Moderately increased albuminuria, chronic kidney disease and incident dementia: the HUNT study.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Epidemiologic studies has shown an association of albuminuria and low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) with dementia, but the findings are inconsistent. This study examines the association between eGFR, MA with dementia and its subtypes: AD, VaD, a mixture of AD/VaD, and other dementias. METHODS:Data from the second wave of the HUNT 2 Study (1995-1997) were linked with a dementia register known as the Health and Memory Study (HMS) collected during 1995-2011 in Nord-Trøndelag County, Norway. Dementia was ascertained using World Health Organization's ICD-10 criteria into subtypes: AD,VaD, mixed AD/VaD, and other dementia. eGFR and its association with dementia was examined in 48,508 participants of the HUNT Study, of which 668 were diagnosed with all-cause dementia. Association between MA and dementia were studied in a subset of 7024 participants, and 214 were diagnosed with all-cause dementia. Cox regression models were conducted analyzing the association between dementia and MA using albumin creatine ratio (ACR). Cox regression models and Fine-Gray models were used to examine the association between dementia and eGFR. RESULTS:A positive association was found between increasing ACR and dementia. ACR in the fourth quartile (> 1.78 mg/mmol) with increased hazard ratio of VaD, 3.97 (1.12 to 14.07), compared with ACR in the first quartile (<.53 mg/mmol). There was no association between eGFR and dementia or its subgroups. CONCLUSIONS:Our results strengthens the hypothesis that vascular mechanisms may affect both kidney and brain as an association between MA and dementia was found. However, eGFR was not significantly associated with dementia independent of diabetes mellitus or hypertension.
Project description:Epidemiologic evidence has emerged to reveal an association of albuminuria and low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) with dementia, but the findings are inconsistent. In addition, there are limited studies addressing the association between albuminuria and Alzheimer disease (AD).A total of 1562 community-dwelling Japanese subjects aged ?60 years without dementia were followed up for 10 years. The outcomes were incidence of all-cause dementia and its subtypes, namely, AD and vascular dementia (VaD). The hazard ratios for the outcomes were estimated according to urine albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR) and eGFR levels using a Cox proportional hazards model. During the follow-up, 358 subjects developed all-cause dementia (238 AD and 93 VaD). Higher UACR level was significantly associated with greater multivariable-adjusted risks of all-cause dementia (hazard ratios [95% confidence intervals]: 1.00 [reference], 1.12 [0.78-1.60], 1.65 [1.18-2.30], and 1.56 [1.11-2.19] for UACR of ?6.9, 7.0-12.7, 12.8-29.9, and ?30.0 mg/g, respectively), AD (1.00 [reference], 1.20 [0.77-1.86], 1.75 [1.16-2.64], and 1.58 [1.03-2.41], respectively), and VaD (1.00 [reference], 1.03 [0.46-2.29], 1.94 [0.96-3.95], and 2.19 [1.09-4.38], respectively). On the other hand, lower eGFR level was marginally associated with greater risk of VaD, but not AD. Subjects with UACR ?12.8 mg/g and eGFR of <60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 had 3.3-fold greater risk of VaD than those with UACR <12.8 mg/g and eGFR of ?60 mL/min per 1.73 m2.Albuminuria is a significant risk factor for the development of both AD and VaD in community-dwelling Japanese elderly. Moreover, albuminuria and low eGFR are mutually associated with a greater risk of VaD.
Project description:Several observational studies have reported that higher visit-to-visit blood pressure variability is a risk factor for cognitive impairment and dementia. However, no studies have investigated the association of day-to-day blood pressure variability assessed by home blood pressure measurement with the development of dementia.A total of 1674 community-dwelling Japanese elderly without dementia, ≥60 years of age, were followed up for 5 years (2007-2012). Home blood pressure was measured 3 times every morning for a median of 28 days. Day-to-day systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure variabilities, calculated as coefficients of variation (CoV) of home SBP and diastolic blood pressure, were categorized into quartiles. The hazard ratios and their 95% confidence intervals of the CoV levels of home blood pressure on the development of all-cause dementia, vascular dementia (VaD), and Alzheimer disease (AD) were computed with a Cox proportional hazards model.During the follow-up, 194 subjects developed all-cause dementia; of these, 47 had VaD and 134 had AD. The age- and sex-adjusted incidences of all-cause dementia, VaD, and AD increased significantly with increasing CoV levels of home SBP (all P for trend <0.05). These associations remained unchanged after adjustment for potential confounding factors, including home SBP. Compared with subjects in the first quartile of CoV levels of home SBP, the risks of the development of all-cause dementia, VaD, and AD were significantly higher in those in the fourth quartile (hazard ratio=2.27, 95% confidence interval=1.45-3.55, P<0.001 for all-cause dementia; hazard ratio=2.79, 95% confidence interval=1.04-7.51, P=0.03 for VaD; hazard ratio=2.22, 95% confidence interval=1.31-3.75, P<0.001 for AD). Similar associations were observed for CoV levels of home diastolic blood pressure. Meanwhile, home SBP levels were significantly associated with the risk of VaD but not with the risks of all-cause dementia and AD. There was no interaction between home SBP levels and CoV levels of home SBP on the risk of each subtype of dementia.Our findings suggest that increased day-to-day blood pressure variability is, independently of average home blood pressure, a significant risk factor for the development of all-cause dementia, VaD, and AD in the general elderly Japanese population.
Project description:Introduction: Although total cholesterol (TC) variability is suggested as a risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, there is no previous study to evaluate the association between TC variability and the development of dementia. Methods: Using the Korean National Health Insurance Service-Health Screening Cohort (NHIS-HEALS), the main outcomes were newly diagnosed all-cause dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD), or vascular dementia (VaD) between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2015. Visit-to-visit TC variability was measured as variability independent of the mean (TC-VIM), coefficient variance (TC-CV), and standard deviation (TC-SD). Results: In a total of 131,965 Koreans, there were 3,722 all-cause dementia (2.82%), 2,776 AD (2.10%), and 488 VaD (0.37%) during the median follow-up of 8.4 years. Kaplan-Meier curves showed increased cumulative incidences for all in the group of the highest quartiles of TC variability compared to the others. Regression using the Fine and Gray hazards model showed a steadily increasing risk of all-cause dementia with higher quartiles of TC variability. After adjusting for confounders including mean TC level and comparing the highest and lowest TC-VIM quartiles, the hazard ratios (HRs) for all-cause dementia and AD were 1.15 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.05-1.27; P = 0.003] and 1.12 (95% CI = 1.00-1.25; P = 0.040), respectively. The incidence of VaD was not significantly higher in the higher-quartile groups compared to that in the lowest-quartile group in TC-VIM variability (HR 1.22; 95% CI = 0.95-1.59; P = 0.122). These associations were consistent with TC variability defined by TC-CV or TC-SD. Conclusions: For the first time, we have demonstrated that a higher visit-to-visit variability in TC independent of mean TC is associated with an increased risk of all-cause dementia and AD in the general population.
Project description:Serum uric acid (sUA) level may be associated with cognitive impairment/dementia. It is possible this relationship varies with dementia subtype, particularly between vascular dementias (VaD) and Alzheimer's (AD) or Parkinson's disease (PDD)-related dementia. We aimed to present a synthesis of all published data on sUA and relationship with dementia/cognition through systematic review and meta-analysis. We included studies that assessed the association between sUA and any measure of cognitive function or a clinical diagnosis of dementia. We pre-defined subgroup analyses for patients with AD, VaD, PDD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and mixed or undifferentiated. We assessed risk of bias/generalizability, and where data allowed, we performed meta-analysis to describe pooled measures of association across studies. From 4811 titles, 46 papers (n?=?16,688 participants) met our selection criteria. Compared to controls, sUA was lower in dementia (SDM -0.33 (95%CI)). There were differences in association by dementia type with apparent association for AD (SDM -0.33 (95%CI)) and PDD (SDM -0.67 (95%CI)) but not in cases of mixed dementia (SDM 0.19 (95%CI)) or VaD (SDM -0.05 (95%CI)). There was no correlation between scores on Mini-Mental State Examination and sUA level (summary r 0.08, p?=?0.27), except in patients with PDD (r 0.16, p?=?0.003). Our conclusions are limited by clinical heterogeneity and risk of bias in studies. Accepting this caveat, the relationship between sUA and dementia/cognitive impairment is not consistent across all dementia groups and in particular may differ in patients with VaD compared to other dementia subtypes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Physical activity might reduce the risk of developing dementia. However, it is still unclear whether the protective effect differs depending on the subtype of dementia. We aimed to investigate if midlife physical activity affects the development of vascular dementia (VaD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) differently in two large study populations with different designs. METHODS:Using a prospective observational design, we studied whether long-distance skiers of the Swedish Vasaloppet (n = 197,685) exhibited reduced incidence of VaD or AD compared to matched individuals from the general population (n = 197,684) during 21 years of follow-up (median 10, interquartile range (IQR) 5-15 years). Next, we studied the association between self-reported physical activity, stated twice 5 years apart, and incident VaD and AD in 20,639 participants in the Swedish population-based Malmo Diet and Cancer Study during 18 years of follow-up (median 15, IQR 14-17 years). Finally, we used a mouse model of AD and studied brain levels of amyloid-β, synaptic proteins, and cognitive function following 6 months of voluntary wheel running. RESULTS:Vasaloppet skiers (median age 36.0 years [IQR 29.0-46.0], 38% women) had lower incidence of all-cause dementia (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 0.63, 95% CI 0.52-0.75) and VaD (adjusted HR 0.49, 95% CI 0.33-0.73), but not AD, compared to non-skiers. Further, faster skiers exhibited a reduced incidence of VaD (adjusted HR 0.38, 95% CI 0.16-0.95), but not AD or all-cause dementia compared to slower skiers. In the Malmo Diet and Cancer Study (median age 57.5 years [IQR 51.0-63.8], 60% women), higher physical activity was associated with reduced incidence of VaD (adjusted HR 0.65, 95% CI 0.49-0.87), but not AD nor all-cause dementia. These findings were also independent of APOE-ε4 genotype. In AD mice, voluntary running did not improve memory, amyloid-β, or synaptic proteins. CONCLUSIONS:Our results indicate that physical activity in midlife is associated with lower incidence of VaD. Using three different study designs, we found no significant association between physical activity and subsequent development of AD.
Project description:Recent pathological studies report vascular pathology in clinically diagnosed Alzheimer's disease (AD) and AD pathology in clinically diagnosed vascular dementia (VaD). We compared magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures of vascular brain injury (white matter hyperintensities [WMH] and infarcts) with neurodegenerative measures (medial-temporal atrophy [MTA] and cerebral atrophy [CA]) in clinically diagnosed subjects with either AD or VaD. We then examined relationships among these measures within and between the two groups and their relationship to mental status.Semi-quantitative MRI measures were derived from blind ratings of MRI scans obtained from participants in a research clinical trial of VaD (N = 694) and a genetic epidemiological study of AD (N = 655).CA was similar in the two groups, but differences in the mean of MTA and WMH were pronounced. Infarcts were significantly associated with CA in VaD but not in AD; MTA and WMH were associated with CA in both. WMH was associated with MTA in both groups; however, MRI infarcts were associated with MTA in VaD but not with MTA in AD patients. MTA was strongly associated with Mini-Mental State Examination scores in both groups, whereas evidence of a modest association between WMH and Mini-Mental State Examination scores was seen in VaD patients.MRI data from two dementia cohorts with differing dementia etiologies find that the clinical consequences of dementia are most strongly associated with cerebral and medial-temporal atrophy, suggesting that tissue loss is the major substrate of the dementia syndrome.
Project description:The aging rate in Taiwan is the second highest in the world. As the population ages quickly, the prevalence of dementia increases rapidly. There are some studies that have explored the association between air pollution and cognitive decline, but the association between air pollution and dementia has not been directly evaluated.This was a case-control study comprising 249 Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, 125 vascular dementia (VaD) patients, and 497 controls from three teaching hospitals in northern Taiwan from 2007 to 2010. Data of particulate matter <10 ?m in diameter (PM10) and ozone were obtained from the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration for 12 and 14 years, respectively. Blood samples were collected to determine the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ?4 haplotype. Bayesian maximum entropy was used to estimate the individual exposure level of air pollutants, which was then tertiled for analysis. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence intervals between the association of PM10 and ozone exposure with AD and VaD risk.The highest tertile of PM10 (?49.23 ?g/m(3)) or ozone (?21.56 ppb) exposure was associated with increased AD risk (highest vs. lowest tertile of PM10: AOR = 4.17; highest vs. lowest tertile of ozone: AOR = 2.00). Similar finding was observed for VaD. The association with AD and VaD risk remained for the highest tertile PM10 exposure after stratification by APOE ?4 status and gender.Long-term exposure to the highest tertile of PM10 or ozone was significantly associated with an increased risk of AD and VaD.
Project description:Alzheimer disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) together represent the majority of dementia cases. Since their neuropsychological profiles often overlap and white matter lesions are observed in elderly subjects including AD, differentiating between VaD and AD can be difficult. Characterization of these different forms of dementia would benefit by identification of quantitative imaging biomarkers specifically sensitive to AD or VaD. Parameters of microstructural abnormalities derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have been reported to be helpful in differentiating between dementias, but only few studies have used them to compare AD and VaD with a voxelwise approach. Therefore, in this study a whole brain statistical analysis was performed on DTI data of 93 subjects (31 AD, 27 VaD, and 35 healthy controls-HC) to identify specific white matter patterns of alteration in patients affected by VaD and AD with respect to HC. Parahippocampal tracts were found to be mainly affected in AD, while VaD showed more spread white matter damages associated with thalamic radiations involvement. The genu of the corpus callosum was predominantly affected in VaD, while the splenium was predominantly affected in AD revealing the existence of specific patterns of alteration useful in distinguishing between VaD and AD. Therefore, DTI parameters of these regions could be informative to understand the pathogenesis and support the etiological diagnosis of dementia. Further studies on larger cohorts of subjects, characterized for brain amyloidosis, will allow to confirm and to integrate the present findings and, furthermore, to elucidate the mechanisms of mixed dementia. These steps will be essential to translate these advances to clinical practice.
Project description:To investigate whether cancer is associated with Alzheimer disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD).Cox proportional hazards models were used to test associations between prevalent dementia and risk of future cancer hospitalization, and associations between prevalent cancer and risk of subsequent dementia. Participants in the Cardiovascular Health Study-Cognition Substudy, a prospective cohort study, aged 65 years or older (n = 3,020) were followed a mean of 5.4 years for dementia and 8.3 years for cancer.The presence of any AD (pure AD + mixed AD/VaD; hazard ratio [HR] = 0.41, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.20-0.84) and pure AD (HR = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.12-0.86) was associated with a reduced risk of future cancer hospitalization, adjusted for demographic factors, smoking, obesity, and physical activity. No significant associations were found between dementia at baseline and rate of cancer hospitalizations for participants with diagnoses of VaD. Prevalent cancer was associated with reduced risk of any AD (HR = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.52-0.997) and pure AD (HR = 0.57; 95% CI = 0.36-0.90) among white subjects after adjustment for demographics, number of APOE epsilon4 alleles, hypertension, diabetes, and coronary heart disease; the opposite association was found among minorities, but the sample size was too small to provide stable estimates. No significant association was found between cancer and subsequent development of VaD.In white older adults, prevalent Alzheimer disease (AD) was longitudinally associated with a reduced risk of cancer, and a history of cancer was associated with a reduced risk of AD. Together with other work showing associations between cancer and Parkinson disease, these findings suggest the possibility that cancer is linked to neurodegeneration.
Project description:Introduction:Medin, an aging-associated amyloidogenic protein, induces cerebrovascular dysfunction and inflammation. We investigated the relationship between cerebrovascular medin and Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD). Methods:Cerebral arteriole medin was quantified from 91 brain donors with no dementia (ND), AD, VaD, or combined AD and VaD. Correlation analyses evaluated the relationship between arteriole medin, and plaques, tangles, or white matter lesions (WML). Receiver operating characteristic and regression analyses assessed whether medin is predictive of AD or VaD versus other cerebrovascular pathologies (circle of Willis [CoW] atherosclerosis and cerebral amyloid angiopathy [CAA]). Results:Arteriole medin was higher in those with AD, VaD, or combined AD/VaD versus ND (P < .05), and correlated with tangle, plaque, and WML, but not CAA or CoW atherosclerosis. Among cerebrovascular pathologies, medin was the strongest predictor of AD diagnosis, whereas CoW atherosclerosis and arteriole medin were predictors of VaD. Discussion:Cerebral arteriole medin is associated with and could be a potential novel risk factor or biomarker for AD and VaD.