Exposure to maternal obesity during suckling outweighs in utero exposure in programming for post-weaning adiposity and insulin resistance in rats.
ABSTRACT: Exposure to maternal obesity during early development programmes adverse metabolic health in rodent offspring. We assessed the relative contributions of obesity during pregnancy and suckling on metabolic health post-weaning. Wistar rat offspring exposed to control (C) or cafeteria diet (O) during pregnancy were cross-fostered to dams on the same (CC, OO) or alternate diet during suckling (CO, OC) and weaned onto standard chow. Measures of offspring metabolic health included growth, adipose tissue mass, and 12-week glucose and insulin concentrations during an intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (ipGTT). Exposure to maternal obesity during lactation was a driver for reduced offspring weight post-weaning, higher fasting blood glucose concentrations and greater gonadal adiposity (in females). Males displayed insulin resistance, through slower glucose clearance despite normal circulating insulin and lower mRNA expression of PIK3R1 and PIK3CB in gonadal fat and liver respectively. In contrast, maternal obesity during pregnancy up-regulated the insulin signalling genes IRS2, PIK3CB and SREBP1-c in skeletal muscle and perirenal fat, favouring insulin sensitivity. In conclusion exposure to maternal obesity during lactation programmes offspring adiposity and insulin resistance, overriding exposure to an optimal nutritional environment in utero, which cannot be alleviated by a nutritionally balanced post-weaning diet.
Project description:Background:Maternal malnutrition is a critical factor in determining the risk of obesity and glucose intolerance in offspring. However, little is known about the effects of a maternal high-fat diet (HFD) on the ? cell phenotype in offspring, which is a major factor in glucose homeostasis, especially during the early life of offspring. Methods:Dams were randomly fed a HFD (60% kcal from fat) or a chow diet before pregnancy and during gestation and lactation. Glucose metabolism and the ? cell phenotype were assessed in male offspring at weaning. Results:Dams fed a HFD showed impaired glucose tolerance. A HFD predisposed the offspring to increased impairment of metabolic health, including obesity, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, compared with offspring from chow diet-fed dams. Furthermore, increased islet sizes and islet densities were observed in male offspring from HFD-fed dams at weaning. There were increases in the insulin-positive area, ? cell mass and ? cell proliferation in male offspring from HFD-fed dams at weaning age. Next, we further determined whether a maternal HFD could affect ? cell apoptosis in mouse offspring and found that there was no significant change in ? cell apoptosis between the HFD and control groups. Conclusion:Our study is novel in showing that a maternal HFD predisposes offspring to impaired glucose metabolism and has a profound effect on ? cell mass and proliferation in offspring mice, which is observed in mice as early as at weaning age. However, further study to clarify the underlying mechanisms is warranted.
Project description:Maternal obesity increases the risk of metabolic dysregulation in rodent offspring, especially when offspring are exposed to a high-fat (HF), obesogenic diet later in life. We previously demonstrated that maternal choline supplementation (MCS) in HF-fed mouse dams during gestation prevents fetal overgrowth and excess adiposity. In this study, we examined the long-term metabolic influence of MCS. C57BL/6J mice were fed a HF diet with or without choline supplementation prior to and during gestation. After weaning, their pups were exposed to either a HF or control diet for 6 weeks before measurements. Prenatal and post-weaning dietary treatments led to sexually dimorphic responses. In male offspring, while post-weaning HF led to impaired fasting glucose and worse glucose tolerance (p < 0.05), MCS in HF dams (HFCS) attenuated these changes. HFCS (versus maternal normal fat control) appeared to improve metabolic functioning of visceral adipose tissue during post-weaning HF feeding, preventing the elevation in leptin and increasing (p < 0.05) mRNA expression of insulin receptor substrate 1 (Irs1) that promotes peripheral insulin signaling in male offspring. In contrast, MCS had minimal effects on metabolic outcomes of female offspring. In conclusion, MCS during HF feeding in mice improves long-term blood glucose homeostasis in male offspring when they are faced with a postnatal obesogenic environment.
Project description:Aims:Obesity during pregnancy increases risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the offspring and individuals exposed to over-nutrition during fetal life are likely to be exposed to a calorie-rich environment postnatally. Here, we established the consequences of combined exposure to a maternal and post-weaning obesogenic diet on offspring cardiac structure and function using an established mouse model of maternal diet-induced obesity. Methods and results:The impact of the maternal and postnatal environment on the offspring metabolic profile, arterial blood pressure, cardiac structure, and function was assessed in 8-week-old C57BL/6 male mice. Measurement of cardiomyocyte cell area, the transcriptional re-activation of cardiac fetal genes as well as genes involved in the regulation of contractile function and matrix remodelling in the adult heart were determined as potential mediators of effects on cardiac function. In the adult offspring: a post-weaning obesogenic diet coupled with exposure to maternal obesity increased serum insulin (P?<?0.0001) and leptin levels (P?<?0.0001); maternal obesity (P?=?0.001) and a post-weaning obesogenic diet (P?=?0.002) increased absolute heart weight; maternal obesity (P?=?0.01) and offspring obesity (P?=?0.01) caused cardiac dysfunction but effects were not additive; cardiac dysfunction resulting from maternal obesity was associated with re-expression of cardiac fetal genes (Myh7: Myh6 ratio; P?=?0.0004), however, these genes were not affected by offspring diet; maternal obesity (P?=?0.02); and offspring obesity (P?=?0.05) caused hypertension and effects were additive. Conclusions:Maternal diet-induced obesity and offspring obesity independently promote cardiac dysfunction and hypertension in adult male progeny. Exposure to maternal obesity alone programmed cardiac dysfunction, associated with hallmarks of pathological left ventricular hypertrophy, including increased cardiomyocyte area, upregulation of fetal genes, and remodelling of cardiac structure. These data highlight that the perinatal period is just as important as adult-onset obesity in predicting CVD risk. Therefore, early developmental periods are key intervention windows to reduce the prevalence of CVD.
Project description:Maternal obesity (MO) impairs maternal and offspring health. Mechanisms and interventions to prevent adverse maternal and offspring outcomes need to be determined. Human studies are confounded by socio-economic status providing the rationale for controlled animal data on effects of maternal exercise (MEx) intervention on maternal (F0) and offspring (F1) outcomes in MO.MO produces metabolic and endocrine dysfunction, increases maternal and offspring glucocorticoid exposure, oxidative stress and adverse offspring outcomes by postnatal day (PND) 36. MEx in part prevents these outcomes.F0 female rats ate either control or obesogenic diet from weaning through lactation. Half of each group wheel ran (from day 90 of life through pregnancy beginning day 120) providing four groups (n=8/group)--(i) controls, (ii) obese, (iii) exercised controls and (iv) exercised obese. After weaning, PND 21, F1 offspring ate a control diet. Metabolic parameters of F0 prepregnancy and end of lactation and F1 offspring at PND 36 were analyzed.Exercise did not change maternal weight. Before breeding, MO elevated F0 glucose, insulin, triglycerides, cholesterol, leptin, fat and oxidative stress. Exercise completely prevented the triglyceride rise and partially increases glucose, insulin, cholesterol and oxidative stress. MO decreased fertility, recovered by exercise. At the end of lactation, exercise returned all metabolic variables except leptin to control levels. Exercise partially prevented MO elevated corticosterone. F1 offspring weights were similar at birth. At PND 36, MO increased F1 male but not female offspring leptin, triglycerides and fat mass. In controls, exercise reduced male and female offspring glucose, prevented the offspring leptin increase and partially the triglyceride rise.MEx before and during pregnancy has beneficial effects on the maternal and offspring metabolism and endocrine function occurring with no weight change in mothers and offspring indicating the importance of body composition rather than weight in evaluations of metabolic status.
Project description:Although a pre-pregnancy dietary intervention is believed to be able to prevent offspring obesity, research evidence is absent. We hypothesize that a long period of pre-pregnancy maternal diet transition from a high-fat (HF) diet to a normal-fat (NF) diet effectively prevents offspring obesity, and this preventive effect is independent of maternal body weight change. In our study, female mice were either continued on an NF diet (NF group) or an HF diet (HF group) until weaning, or switched from an HF to an NF for 1 week (H1N group), 5 weeks (H5N group) or 9 weeks (H9N group) before pregnancy. After weaning, the offspring were given the HF diet for 12 weeks to promote obesity. The mothers, regardless of which group, did not display maternal body weight change and glucose intolerance either before pregnancy or after weaning. Compared to the HF group, the H1N and H5N, but not the H9N, offspring developed glucose intolerance earlier, with more severely imbalanced glucose homeostasis. These offspring also displayed hepatocyte degeneration and significant adipocyte hypertrophy associated with higher expression of lipogenesis genes. The molecular mechanistic study showed blunted insulin signaling, overactivated adipocyte Akt signaling and hepatic AMPK signaling with enhanced lipogenesis genes in the H1N and H5N versus the NF offspring. However, maternal H9N diets normalized glucose and lipid metabolism of the offspring via resensitized insulin signaling and normalized Akt and AMPK signaling. In summary, we showed that a long-term maternal diet intervention effectively released the intergenerational obesogenic effect of maternal HF diet independent of maternal weight management.
Project description:SCOPE:We investigated the long-term effects of maternal high-fat consumption and post-weaning exercise on offspring obesity susceptibility and insulin resistance. METHODS:C57BL/6J dams were fed either a high-fat (HFD, 40% kcal fat) or low-fat (LFD, 10% kcal fat) semi-synthetic diet during pregnancy and lactation. After weaning, male offspring of both maternal diet groups (mLFD; mHFD) received a LFD. At week 7, half of the mice got access to a running wheel (+RW) as voluntary exercise training. To induce obesity, all offspring groups (mLFD +/-RW and mHFD +/-RW) received HFD from week 15 until week 25. RESULTS:Compared to mLFD, mHFD offspring were more prone to HFD-induced body fat gain and exhibited an increased liver mass which was not due to increased hepatic triglyceride levels. RW improved the endurance capacity in mLFD, but not in mHFD offspring. Additionally, mHFD offspring +RW exhibited higher plasma insulin levels during glucose tolerance test and an elevated basal pancreatic insulin production compared to mLFD offspring. CONCLUSION:Taken together, maternal HFD reduced offspring responsiveness to the beneficial effects of voluntary exercise training regarding the improvement of endurance capacity, reduction of fat mass gain, and amelioration of HFD-induced insulin resistance.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Early life nutrition is critical for the development of hypothalamic neurons involved in energy homeostasis. We previously showed that intrauterine and early postnatal overnutrition programmed hypothalamic neurons expressing the appetite stimulator neuropeptide Y (NPY) and suppressor proopiomelanocortin (POMC) in offspring at weaning. However, the long-term effects of such programming and its interactions with post-weaning high-fat-diet (HFD) consumption are unclear. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:Female Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to chow or HFD for 5 weeks before mating, throughout gestation and lactation. On postnatal day 1, litters were adjusted to 3/litter to induce postnatal overnutrition (vs. 12 in control). At postnatal day 20, half of the rats from each maternal group were weaned onto chow or HFD for 15 weeks. Hypothalamic appetite regulators, and fuel (glucose and lipid) metabolic markers were measured. RESULTS:Offspring from obese dams gained more weight than those from lean dams independent of post-weaning diet. Maternal obesity interacted with post-weaning HFD consumption to cause greater levels of hyperphagia, adiposity, hyperlipidemia, and glucose intolerance in offspring. This was linked to increased hypothalamic NPY signaling and leptin resistance in adult offspring. Litter size reduction had a detrimental impact on insulin and adiponectin, while hypothalamic NPY and POMC mRNA expression were suppressed in the face of normal energy intake and weight gain. CONCLUSIONS:Maternal obesity, postnatal litter size reduction and post-weaning HFD consumption caused obesity via different neuroendocrine mechanism. There were strong additive effects of maternal obesity and post-weaning HFD consumption to increase the metabolic disorders in offspring.
Project description:Obesity during pregnancy contributes to the development of metabolic disorders in offspring. Maternal exercise may limit gestational weight gain and ameliorate these programming effects. We previously showed benefits of post-weaning voluntary exercise in offspring from obese dams. Here we examined whether voluntary exercise during pregnancy influences lipid and glucose homeostasis in muscle and fat in offspring of both lean and obese dams. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed chow (C) or high fat (F) diet for 6 weeks before mating. Half underwent voluntary exercise (CE/FE) with a running wheel introduced 10 days prior to mating and available until the dams delivered; others remained sedentary (CS/FS). Male and female pups were killed at postnatal day (PND)19 and retroperitoneal fat and gastrocnemius muscle were collected for gene expression. Lean and obese dams achieved similar modest levels of exercise. At PND1, both male and female pups from exercised lean dams were significantly lighter (CE versus CS), with no effect in those from obese dams. At PND19, maternal obesity significantly increased offspring body weight and adiposity, with no effect of maternal exercise. Exercise significantly reduced insulin concentrations in males (CE/FE versus CS/FS), with reduced glucose in male FE pups. In males, maternal obesity significantly decreased muscle myogenic differentiation 1 (MYOD1) and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) mRNA expressions (FS vs CS); these were normalized by exercise. Maternal exercise upregulated adipose GLUT4, interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC1?) mRNA expression in offspring of dams consuming chow. Modest voluntary exercise during pregnancy was associated with lower birth weight in pups from lean dams. Maternal exercise appeared to decrease the metabolic risk induced by maternal obesity, improving insulin/glucose metabolism, with greater effects in male than female offspring.
Project description:Many adult chronic diseases are thought to be influenced during early life by maternal nutrition; however, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Obesity-related diseases may be due partly to high fat consumption. Herein, we evaluated mammary tumor risk in female mouse mammary tumor virus-Wnt-1 transgenic (Tg) offspring exposed to high-fat diet (HFD) or control diet (CD) (45% and 17% kcal from fat, respectively) during gestation and lactation, with CD provided to progeny at weaning. In Tg offspring, maternal HFD exposure increased mammary tumor incidence and decreased tumor latency without affecting tumor volume. Tumor risk was associated with higher tumor necrosis factor-? and insulin and altered oxidative stress biomarkers in sera and with early changes in mammary expression of genes linked to tumor promotion [interleukin 6 (Il6)] or inhibition [phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (Pten), B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl2)]. Corresponding wild-type progeny exposed to maternal HFD displayed accelerated mammary development, higher mammary adiposity, increased insulin resistance and early changes in Pten, Bcl2 and Il6, than CD-exposed offspring. Dams-fed HFD showed higher serum glucose and oxidative stress biomarkers but comparable adiposity compared with CD-fed counterparts. In human breast cancer MCF-7 cells, sera from maternal HFD-exposed Tg offspring elicited changes in PTEN, BCL2 and IL6 gene expression, mimicking in vivo exposure; increased cell viability and mammosphere formation and induced measures [insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), IRS-2] of insulin sensitivity. Serum effects on IRS-1 were recapitulated by exogenous insulin and the PTEN-specific inhibitor SF1670. Hyperinsulinemia and PTEN loss-of-function may thus, couple maternal HFD exposure to enhanced insulin sensitivity via increased mammary IRS-1 expression in progeny, to promote breast cancer risk.
Project description:Previous studies have shown that maternal diet-induced obesity leads to increased risk of type 2 diabetes in offspring. The current study investigated if weaning onto an obesogenic diet exaggerated the detrimental effects of maternal diet-induced obesity in adipose tissue. Maternal obesity and offspring obesity led to reduced expression of key insulin signalling proteins, including insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1). The effects of maternal obesity and offspring obesity were, generally, independent and additive. Irs1 mRNA levels were similar between all four groups of offspring, suggesting that in both cases post-transcriptional regulation was involved. Maternal diet-induced obesity increased miR-126 expression however levels of this miR were not influenced by a post-weaning obesogenic diet. In contrast, a post-weaning obesogenic diet was associated with increased levels of suppressor of cytokine signaling-1, implicating increased degradation of IRS-1 as an underlying mechanism. Our results suggest that whilst programmed reductions in IRS-1 are associated with increased levels of miR-126 and consequently reduced translation of Irs1 mRNA, the effects of a post-weaning obesogenic diet on IRS-1 are mediated by miR-126 independent mechanisms, including increased IRS-1 protein degradation. These divergent mechanisms explain why the combination of maternal obesity and offspring obesity leads to the most pronounced effects on offspring metabolism.