on the northwestern Thai-Myanmar border where P. falciparum is likely driven by importation was described, whereas P. vivax is also locally transmitted. This study highlights the differences in the level of control required to eliminate P. falciparum and P. vivax from the same region.Malaria case data were collected from malaria clinics in Suan Oi village, Tak Province, Thailand between 2011 and 2014. Infections were diagnosed by light microscopy. Demographic data, including migrant status, were correlated with concomitantly collected entomology data from 1330 mosquito trap nights using logistic regression. Malaria infection in the captured mosquitoes was detected by ELISA.Recent migrants were almost four times more likely to be infected with P. falciparum compared with Thai patients (OR 3.84, p < 0.001) and cases were significantly associated with seasonal migration. However, P. falciparum infection was not associated with the Anopheles mosquito capture rates, suggesting predominantly imported infections. In contrast, recent migrants were equally likely to present with P. vivax as mid-term migrants. Both migrant groups were twice as likely to be infected with P. vivax in comparison to the resident Thai population (OR 1.96, p < 0.001 and OR 1.94, p < 0.001, respectively). Plasmodium vivax cases were strongly correlated with age and local capture rates of two major vector species Anopheles minimus and Anopheles maculatus (OR 1.23, p = 0.020 and OR 1.33, p = 0.046, respectively), suggesting that a high level of local transmission might be causing these infections.On the Thai-Myanmar border, P. falciparum infections occur mostly in the recent migrant population with a seasonality reflecting that of agricultural activity, rather than that of the local mosquito population. This suggests that P. falciparum was mostly imported. In contrast, P. vivax cases were significantly associated with mosquito capture rates and less with migrant status, indicating local transmission. This highlights the different timelines and requirements for P. falciparum and P. vivax elimination in the same region and underlines the importance of multinational, cross-border malaria control.
Project description:The Greater Mekong Subregion is aiming to achieve regional malaria elimination by 2030. Though a shift in malaria parasite species predominance by Plasmodium vivax has been recently documented, the transmission of the two minor Plasmodium species, Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium ovale spp., is poorly characterized in the region. This study aims to determine the prevalence of these minor species in the China-Myanmar border area and their genetic diversity.Epidemiology study was conducted during passive case detection in hospitals and clinics in Myanmar and four counties in China along the China-Myanmar border. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in villages and camps for internally displaced persons to determine the prevalence of malaria infections. Malaria infections were diagnosed initially by microscopy and later in the laboratory using nested PCR for the SSU rRNA genes. Plasmodium malariae and P. ovale infections were confirmed by sequencing the PCR products. The P. ovale subtypes were determined by sequencing the Pocytb, Pocox1 and Pog3p genes. Parasite populations were evaluated by PCR amplification and sequencing of the MSP-1 genes. Antifolate sensitivity was assessed by sequencing the dhfr-ts and dhps genes from the P. malariae and P. ovale isolates.Analysis of 2701 blood samples collected from the China-Myanmar border by nested PCR targeting the parasite SSU rRNA genes identified 561 malaria cases, including 161 Plasmodium falciparum, 327 P. vivax, 66 P. falciparum/P. vivax mixed infections, 4 P. malariae and 3 P. ovale spp. P. vivax and P. falciparum accounted for >60 and ~30% of all malaria cases, respectively. In comparison, the prevalence of P. malariae and P. ovale spp. was very low and only made up ~1% of all PCR-positive cases. Nevertheless, these two species were often misidentified as P. vivax infections or completely missed by microscopy even among symptomatic patients. Phylogenetic analysis of the SSU rRNA, Pocytb, Pocox1 and Pog3p genes confirmed that the three P. ovale spp. isolates belonged to the subtype P. ovale curtisi. Low-level genetic diversity was detected in the MSP-1, dhfr and dhps genes of these minor parasite species, potentially stemming from the low prevalence of these parasites preventing their mixing. Whereas most of the dhfr and dhps positions equivalent to those conferring antifolate resistance in P. falciparum and P. vivax were wild type, a new mutation S113C corresponding to the S108 position in pfdhfr was identified in two P. ovale curtisi isolates.The four human malaria parasite species all occurred sympatrically at the China-Myanmar border. While P. vivax has become the predominant species, the two minor parasite species also occurred at very low prevalence but were often misidentified or missed by conventional microscopy. These minor parasite species displayed low levels of polymorphisms in the msp-1, dhfr and dhps genes.