Effect of lifestyle interventions on glucose regulation among adults without impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis.
ABSTRACT: This study systematically assessed the effectiveness of lifestyle interventions on glycemic indicators among adults (?18years) without IGT or diabetes. Randomized controlled trials using physical activity (PA), diet (D), or their combined strategies (PA+D) with follow-up ?12months were systematically searched from multiple electronic-databases between inception and May 4, 2016. Outcome measures included fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting insulin (FI), homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and bodyweight. Included studies were divided into low-range (FPG <5.5mmol/L or HbA1c <5.5%) and high-range (FPG ?5.5mmol/L or HbA1c ?5.5%) groups according to baseline glycemic levels. Seventy-nine studies met inclusion criteria. Random-effect models demonstrated that compared with usual care, lifestyle interventions achieved significant reductions in FPG (-0.14mmol/L [95%CI, -0.19, -0.10]), HbA1c (-0.06% [-0.09, -0.03]), FI (%change: -15.18% [-20.01, -10.35]), HOMA-IR (%change: -22.82% [-29.14, -16.51]), and bodyweight (%change: -3.99% [-4.69, -3.29]). The same effect sizes in FPG reduction (0.07) appeared among both low-range and high-range groups. Similar effects were observed among all groups regardless of lengths of follow-up. D and PA+D interventions had larger effects on glucose reduction than PA alone. Lifestyle interventions significantly improved FPG, HbA1c, FI, HOMA-IR, and bodyweight among adults without IGT or diabetes, and might reduce progression of hyperglycemia to type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Project description:Background:Insulin resistance (IR) is a physiological condition related to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and obesity, which is associated with high blood insulin and glucose. Inulin-type carbohydrate (ITC) is a kind of fermentable fructan that can reduce glucose and ameliorate IR in an animal model, but the effect in clinical trials is controversial. Objective:The authors conducted a systematic literature review to evaluate the effect of ITC supplementation in ameliorating IR in T2DM and obese patients. Methods:Multiple databases were queried for studies before December 25, 2018, which involved supplementation with ITC in ameliorating IR in T2DM and obese patients. Studies that involved meta-analysis of the body mass index (BMI), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting insulin (FI), HbA1c, homeostatic model assessment IR (HOMA-IR), and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) of T2DM subjects were included. HOMA-IR and QUICKI were identified as the primary outcomes. A systematic review was performed to evaluate the effect of ITC on IR in obese patients. Results:The database search yielded 25 studies, which met the inclusion criteria; 11 articles were meta-analyzed, and 5 other articles on T2DM and 9 articles on simple obesity were systematically reviewed. Our results did not find ITC supplementation decrease postintervention and reduction data of BMI (P = 0.08). However, it can significantly decrease postintervention and reduction data of FPG, FI, HbA1c, and HOMA-IR. Heterogeneity was eliminated by subgroup analysis according to baseline BMI. There was no significant difference in the amelioration of QUICKI between the ITC and control groups. However, the difference was statistically significant and the heterogeneity was eliminated after subgroup analysis according to intakes of ITC. 14 articles for a systematic review found that the results of blood glucose, insulin, and HbA1c were controversial. Only one of the seven studies on simple obesity concluded that ITC intervention significantly ameliorated HOMA-IR, while the other six did not. Conclusion:Supplementation of ITC can ameliorate IR in T2DM, especially in obese T2DM patients, but the effects are controversial in obese patients.
Project description:Structured lifestyle interventions can reduce diabetes incidence and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among persons with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), but it is unclear whether they should be implemented among persons without IGT. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analyses to assess the effectiveness of lifestyle interventions on CVD risk among adults without IGT or diabetes. We systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, and PsychInfo databases, from inception to May 4, 2016. We selected randomized controlled trials of lifestyle interventions, involving physical activity (PA), dietary (D), or combined strategies (PA+D) with follow-up duration ?12 months. We excluded all studies that included individuals with IGT, confirmed by 2-hours oral glucose tolerance test (75g), but included all other studies recruiting populations with different glycemic levels. We stratified studies by baseline glycemic levels: (1) low-range group with mean fasting plasma glucose (FPG) <5.5mmol/L or glycated hemoglobin (A1C) <5.5%, and (2) high-range group with FPG ?5.5mmol/L or A1C ?5.5%, and synthesized data using random-effects models. Primary outcomes in this review included systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides (TG). Totally 79 studies met inclusion criteria. Compared to usual care (UC), lifestyle interventions achieved significant improvements in SBP (-2.16mmHg[95%CI, -2.93, -1.39]), DBP (-1.83mmHg[-2.34, -1.31]), TC (-0.10mmol/L[-0.15, -0.05]), LDL-C (-0.09mmol/L[-0.13, -0.04]), HDL-C (0.03mmol/L[0.01, 0.04]), and TG (-0.08mmol/L[-0.14, -0.03]). Similar effects were observed among both low-and high-range study groups except for TC and TG. Similar effects also appeared in SBP and DBP categories regardless of follow-up duration. PA+D interventions had larger improvement effects on CVD risk factors than PA alone interventions. In adults without IGT or diabetes, lifestyle interventions resulted in significant improvements in SBP, DBP, TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, and TG, and might further reduce CVD risk.
Project description:Background:Evidence suggests a role for elevated serum calcium in dysregulated glucose metabolism, linked through low-level chronic inflammation. Objectives:We investigated the association of elevated serum calcium concentrations (corrected for albumin) with markers of dysregulated glucose metabolism and type II diabetes and tested if these associations were accounted for by chronic inflammation in a rural Indian population. Methods:A cross-sectional analysis of participants aged 40-84 y from the Andhra Pradesh Children and Parents Study (APCaPS; n = 2699, 52.2% women) was conducted. Comprehensive information on household, sociodemographic, and lifestyle factors; medical and family history; physical measurements; blood measurements including fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting insulin (FI), serum calcium, albumin, phosphorous, vitamin D (in a subset), and creatinine were analyzed. Additionally, in a random sample of healthy participants (n = 1000), inflammatory biomarkers (interleukins 6 and 18, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1, adiponectin, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein) were measured and an inflammatory score (IScore) calculated. Results:After adjustments for sociodemographics, lifestyle factors, and anthropometry the highest calcium quartile (Q4 compared with Q1) was associated with FI (β = 1.4 µU/ml; 95% CI: 1.2, 1.5 µU/ml; P-trend < 0.001), the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (β = 1.4; 95% CI: 1.2, 1.5; P-trend < 0.001), and was modestly associated with FPG (β = 2.1 mg/dL; 95% CI: -0.9, 5.2 mg/dL; P-trend = 0.058) and prevalent type II diabetes (OR = 1.6; 95% CI: 1.0, 2.6; P-trend= 0.020). In the healthy subgroup, the association of the highest calcium quartile was similar for FI and HOMA-IR. Additional adjustment with IScore did not alter the associations. Further, in a subset, all these associations were independent of endogenous regulators of calcium metabolism (serum vitamin D, phosphorus, and creatinine). Independently, after accounting for potential confounders, the highest IScore quartile (Q4 compared with Q1) was positively associated with FPG, FI, HOMA-IR, and prevalent prediabetes, and also with serum calcium concentrations in men. Conclusions:Elevated serum calcium was positively associated with markers of dysregulated glucose metabolism and prevalent type II diabetes in a rural Indian population. Chronic inflammation did not mediate this association but was independently associated with markers of dysregulated glucose metabolism. Inflammation might be responsible for elevated serum calcium concentrations in men.
Project description:Several studies have reported that insulin resistance was a major risk factor for the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus in individuals without diabetes or obesity. We aimed to clarify the association between insulin resistance and glycemic control in Japanese subjects without diabetes or obesity.We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study including 1083 healthy subjects (323 men and 760 women) in an urban area. We performed multivariate regression analyses to estimate the association between the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values and markers of glycemic control, including glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG), and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels, after adjustment for potential confounders.Compared with the lowest tertile of HOMA-IR values, the highest tertile was significantly associated with HbA1c and FPG levels after adjustment for potential confounders, both in men (HbA1c: ? = 1.83, P = 0.001; FPG: ? = 0.49, P < 0.001) and women (HbA1c: ? = 0.82, P = 0.008; FPG: ? = 0.39, P < 0.001). The highest tertile of HOMA-IR values was inversely associated with 1,5-AG levels compared with the lowest tertile (? = -18.42, P = 0.009) only in men.HOMA-IR values were associated with markers of glycemic control in Japanese subjects without diabetes or obesity. Insulin resistance may influence glycemic control even in a lean, non-diabetic Asian population.
Project description:Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO)-a gut-microbiota metabolite-is a biomarker of cardiometabolic risk. No studies have investigated TMAO as an early biomarker of longitudinal glucose increase or prevalent impaired glucose regulation. In a longitudinal cohort study, 300 diabetes-free men and women (77%) aged 20-55 years (mean = 34±10) were enrolled at baseline and re-examined at 2-years to investigate the association between TMAO and biomarkers of diabetes risk. Plasma TMAO was measured using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. After an overnight fast, FPG was measured longitudinally, HbA1C and insulin were measured only at baseline. Insulin resistance was defined using HOMA-IR. Multivariable generalized linear models regressed; i) FPG change (year 2 minus baseline) on baseline TMAO tertiles; and ii) HOMA-IR and HbA1c on TMAO tertiles. Multivariable relative risk regressions modeled prevalent prediabetes across TMAO tertiles. Mean values of 2-year longitudinal FPG±SE across tertiles of TMAO were 86.6±0.9, 86.7±0.9, 86.4±0.9 (p = 0.98). Trends were null for FPG, HbA1c, HOMA-IR, cross-sectionally. The prevalence ratio of prediabetes among participants in 2nd and 3rd TMAO tertiles (vs. the 1st) were 1.94 [95%CI 1.09-3.48] and 1.41 [95%CI: 0.76-2.61]. TMAO levels are associated with increased prevalence of prediabetes in a nonlinear fashion but not with insulin resistance or longitudinal FPG change.
Project description:Efforts to identify a preferable diet for weight management based on macronutrient composition have largely failed, but recent evidence suggests that satiety effects of carbohydrates may depend on the individual's insulin-mediated cellular glucose uptake. Therefore, using data from the POUNDS LOST trial, pre-treatment fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting insulin (FI), and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were studied as prognostic markers of long-term weight loss in four diets differing in carbohydrate, fat, and protein content, while assessing the role of dietary fiber intake. Subjects with FPG <100 mg/dL lost 2.6 (95% CI 0.9;4.4, p = 0.003) kg more on the low-fat/high-protein (n = 132) compared to the low-fat/average-protein diet (n = 136). Subjects with HOMA-IR ?4 lost 3.6 (95% CI 0.2;7.1, p = 0.038) kg more body weight on the high-fat/high-protein (n = 35) compared to high-fat/average-protein diet (n = 33). Regardless of the randomized diet, subjects with prediabetes and FI below the median lost 5.6 kg (95% CI 0.6;10.6, p = 0.030) more when consuming ?35 g (n = 15) compared to <35 g dietary fiber/10 MJ (n = 16). Overall, subjects with normal glycemia lost most on the low-fat/high-protein diet, subjects with high HOMA-IR lost most on the high-fat/high protein diet, and subjects with prediabetes and low FI had particular benefit from dietary fiber in the diet.
Project description:We have performed gene expression microarray analysis to profile transcriptomic signatures between insulin resistance high risk subjects and insulin resistance low risk subjects Overall design: Participants enrolled in this study were recruited in the overnight fasted state, then the collection and processing of glucose (fasting, 30, 60 and 120 minutes) and insulin from blood samples, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) , assessment of medical history, socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, blood pressure and anthropometric and body composition measurements were conducted. During baseline visit, participants were asked to refrain from eating, drinking and oral hygiene procedures for at least 1-hour prior to saliva collection.5 ml of unstimulated whole saliva samples were consistently collected, stabilized and preserved, the sample supernatants were reserved at -80°C prior to assay. Based on the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), using the formula [HOMA-IR= (fasting glucose*fasting insulin)/405], participants were divided into 2 groups: IR high risk group (HOMA-IR value ≥2.5) and IR low risk group (HOMA-IR value <2.5). Total RNA was extracted from saliva and subjected to gene expression microarray analysis using Affymetrix human genome 2.0 plus array
Project description:BACKGROUND:Serum cortisol levels have been associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, the role of cortisol in glycemia and T2D is not fully elucidated among African Americans (AAs). We hypothesized that among AAs morning serum cortisol would be positively associated with glycemic measures and prevalent T2D. METHODS:We examined the cross-sectional association of baseline morning serum cortisol with fasting plasma glucose (FPG), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), ?-cell function (HOMA-?), and prevalent T2D in the Jackson Heart Study. Linear regression models were used to examine the association of log-transformed cortisol with glycemic traits, stratified by T2D status. Logistic regression was used to examine the association of log-transformed cortisol with prevalent T2D. Models were adjusted for age, sex, education, occupation, systolic blood pressure, waist circumference, physical activity, smoking, beta-blocker/hormone replacement medications and cortisol collection time. RESULTS:Among 4,206 AAs (mean age 55?±?13 years, 64% female), 19% had prevalent T2D. A 100% increase in cortisol among participants without diabetes was associated with 2.7?mg/dL (95% CI: 2.0, 3.3) higher FPG and a 10.0% (95% CI: -14.0, -6.0) lower HOMA-? with no significant association with HbA1c or HOMA-IR. In participants with diabetes, a 100% increase in cortisol was associated with a 23.6?mg/dL (95% CI: 13.6, 33.7) higher FPG and a 0.6% (95% CI: 0.3, 0.9) higher HbA1c. Among all participants, quartile 4 vs. 1 of cortisol was associated with a 1.26-fold (95% CI: 1.75, 2.91) higher odds of prevalent T2D. CONCLUSION:Higher morning serum cortisol was associated with higher FPG and lower ?-cell function among participants without T2D and higher FPG and HbA1c in participants with diabetes. Among all participants, higher cortisol was associated with higher odds of T2D. These findings support a role for morning serum cortisol in glucose metabolism among AAs.
Project description:Background:Metformin is the most widely used oral antidiabetic agent and can reduce insulin resistance (IR) effectively. Organic cation transporter 1 (encoded by SLC22A1) is responsible for the transport of metformin, and ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) is a gene relating to the DNA repair and cell cycle control. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the genetic variants in SLC22A1 rs622342 and ATM rs11212617 could be effective predictors of islet function improvement in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on metformin treatment. Methods:This cross-sectional study included 111 patients with T2DM treated with metformin. Genotyping was performed by the dideoxy chain-termination method. The homeostatic indexes of IR (HOMA-IR) and beta-cell function (HOMA-BCF) were determined according to the homeostasis model assessment. Results:Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels, HbA1c levels, and HOMA-IR were significantly higher in patients with the rs622342 AA genotype than in those with C allele (P < 0.05). However, these significant differences were not observed between rs11212617 genotype groups. Further data analysis revealed that the association between the rs622342 polymorphism and HOMA-IR was gender related, and so was rs11212617 polymorphism and HOMA-BCF. HOMA-IR was significantly higher in males with rs622342 AA genotype than in those with C allele (P=0.021), and HOMA-BCF value was significantly higher in females carrying rs11212617 CC genotype than in those with A allele (P=0.038). The common logarithm (Lg10) of HOMA-BCF was positively correlated with the reciprocal of HbA1c (r?=?0.629, P < 0.001) and negatively associated with Lg10 FPG (r?=?-0.708, P < 0.001). Conclusions:The variant of rs622342 could be a predictor of insulin sensitivity in patients with T2DM treated with metformin. The association between the rs622342 polymorphism and HOMA-IR and the association between the rs11212617 polymorphism and HOMA-BCF were both gender related.
Project description:Prolonged sedentary time (ST) might be contributing to the diabetes epidemic, but most studies have been cross-sectional and few have objectively measured ST. The purpose of this study was to evaluate cross-sectional and 5-year longitudinal relationships between ST and metabolic parameters and outcomes.This was an analysis of 2,027 Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study participants (aged 38-50 years, 57% female, and mean BMI of 29.0 ± 7.0 kg/m(2)) with accelerometry data (?4 days with ?10 h/day) measured at the year 20 follow-up exam (2005-2006). Metabolic variables (fasting glucose, fasting insulin, 2-h postchallenge glucose, HOMA of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR], and HbA1c) and outcomes (impaired fasting glucose [IFG], impaired glucose tolerance [IGT], prediabetes by HbA1c, and diabetes) were assessed concurrently and 5 years later.Average ST was 8.1 ± 1.7 h/day or 55 ± 10% of wear time. Each additional hour per day of ST was cross-sectionally associated with a 3% higher fasting insulin and HOMA-IR (both P < 0.01) but not 5-year changes in metabolic parameters. Having ?10 h/day vs. <6 h/day of ST was associated with an odds ratio (OR) = 2.74 (95% CI 1.13, 6.62) for IGT and an OR = 3.80 (95% CI 1.39, 10.35) for diabetes. ST was not associated with prevalent IFG, prevalent prediabetes by HbA1c, or 5-year incidence of any metabolic outcomes (all P > 0.05).ST was independently related to insulin, HOMA-IR, and prevalent diabetes and IGT but did not predict 5-year changes in metabolic parameters or incidence of metabolic outcomes. These results suggest that higher ST may not be a risk factor for future metabolic outcomes, but more research with repeated ST measurement and longer follow-up is needed.