Gd(III)-Gd(III) Relaxation-Induced Dipolar Modulation Enhancement for In-Cell Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Distance Determination.
ABSTRACT: In-cell distance determination by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy reveals essential structural information about biomacromolecules under native conditions. We demonstrate that the pulsed EPR technique RIDME (relaxation induced dipolar modulation enhancement) can be utilized for such distance determination. The performance of in-cell RIDME has been assessed at Q-band using stiff molecular rulers labeled with Gd(III)-PyMTA and microinjected into Xenopus laevis oocytes. The overtone coefficients are determined to be the same for protonated aqueous solutions and inside cells. As compared to in-cell DEER (double electron-electron resonance, also abbreviated as PELDOR), in-cell RIDME features approximately 5 times larger modulation depth and does not show artificial broadening in the distance distributions due to the effect of pseudosecular terms.
Project description:The established model-free methods for the processing of two-electron dipolar spectroscopy data [DEER (double electron-electron resonance), PELDOR (pulsed electron double resonance), DQ-EPR (double-quantum electron paramagnetic resonance), RIDME (relaxation-induced dipolar modulation enhancement), etc.] use regularized fitting. In this communication, we describe an attempt to process DEER data using artificial neural networks trained on large databases of simulated data. Accuracy and reliability of neural network outputs from real experimental data were found to be unexpectedly high. The networks are also able to reject exchange interactions and to return a measure of uncertainty in the resulting distance distributions. This paper describes the design of the training databases, discusses the training process, and rationalizes the observed performance. Neural networks produced in this work are incorporated as options into Spinach and DeerAnalysis packages.
Project description:Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy in combination with site-directed spin labeling is a very powerful tool for elucidating the structure and organization of biomolecules. Gd3+ complexes have recently emerged as a new class of spin labels for distance determination by pulsed EPR spectroscopy at Q- and W-band. We present CW EPR measurements at 240 GHz (8.6 Tesla) on a series of Gd-rulers of the type Gd-PyMTA-spacer-Gd-PyMTA, with Gd-Gd distances ranging from 1.2 nm to 4.3 nm. CW EPR measurements of these Gd-rulers show that significant dipolar broadening of the central |-1/2? ? |1/2? transition occurs at 30 K for Gd-Gd distances up to ?3.4 nm with Gd-PyMTA as the spin label. This represents a significant extension for distances accessible by CW EPR, as nitroxide-based spin labels at X-band frequencies can typically only access distances up to ?2 nm. We show that this broadening persists at biologically relevant temperatures above 200 K, and that this method is further extendable up to room temperature by immobilizing the sample in glassy trehalose. We show that the peak-to-peak broadening of the central transition follows the expected 1/r3 dependence for the electron-electron dipolar interaction, from cryogenic temperatures up to room temperature. A simple procedure for simulating the dependence of the lineshape on interspin distance is presented, in which the broadening of the central transition is modeled as an S = 1/2 spin whose CW EPR lineshape is broadened through electron-electron dipolar interactions with a neighboring S = 7/2 spin.
Project description:Pulsed electron-electron double resonance (PELDOR) is an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy technique for nanometer distance measurements between paramagnetic centers such as radicals. PELDOR has been recognized as a valuable tool to approach structural questions in biological systems. In this manuscript, we demonstrate the value of distance measurements for differentiating competing structural models on the dimerization of the effector domain (ED) of the non-structural protein 1 (NS1) of the influenza A virus. Our results show NS1 to be well amenable to nanometer distance measurements by EPR, yielding high quality data. In combination with mutants perturbing protein dimerization and in silico prediction based on crystal structures, we can exclude one of two potential dimerization interfaces. Furthermore, our results lead to a viable hypothesis of a NS1 ED:ED interface which is flexible through rotation around the vector interconnecting the two native cysteines. These results prove the high value of pulse EPR as a complementary method for structural biology.
Project description:Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) distance measurements are making increasingly important contributions to the studies of biomolecules by providing highly accurate geometric constraints. Combining double-histidine motifs with CuII spin labels can further increase the precision of distance measurements. It is also useful for proteins containing essential cysteines that can interfere with thiol-specific labelling. However, the non-covalent CuII coordination approach is vulnerable to low binding-affinity. Herein, dissociation constants (KD ) are investigated directly from the modulation depths of relaxation-induced dipolar modulation enhancement (RIDME) EPR experiments. This reveals low- to sub-?m CuII KD s under EPR distance measurement conditions at cryogenic temperatures. We show the feasibility of exploiting the double-histidine motif for EPR applications even at sub-?m protein concentrations in orthogonally labelled CuII -nitroxide systems using a commercial Q-band EPR instrument.
Project description:Pulse electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) is gaining increasing importance in structural biology. The PELDOR (pulsed electron-electron double resonance) method allows extracting distance information on the nanometer scale. Here, we demonstrate the efficient extraction of distances from multimeric systems such as membrane-embedded ion channels where data analysis is commonly hindered by multi-spin effects.
Project description:Pulse electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) is being applied to ever more complex biological systems comprising multiple subunits. Membrane channel proteins are of great interest as pulse EPR reports on functionally significant but distinct conformational states in a native environment without the need for crystallization. Pulse EPR, in the form of pulsed electron-electron double resonance (PELDOR), using site-directed spin labeling, is most commonly employed to accurately determine distances (in the nanometer range) between different regions of the structure. However, PELDOR data analysis is more challenging in systems containing more than two spins (e.g., homomultimers) due to distorting multispin effects. Without suppression of these effects, much of the information contained in PELDOR data cannot be reliably retrieved. Thus, it is of utmost importance for future PELDOR applications in structural biology to develop suitable approaches that can overcome the multispin problem. Here, two different approaches for suppressing multispin effects in PELDOR, sparse labeling of the protein (reducing the labeling efficiency f) and reducing the excitation probability of spins (?), are compared on two distinct bacterial mechanosensitive channels. For both the pentameric channel of large conductance (MscL) and the heptameric channel of small conductance (MscS) of Escherichia coli, mutants containing a spin label in the cytosolic or the transmembrane region were tested. Data demonstrate that distance distributions can be significantly improved with either approach compared to the standard PELDOR measurement, and confirm that ? < 1/(n-1) is needed to sufficiently suppress multispin effects (with n being the number of spins in the system). A clear advantage of the sparse labeling approach is demonstrated for the cytosolic mutants due to a significantly smaller loss in sensitivity. For the transmembrane mutants, this advantage is less pronounced but still useful for MscS, but performance is inferior for MscL possibly due to structural perturbations by the bulkier diamagnetic spin label analog.
Project description:Biomolecular complexes are often multimers fueling the demand for methods that allow unraveling their composition and geometric arrangement. Pulse electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy is increasingly applied for retrieving geometric information on the nanometer scale. The emerging RIDME (relaxation-induced dipolar modulation enhancement) technique offers improved sensitivity in distance experiments involving metal centers (e.g. on metalloproteins or proteins labelled with metal ions). Here, a mixture of a spin labelled ligand with increasing amounts of paramagnetic Cu<sup>II</sup> ions allowed accurate quantification of ligand-metal binding in the model complex formed. The distance measurement was highly accurate and critical aspects for identifying multimerization could be identified. The potential to quantify binding in addition to the high-precision distance measurement will further increase the scope of EPR applications.
Project description:Pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) dipolar spectroscopy (PDS) offers several methods for measuring dipolar coupling constants and thus the distance between electron spin centers. Up to now, PDS measurements have been mostly applied to spin centers whose g-anisotropies are moderate and therefore have a negligible effect on the dipolar coupling constants. In contrast, spin centers with large g-anisotropy yield dipolar coupling constants that depend on the g-values. In this case, the usual methods of extracting distances from the raw PDS data cannot be applied. Here, the effect of the g-anisotropy on PDS data is studied in detail on the example of the low-spin Fe3+ ion. First, this effect is described theoretically, using the work of Bedilo and Maryasov (Appl. Magn. Reson. 2006, 30, 683-702) as a basis. Then, two known Fe3+ /nitroxide compounds and one new Fe3+ /trityl compound were synthesized and PDS measurements were carried out on them using a method called relaxation induced dipolar modulation enhancement (RIDME). Based on the theoretical results, a RIDME data analysis procedure was developed, which facilitated the extraction of the inter-spin distance and the orientation of the inter-spin vector relative to the Fe3+ g-tensor frame from the RIDME data. The accuracy of the determined distances and orientations was confirmed by comparison with MD simulations. This method can thus be applied to the highly relevant class of metalloproteins with, for example, low-spin Fe3+ ions.
Project description:We present the first example of chemoselective site-specific spin labeling of a monomeric protein with two spectroscopically orthogonal spin labels: a gadolinium(III) chelate complex and a nitroxide radical. A detailed analysis of the performance of two commercially available Gd(III) ligands in the Gd(III)-nitroxide pulse double electron-electron resonance (DEER or PELDOR) experiment is reported. A modification of the flip angle of the pump pulse in the Gd(III)-nitroxide DEER experiment is proposed to optimize sensitivity.
Project description:Light-induced pulsed EPR dipolar spectroscopic methods allow the determination of nanometer distances between paramagnetic sites. Here we employ orthogonal spin labels, a chromophore triplet state and a stable radical, to carry out distance measurements in singly nitroxide-labeled human neuroglobin. We demonstrate that Zn-substitution of neuroglobin, to populate the Zn(II) protoporphyrin IX triplet state, makes it possible to perform light-induced pulsed dipolar experiments on hemeproteins, extending the use of light-induced dipolar spectroscopy to this large class of metalloproteins. The versatility of the method is ensured by the employment of different techniques: relaxation-induced dipolar modulation enhancement (RIDME) is applied for the first time to the photoexcited triplet state. In addition, an alternative pulse scheme for laser-induced magnetic dipole (LaserIMD) spectroscopy, based on the refocused-echo detection sequence, is proposed for accurate zero-time determination and reliable distance analysis.