An integrative review of the influence of job strain and coping on nurses' work performance: Understanding the gaps in oncology nursing research.
ABSTRACT: Nursing is known to be a stressful profession that can lead to physical and psychological health issues and behavioural problems. In oncology, workload among nurses is believed to be increasing in conjunction with rapidly increasing numbers of patients with cancer and staff shortages worldwide, therefore it is essential to sustain a quality oncology nurse workforce. Numerous studies have presented evidence on job strain, effects of coping strategies, and nurses' work performance within healthcare settings, but few have focused on oncology settings and none of these on nurses working in Saudi Arabia. The purpose of this review was to summarize empirical and theoretical evidence concerning job-related stressors in nurses, particularly oncology nurses, and the interrelationships among job strain, coping strategies, and work performance in this population. Search strategies identified studies published on studies in peer-reviewed journals from 2004 to 2016. Twenty-five nursing studies were found examining the relationships among the concepts of interest. Common job-related stressors among oncology nurses were high job demands, dealing with death/dying, lack of job control, and interpersonal conflicts at work. Job strain was found to be significantly linked to coping strategies, and negatively associated with work performance among nurses in general. There is no existing empirical evidence to support the relationship between coping strategies and work performance among oncology nurses. The present evidence is limited, and a considerable amount of research is required in the future to expand the oncology nursing literature. Research is needed to investigate job-related stressors and their effects on oncology nurses.
Project description:AIMS:Getting insight in the most crucial organizational job stressors for novice nurses' professional commitment and whether the job stressors are mediated through negative emotions. DESIGN:The study used an observational cohort design. METHODS:Organizational job stressors were derived from 580 diary entries by 18 novice nurses combined with measures on emotions and commitment. The diaries were collected from September 2013-September 2014. RESULTS:Path modelling revealed that lack of support from colleagues, negative experiences with patients and confrontations with existential events were most strongly negatively related to professional commitment through negative emotions. Other indirectly and negatively related organizational job stressors to commitment were complexity of care, lack of control and work-life imbalance; only conflicting job demands, and lack of control related to professional commitment directly. CONCLUSION(S):To enhance professional commitment, it is important to reduce negative emotions in novice nurses by collegial support in dealing with negative experiences with patients, complexity of care and existential events and to prevent lack of control and an imbalance between private life and work. Nurse supervisors and managers can encourage nurses to share negative patient experiences, issues related to complexity of care and existential events. IMPACT:Considering the worldwide nursing shortage and early turnover, more understanding is needed about how negative emotions mediate the relationship between organizational negative job stressors and professional commitment and the relative impact of organizational job stressors to professional commitment. The study stresses the importance of a supportive role of supervisors and nurse managers to improve the work environment and hence increase novice nurses' commitment and retention.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal disorders represent a significant occupational problem among nurses; however, data on musculoskeletal health of nurses in Sub-Sahara Africa are sparse. This study sought to determine the lifetime, 12-months period and point prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs); the associated job risk factors and the coping strategies toward reducing the risk among nurses from selected hospitals in Ibadan, South-west Nigeria METHODS: A previously validated self administered questionnaire which sought information on demographics, prevalence and pattern of WMSDs, associated job risk factors and coping strategies was employed as the survey instrument. A total of 160 questionnaires were distributed to nurses in the different hospitals but 128 questionnaires were returned yielding an 80% response rate. 10 of the returned questionnaires were excluded because of incomplete data. RESULTS: Eighty-four point four percent of the nurses have had WMSDs once or more in their occupational lives. The 12-months period and point prevalence rate of WMSDs at any body region was 78% and 66.1% respectively. WMSDs occurred mostly in low back (44.1%), neck (28.0%), and knees (22.4%). 30.3% treated themselves or had visited other health practitioners for care. Nurses with > 20 years of clinical experience are about 4 times more likely to develop WMSDs (OR 3.81; CI 1.08-13.4) than those with 11-20 years experience. Working in the same positions for long periods (55.1%), lifting or transferring dependent patients (50.8%) and treating an excessive number of patients in one day (44.9%) were the most perceived job risk factors for WMSDs. Getting help in handling heavy patients (50.4%), modification of nursing procedures in order to avoid re-injury (45.4%), and modifying patient's/nurse position (40.3%) were the top three coping strategies. CONCLUSIONS: A high proportion of Nigerian nurses reported WMSDs at some body site in their occupational lives with the low back being injured most often. Education programmes on prevention and coping strategies for musculoskeletal disorders are recommended for nurses in order to reduce the rate of occupational hazards and also promote efficiency in patient care.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:The objectives of this study were to investigate new nurses' experiences of workplace incivility; verify the mediating role of work ability in the relationship between workplace incivility and job performance and examine the moderating role of career expectations in the relationship between workplace incivility and job performance. DESIGN:This cross-sectional survey was conducted in China in May 2016. SETTINGS:The research settings included 54 cities across 29 provinces of China. PARTICIPANTS:Of the 903 participants recruited, 696 new nurses (<3 years of nursing experience) agreed to complete the online questionnaire of the study. The effective response rate was 77.1%. The inclusion criteria were voluntary participation, <3 years of nursing experience and recognition as a registered nurse. The exclusion criteria were refusal to participate, >3 years of nursing experience or not recognised as a registered nurse. RESULTS:New nurses (60.7%) experienced some level of workplace incivility in the previous year, and it was more frequent among those with higher educational degrees. Work ability mediated the relationship between workplace incivility and job performance, and this relationship was moderated by career expectations. CONCLUSION:Incivility towards new nurses was relatively common in the workplace. Workplace incivility impairs job performance by weakening the work ability of new nurses. Higher career expectations may buffer workplace incivility and contribute to the maintenance of job performance by buffering the detrimental effects of workplace incivility.
Project description:The Demand Resources and Individual Effects Model (DRIVE Model) is a transactional model that integrates Demands- Control-Support and Effort-Reward Imbalance models emphasising the role of individual (Coping Strategies; Overcommitment) and job characteristics (Job Demands, Social Support, Decision Latitude, Skill Discretion, Effort, Rewards) in the work-related stress process. The present study aimed to test the DRIVE Model in a sample of 450 Italian nurses and to compare findings with those of a study conducted in a sample of UK nurses. A questionnaire composed of Ways of Coping Checklist-Revised (WCCL-R); Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ); ERI Test; Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used. Data supported the application of the DRIVE Model to the Italian context, showing significant associations of the individual characteristics of Problem-focused, Seek Advice and Wishful Thinking coping strategies and the job characteristics of Job Demands, Skill Discretion, Decision Latitude, and Effort with perceived levels of Anxiety and Depression. Effort represented the best predictor for psychological health conditions among Italian nurses, and Social Support significantly moderated the effects of Job Demands on perceived levels of Anxiety. The comparison study showed significant differences in the risk profiles of Italian and UK nurses. Findings were discussed in order to define focused interventions to promote nurses' wellbeing.
Project description:Stress has become an inherent aspect of the nursing profession. Chronically experienced work stress can lead to burnout. Although situational stressors show a significant influence on burnout, their power to predict the complete syndrome is rather limited. After all, stressors only exist "in the eye of the beholder". This study aimed to explore how individual vulnerability factors such as core-self evaluations and coping, contribute to burnout in relation to situational stressors within a population of hospital nurses. Cross-sectional data was collected in 2014, using five validated self-report instruments: Dutch Core Self Evaluations Scale, Nursing Work Index Revised, Utrecht Coping List, Ruminative Response Scale, and Utrecht Burnout Scale. 219 of the 250 questionnaires were returned. Core-self evaluations, situational factors and coping each contributed significantly to the predictive capacity of the models of the separate burnout dimensions. Core-self evaluations was significantly related to emotional exhaustion. It was suggested that Core-self evaluations might be placed at the initiation of the loss cycle. However, further research is warranted.
Project description:Burnout is a major problem among nurses working in emergency departments and is closely related to a high turnover of personnel, nursing errors, and patient dissatisfaction. The aims of this study were to estimate burnout, perceived stress, job satisfaction, coping and general health levels experienced by nurses working in emergency departments in Spain and to analyze the relationships between sociodemographic, occupational, and psychological variables and the occurrence of burnout syndrome among these professionals. A cross-sectional study was conducted in four emergency departments in Andalusia (Spain) from March to December 2016. The study sample was composed of n = 171 nurses. An ad hoc questionnaire was prepared to collect sociodemographic and work data, and the Maslach Burnout Inventory, the Perceived Stress Scale, the Font-Roja Questionnaire, the Brief Cope Orientation to Problem Experience and the General Health Questionnaire were used. The prevalence of high burnout was 8.19%. The levels of perceived stress and job satisfaction were moderate. The most frequent clinical manifestations were social dysfunction and somatic symptoms, and problem-focused coping was the strategy most used by nurses. Lack of physical exercise, gender, years worked at an emergency department, anxiety, social dysfunction, and avoidance coping were significant predictors of the dimensions of burnout.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:to explore self-perception competence among Spanish nurses dealing with patient death and its relationship with work environment, evidence-based practice, and occupational stress. METHOD:a cross-sectional web-based survey collected information from a convenience sample of 534 nurses from professional Spanish Colleges who answered four validated questionnaires: Coping with Death Scale, Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index, Perception of Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) and Nursing Stress Scale. RESULTS:a total of 79% of the participants were women, the average age was 40 years old, 38% had a postgraduate degree and 77% worked in public health settings. Many nurses evaluated their work environment as unfavorable (66%), reported high occupational stress (83.5±14.9), and had high scores on knowledge/skills in EBP (47.9±11.3). However, 61.2% of them perceived an optimal coping (>157 score). The multivariate logistic model indicated positive associations with work environment and EBP characteristics (OR: 1.30, p=0.054; OR: 1.04, p=0.007; OR: 1.13, p<0.001, respectively) but negative associations with occupational stress and short work experience (OR: 0.98, p=0.0043; OR: 0.74, p<0.002, respectively). These factors explained 23.1% of the coping variance (p<0.001). CONCLUSION:although most nurses perceived optimal coping, the situation could be enhanced by modifying several contextual factors. The identification of these factors would improve the quality of end-of-life care by facilitating nursing management.
Project description:BACKGROUND: A discrete choice experiment was conducted to investigate preferences for job characteristics among nursing students and practicing nurses to determine how these groups vary in their respective preferences and to understand whether differing policies may be appropriate for each group. METHODS: Participating students and workers were administered a discrete choice experiment that elicited preferences for attributes of potential job postings. Job attributes included salary, duration of service until promotion to permanent staff, duration of service until qualified for further study and scholarship, housing provision, transportation provision, and performance-based financial rewards. Mixed logit models were fit to the data to estimate stated preferences and willingness to pay for attributes. Finally, an interaction model was fit to formally investigate differences in preferences between nursing students and practicing nurses. RESULTS: Data were collected from 256 nursing students and 249 practicing nurses. For both groups, choice of job posting was strongly influenced by salary and direct promotion to permanent staff. As compared to nursing students, practicing nurses had significantly lower preference for housing allowance and housing provision as well as lower preference for provision of transportation for work and personal use. CONCLUSIONS: In the Lao People's Democratic Republic, nursing students and practicing nurses demonstrated important differences in their respective preferences for rural job posting attributes. This finding suggests that it may be important to differentiate between recruitment and retention policies when addressing human resources for health challenges in developing countries, such as Laos.
Project description:Despite an increasing literature on professional nurses' job satisfaction, job satisfaction by nonprofessional nursing care providers and, in particular, in residential long-term care facilities, is sparsely described. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the evidence on which factors (individual and organizational) are associated with job satisfaction among care aides, nurse aides, and nursing assistants, who provide the majority of direct resident care, in residential long-term care facilities. Nine online databases were searched. Two authors independently screened, and extracted data and assessed the included publications for methodological quality. Decision rules were developed a priori to draw conclusions on which factors are important to care aide job satisfaction. Forty-two publications were included. Individual factors found to be important were empowerment and autonomy. Six additional individual factors were found to be not important: age, ethnicity, gender, education level, attending specialized training, and years of experience. Organizational factors found to be important were facility resources and workload. Two additional factors were found to be not important: satisfaction with salary/benefits and job performance. Factors important to care aide job satisfaction differ from those reported among hospital nurses, supporting the need for different strategies to improve care aide job satisfaction in residential long-term care.
Project description:Nurses are key professionals in healthcare sectors, whose job attitude is closely associated with patient health outcomes and safety. Job crafting describes how workers shape their tasks to find a sense of meaning and value in their work. This study aimed to examine the associations of happiness at the individual level and nursing work environments at the organizational level with job crafting among hospital nurses in Korea. This cross-sectional study analyzed survey data from 220 nurses working in four Korean hospitals. Multiple linear regression modeling was used to examine associations among the study variables. Nurses who were satisfied with their lives were significantly more likely to exhibit higher levels of job crafting (B = 0.07, p < 0.001). Nursing work environments had no significant association with nurses' job crafting. In comparison with nurses working in general units, operating room nurses were significantly less likely to craft their job (B = -0.35, p = 0.001). Organizational support should be established to improve nurses' happiness and job crafting. Hospitals should provide various opportunities for education and training to strengthen job crafting.