Development and Evaluation of Isothermal Amplification Methods for Rapid Detection of Lethal Amanita Species.
ABSTRACT: In the present work, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and hyperbranched rolling circle amplification (HRCA) methods were developed to detect and distinguish different lethal Amanita species. Specific LAMP primers and HRCA padlock probes for species-specific identification and a set of universal LAMP primers for lethal Amanita species were designed and tested. The results indicated that the LAMP-based assay was able to discriminate introclade lethal Amanita species but was not able to discriminate intraclade species perfectly, while the HRCA-based assay could discriminate whether introclade or intraclade species. The universal LAMP primers were positive for 10 lethal species of Amanita section Phalloideae and negative for 16 species of Amanita outside section Phalloideae. The detection limits of LMAP and HRCA were 10 and 1 pg of genomic DNA per reaction, respectively. In conclusion, the two methods could be rapid, specific, sensitive and low-cost tools for the identification of lethal Amanita species.
Project description:Amanita ballerina and A. brunneitoxicaria spp. nov. are introduced from Thailand. Amanita fuligineoides is also reported for the first time from Thailand, increasing the known distribution of this taxon. Together, those findings support our view that many taxa are yet to be discovered in the region. While both morphological characters and a multiple-gene phylogeny clearly place A. brunneitoxicaria and A. fuligineoides in sect. Phalloideae (Fr.) Quél., the placement of A. ballerina is problematic. On the one hand, the morphology of A. ballerina shows clear affinities with stirps Limbatula of sect. Lepidella. On the other hand, in a multiple-gene phylogeny including taxa of all sections in subg. Lepidella, A. ballerina and two other species, including A. zangii, form a well-supported clade sister to the Phalloideae sensu Bas 1969, which include the lethal "death caps" and "destroying angels". Together, the A. ballerina-A. zangii clade and the Phalloideae sensu Bas 1969 also form a well-supported clade. We therefore screened for two of the most notorious toxins by HPLC-MS analysis of methanolic extracts from the basidiomata. Interestingly, neither ?-amanitin nor phalloidin was found in A. ballerina, whereas Amanita fuligineoides was confirmed to contain both ?-amanitin and phalloidin, and A. brunneitoxicaria contained only ?-amanitin. Together with unique morphological characteristics, the position in the phylogeny indicates that A. ballerina is either an important link in the evolution of the deadly Amanita sect. Phalloideae species, or a member of a new section also including A. zangii.
Project description:Many species of <i>Amanita</i> sect. <i>Phalloideae</i> (Fr.) Quél. cause death of people after consumption around the world. <i>Amanita albolimbata</i>, a new species of <i>A.</i> sect. <i>Phalloideae</i> from Benin, is described here. The taxon represents the first lethal species of <i>A.</i> sect. <i>Phalloideae</i> known from Benin. Morphology and molecular phylogenetic analyses based on five genes (ITS, nrLSU, <i>rpb2</i>, <i>tef1-</i>?, and ?<i>-tubulin</i>) revealed that <i>A. albolimbata</i> is a distinct species. The species is characterized by its smooth, white pileus sometimes covered by a patchy volval remnant, a bulbous stipe with a white limbate volva, broadly ellipsoid to ellipsoid, amyloid basidiospores, and abundant inflated cells in the volva. Screening for the most notorious toxins by liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry revealed the presence of ?-amanitin, ?-amanitin, and phallacidin in <i>A. albolimbata</i>.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Lethal amanitas (Amanita section Phalloideae) are a group of wild, fatal mushrooms causing many poisoning cases worldwide. However, the diversity and evolutionary history of these lethal mushrooms remain poorly known due to the limited sampling and insufficient gene fragments employed for phylogenetic analyses. In this study, five gene loci (nrLSU, ITS, rpb2, ef1-? and ?-tubulin) with a widely geographic sampling from East and South Asia, Europe, North and Central America, South Africa and Australia were analysed with maximum-likelihood, maximum-parsimony and Bayesian inference methods. Biochemical analyses were also conducted with intention to detect amatoxins and phalloidin in 14 representative samples. RESULT:Lethal amanitas were robustly supported to be a monophyletic group after excluding five species that were provisionally defined as lethal amanitas based on morphological studies. In lethal amanitas, 28 phylogenetic species were recognised by integrating molecular phylogenetic analyses with morphological studies, and 14 of them represented putatively new species. The biochemical analyses indicated a single origin of cyclic peptide toxins (amatoxins and phalloidin) within Amanita and suggested that this kind of toxins seemed to be a synapomorphy of lethal amanitas. Molecular dating through BEAST and biogeographic analyses with LAGRANGE and RASP indicated that lethal amanitas most likely originated in the Palaeotropics with the present crown group dated around 64.92 Mya in the early Paleocene, and the East Asia-eastern North America or Eurasia-North America-Central America disjunct distribution patterns were primarily established during the middle Oligocene to Miocene. CONCLUSION:The cryptic diversity found in this study indicates that the species diversity of lethal amanitas is strongly underestimated under the current taxonomy. The intercontinental sister species or sister groups relationships among East Asia and eastern North America or Eurasia-North America-Central America within lethal amanitas are best explained by the diversification model of Palaeotropical origin, dispersal via the Bering Land Bridge, followed by regional vicariance speciation resulting from climate change during the middle Oligocene to the present. These findings indicate the importance of both dispersal and vicariance in shaping the intercontinental distributions of these ectomycorrhizal fungi.
Project description:The cyclic peptide toxins of Amanita mushrooms, such as ?-amanitin and phalloidin, are encoded by the "MSDIN" gene family and ribosomally biosynthesized. Based on partial genome sequence and PCR analysis, some members of the MSDIN family were previously identified in Amanita bisporigera, and several other members are known from other species of Amanita. However, the complete complement in any one species, and hence the genetic capacity for these fungi to make cyclic peptides, remains unknown.Draft genome sequences of two cyclic peptide-producing mushrooms, the "Death Cap" A. phalloides and the "Destroying Angel" A. bisporigera, were obtained. Each species has ~30 MSDIN genes, most of which are predicted to encode unknown cyclic peptides. Some MSDIN genes were duplicated in one or the other species, but only three were common to both species. A gene encoding cycloamanide B, a previously described nontoxic cyclic heptapeptide, was also present in A. phalloides, but genes for antamanide and cycloamanides A, C, and D were not. In A. bisporigera, RNA expression was observed for 20 of the MSDIN family members. Based on their predicted sequences, novel cyclic peptides were searched for by LC/MS/MS in extracts of A. phalloides. The presence of two cyclic peptides, named cycloamanides E and F with structures cyclo(SFFFPVP) and cyclo(IVGILGLP), was thereby demonstrated. Of the MSDIN genes reported earlier from another specimen of A. bisporigera, 9 of 14 were not found in the current genome assembly. Differences between previous and current results for the complement of MSDIN genes and cyclic peptides in the two fungi probably represents natural variation among geographically dispersed isolates of A. phalloides and among the members of the poorly defined A. bisporigera species complex. Both A. phalloides and A. bisporigera contain two prolyl oligopeptidase genes, one of which (POPB) is probably dedicated to cyclic peptide biosynthesis as it is in Galerina marginata.The MSDIN gene family has expanded and diverged rapidly in Amanita section Phalloideae. Together, A. bisporigera and A. phalloides are predicted to have the capacity to make more than 50 cyclic hexa-, hepta-, octa-, nona- and decapeptides.
Project description:Amanita phalloides, colloquially known as the "death cap," belongs to the Phalloideae section of the Amanita family of mushrooms and is responsible for most deaths following ingestion of foraged mushrooms worldwide (1). On November 28, 2016, members of the Bay Area Mycological Society notified personnel at the California Poison Control System (CPCS) of an unusually large A. phalloides bloom in the greater San Francisco Bay Area, coincident with the abundant rainfall and recent warm weather. Five days later, CPCS received notification of the first human A. phalloides poisoning of the season. Over the following 2 weeks, CPCS was notified of an additional 13 cases of hepatotoxicity resulting from A. phalloides ingestion. In the past few years before this outbreak, CPCS received reports of only a few mushroom poisoning cases per year. A summary of 14 reported cases is presented here. Data extracted from patient medical charts revealed a pattern of delayed gastrointestinal manifestations of intoxication leading to dehydration and hepatotoxicity. Three patients received liver transplants and all but one recovered completely. The morbidity and potential lethality associated with A. phalloides ingestion are serious public health concerns and warrant medical provider education and dissemination of information cautioning against consuming foraged wild mushrooms.
Project description:Amatoxins, the lethal constituents of poisonous mushrooms in the genus Amanita, are bicyclic octapeptides. Two genes in A. bisporigera, AMA1 and PHA1, directly encode alpha-amanitin, an amatoxin, and the related bicyclic heptapeptide phallacidin, a phallotoxin, indicating that these compounds are synthesized on ribosomes and not by nonribosomal peptide synthetases. alpha-Amanitin and phallacidin are synthesized as proproteins of 35 and 34 amino acids, respectively, from which they are predicted to be cleaved by a prolyl oligopeptidase. AMA1 and PHA1 are present in other toxic species of Amanita section Phalloidae but are absent from nontoxic species in other sections. The genomes of A. bisporigera and A. phalloides contain multiple sequences related to AMA1 and PHA1. The predicted protein products of this family of genes are characterized by a hypervariable "toxin" region capable of encoding a wide variety of peptides of 7-10 amino acids flanked by conserved sequences. Our results suggest that these fungi have a broad capacity to synthesize cyclic peptides on ribosomes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Amanitin-producing mushrooms, mainly distributed in the genera Amanita, Galerina and Lepiota, possess MSDIN gene family for the biosynthesis of many cyclopeptides catalysed by prolyl oligopeptidase (POP). Recently, transcriptome sequencing has proven to be an efficient way to mine MSDIN and POP genes in these lethal mushrooms. Thus far, only A. palloides and A. bisporigera from North America and A. exitialis and A. rimosa from Asia have been studied based on transcriptome analysis. However, the MSDIN and POP genes of many amanitin-producing mushrooms in China remain unstudied; hence, the transcriptomes of these speices deserve to be analysed. RESULTS:In this study, the MSDIN and POP genes from ten Amanita species, two Galerina species and Lepiota venenata were studied and the phylogenetic relationships of their MSDIN and POP genes were analysed. Through transcriptome sequencing and PCR cloning, 19 POP genes and 151 MSDIN genes predicted to encode 98 non-duplicated cyclopeptides, including ?-amanitin, ?-amanitin, phallacidin, phalloidin and 94 unknown peptides, were found in these species. Phylogenetic analysis showed that (1) MSDIN genes generally clustered depending on the taxonomy of the genus, while Amanita MSDIN genes clustered depending on the chemical substance; and (2) the POPA genes of Amanita, Galerina and Lepiota clustered and were separated into three different groups, but the POPB genes of the three distinct genera were clustered in a highly supported monophyletic group. CONCLUSIONS:These results indicate that lethal Amanita species have the genetic capacity to produce numerous cyclopeptides, most of which are unknown, while lethal Galerina and Lepiota species seem to only have the genetic capacity to produce ?-amanitin. Additionally, the POPB phylogeny of Amanita, Galerina and Lepiota conflicts with the taxonomic status of the three genera, suggesting that underlying horizontal gene transfer has occurred among these three genera.
Project description:Taraxacum formosanum (TF) is a medicinal plant used as an important component of health drinks in Taiwan. In this study, a rapid, sensitive and specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for authenticating TF was established. A set of four specific LAMP primers was designed based on the nucleotide sequence of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) of TF. LAMP amplicons were successfully amplified and detected when purified genomic DNA of TF was added in the LAMP reaction under isothermal condition (65 °C) within 45 min. These specific LAMP primers have high specificity and can accurately discriminate Taraxacum formosanum from other adulterant plants; 1 pg of genomic DNA was determined to be the detection limit of the LAMP assay. In conclusion, using this novel approach, TF and its misused plant samples obtained from herbal tea markets were easily identified and discriminated by LAMP assay for quality control.
Project description:Here we present a visual reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay for detecting the gene encoding the ?B major outer-capsid protein of novel duck reovirus (NDRV). A set of primers, composed of two outer primers, two inner primers and two loop primers, was designed based on the gene of interest. The LAMP reaction was conducted in a traditional laboratory water bath at 65?°C for 50?min. We compared the performance of calcein/Mn2+ and SYBR Green I dyes, as well as electrophoresis on agarose gel stained with GoldView nucleic acid dye to detect the RT-LAMP-amplified products and all assays could be employed to discriminate between positive and negative specimens in visible or UV light. Our data showed that there is no cross-reaction with other viruses and the RT-LAMP technique displayed high sensitivity for detecting NDRV with a minimal detection limit of 200 fg RNA input. This assay was more sensitive than conventional PCR in detecting NDRV both in natural and experimental infection. In conclusion, the RT-LAMP technique was remarkably sensitive, specific, rapid, simple and profitable for the identification of NDRV.
Project description:Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a nucleic acid method which has been used to identify mycobacteria including Mycobacterium tuberculosis in clinical microbiology laboratory and point of care settings. Previously published LAMP protocols for detection of mycobacterial species used conventional specific primer and targeted the 16S rRNA, gyrB, and insertion sequence genes. We developed and evaluated a LAMP assay targeting a mycobacterial rpoB gene conserved sequence and incorporating degenerate primers. This assay allowed consensus detection of mycobacterial species from pure culture, clinical respiratory tract samples, and mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT) liquid-based culture medium. A panel of twenty mycobacterial species were successfully detected at detection thresholds of 102 CFU/mL and 103 CFU/mL when respectively performed on pure culture suspension or sputum and MGIT broth. The inclusion of degenerate bases in LAMP primers increased the diversity of mycobacterial species identified by the assay without negatively affecting analytical sensitivity. LAMP-based consensus detection of multiple pathogens can be achieved with degenerate primers therefore allowing the design of rapid multi-disease screening assays. Despite high analytical sensitivity, species specificity and the advantageous operational characteristics of LAMP over PCR, challenges such as potential ambiguity in visual interpretation of results and occasional non-specific amplification precludes the implementation of novel LAMP assay in routine diagnostics both in centralized and point-of-care laboratory.