The "Utility" of Highly Toxic Marine-Sourced Compounds.
ABSTRACT: Currently a few compounds isolated from marine sources have become drugs, mainly directed towards cancer and pain. Compounds from marine sources have exquisite potencies against eukaryotic cells, as they act as protective agents against attack by predators in the marine environment. Their toxicities act as a "double-edged sword" as they are often too toxic for direct use in humans and thus have to be chemically modified. By linking suitably modified compounds to monoclonal antibodies directed against specific epitopes in mammalian cancer cells, they can be delivered to a specific cell type in humans. This review updates and extends an article published in early 2017, demonstrating how by careful chemical modifications, highly toxic compounds, frequently peptidic in nature, can be utilized as antitumor drug candidates. The antibody-drug- conjugates (ADCs) discussed are those that are currently in clinical trials listed in the NIH Clinical Trials Registry as, "currently active, recruiting or in some cases, recently completed". There are also some ADCs discussed that are at the advanced preclinical stage, that in some cases, are repurposing current drug entities, and the review finishes with a short discussion of the aplyronines as potential candidate warheads as a result of scalable synthetic processes.
Project description:The marine habitat has produced a significant number of very potent marine-derived agents that have the potential to inhibit the growth of human tumor cells in vitro and, in a number of cases, in both in vivo murine models and in humans. Although many agents have entered clinical trials in cancer, to date, only Cytarabine, Yondelis® (ET743), Eribulin (a synthetic derivative based on the structure of halichondrin B), and the dolastatin 10 derivative, monomethylauristatin E (MMAE or vedotin) as a warhead, have been approved for use in humans (Adcetris®). In this review, we show the compounds derived from marine sources that are currently in clinical trials against cancer. We have included brief discussions of the approved agents, where they are in trials to extend their initial approved activity (a common practice once an agent is approved), and have also included an extensive discussion of the use of auristatin derivatives as warheads, plus an area that has rarely been covered, the use of marine-derived agents to ameliorate the pain from cancers in humans, and to act as an adjuvant in immunological therapies.
Project description:Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are emerging as effective tools in cancer therapy, combining the antibody's exquisite specificity for the target antigen-expressing cancer cell together with the cytotoxic potency of the payload. Much success stems from the rational design of "toxic warheads", chemically linked to antibodies, and from fine-tuning the intricate properties of chemical linkers. Here, we focus on the antibody moiety of ADCs, dissecting the impact of Fab, linkers, isotype and Fc structure on the anti-tumoral and immune-activating functions of ADCs. Novel design approaches informed by antibody structural attributes present opportunities that may contribute to the success of next generation ADCs.
Project description:Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) represent a new dimension of anticancer chemotherapeutics, with warheads to date generally involving either antitubulin or DNA-directed agents to achieve low-to sub-nanomolar potency. However, other potent cytotoxins working by different pharmacological mechanisms are under investigation, such as ?,?-epoxyketone based proteasome inhibitors. These proteasome active agents are an emerging class of anticancer drug that possesses ultra-potent cytotoxicity to some cancer cell lines. The carmaphycins are representatives of this latter class that we isolated and characterized from a marine cyanobacterium, and these as well as several synthetic analogues exhibit this level of potency. In the current work, we investigated the use of these highly potent cytotoxic compounds as warheads in the design of novel ADCs. We designed and synthesized a library of carmaphycin B analogues that contain amine handles, enabling their attachment to an antibody linker. The basicity of these incorporated amine handles was shown to strongly affect their cytotoxic properties. Linear amines resulted in the greatest reduction in cytotoxicity whereas less basic aromatic amines retained potent activity as demonstrated by a 4-sulfonylaniline derivative. These investigations resulted in identifying the P2 residue in the carmaphycins as the most suitable site for linker attachment point, and hence, we synthesized a highly potent analogue of carmaphycin B that contained a 4-sulfonylaniline handle as an attachment point for the linker antibody.
Project description:We describe here two novel antibody-drug conjugates loaded with the HDAC inhibitor ST7612AA1 (IC<sub>50</sub> equal to 0.07 ?M on NCI-H460 cells), a thiol-based molecule with a moderate toxicity <i>in vivo</i>. Two payloads were prepared using cleavable and non-cleavable linkers. After anchoring to cetuximab through amide bond with lysines, the resulting HDAC inhibitor-antibody conjugates showed ability to recognize EGFR and efficient internalization in tumor cells. Both ADCs induced sensible increment of histones 3 and 4 and alpha-tubulin acetylation. Animal models of human solid tumors showed high anti-tumor efficacy of the conjugates without the toxicity generally observed with traditional ADCs delivering highly potent cytotoxic drugs. These compounds, the first ADCs charged with not highly cytotoxic warheads, are potentially suitable for epigenetic modulation, extending the ADC strategy to the targeted delivery of HDAC inhibitors with many possible therapeutic applications beyond cancer.
Project description:Targeting the tumor vasculature with antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) is a promising anti-cancer strategy that in order to be realized must overcome several obstacles, including identification of suitable targets and optimal warheads. Here, we demonstrate that the cell-surface protein CD276/B7-H3 is broadly overexpressed by multiple tumor types on both cancer cells and tumor-infiltrating blood vessels, making it a potentially ideal dual-compartment therapeutic target. In preclinical studies CD276 ADCs armed with a conventional MMAE warhead destroyed CD276-positive cancer cells, but were ineffective against tumor vasculature. In contrast, pyrrolobenzodiazepine-conjugated CD276 ADCs killed both cancer cells and tumor vasculature, eradicating large established tumors and metastases, and improving long-term overall survival. CD276-targeted dual-compartment ablation could aid in the development of highly selective broad-acting anti-cancer therapies.
Project description:A strategy for the preparation of homogeneous antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) containing multiple payloads has been developed. This approach utilizes sequential unmasking of cysteine residues with orthogonal protection to enable site-specific conjugation of each drug. In addition, because the approach utilizes conjugation to native antibody cysteine residues, it is widely applicable and enables high drug loading for improved ADC potency. To highlight the benefits of ADC dual drug delivery, this strategy was applied to the preparation of ADCs containing two classes of auristatin drug-linkers that have differing physiochemical properties and exert complementary anti-cancer activities. Dual-auristatin ADCs imparted activity in cell line and xenograft models that are refractory to ADCs comprised of the individual auristatin components. This work presents a facile method for construction of potent dual-drug ADCs and demonstrates how delivery of multiple cytotoxic warheads can lead to improved ADC activities. Lastly, we anticipate that the conditions utilized herein for orthogonal cysteine unmasking are not restricted to ADCs and can be broadly utilized for site-specific protein modification.
Project description:Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are a class of highly potent biopharmaceutical drugs generated by conjugating cytotoxic drugs with specific monoclonal antibodies through appropriate linkers. Specific antibodies used to guide potent warheads to tumor tissues can effectively reduce undesired side effects of the cytotoxic drugs. An in-depth understanding of antibodies, linkers, conjugation strategies, cytotoxic drugs, and their molecular targets has led to the successful development of several approved ADCs. These ADCs are powerful therapeutics for cancer treatment, enabling wider therapeutic windows, improved pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic properties, and enhanced efficacy. Since tubulin inhibitors are one of the most successful cytotoxic drugs in the ADC armamentarium, this review focuses on the progress in tubulin inhibitor-based ADCs, as well as lessons learned from the unsuccessful ADCs containing tubulin inhibitors. This review should be helpful to facilitate future development of new generations of tubulin inhibitor-based ADCs for cancer therapy.
Project description:Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) represent a novel and promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cancer patients. ADCs target antigens highly expressed on the membrane surface of tumor cells to selectively deliver a cytotoxic drug. Ovarian tumors differentially express tumor-specific antigens, which can be used to guide ADCs. This strategy allows for optimizing tumor targeting while minimizing systemic toxicity compared to classical chemotherapeutic agents. ADCs can be improved by using a cleavable linker allowing the delivery of the toxic payload in surrounding cells not expressing the target protein, therefore acting on heterogeneous tumors with different cell populations. Currently, more than 15 ADCs are under preclinical investigation in ovarian cancer, and some of them have already been tested in early-phase clinical trials with promising results. In this review, we summarize the mechanism of action and the toxicity profile of ADCs and discuss the latest preclinical discoveries and forthcoming applications in ovarian cancer.
Project description:Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are a family of targeted therapeutic agents for the treatment of cancer. ADC development is a rapidly expanding field of research, with over 80 ADCs currently in clinical development and eleven ADCs (nine containing small-molecule payloads and two with biological toxins) approved for use by the FDA. Compared to traditional small-molecule approaches, ADCs offer enhanced targeting of cancer cells along with reduced toxic side effects, making them an attractive prospect in the field of oncology. To this end, this tutorial review aims to serve as a reference material for ADCs and give readers a comprehensive understanding of ADCs; it explores and explains each ADC component (monoclonal antibody, linker moiety and cytotoxic payload) individually, highlights several EMA- and FDA-approved ADCs by way of case studies and offers a brief future perspective on the field of ADC research.
Project description:Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), constructed with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), linkers, and natural cytotoxins, are innovative drugs developed for oncotherapy. Owing to the distinctive advantages of both chemotherapy drugs and antibody drugs, ADCs have obtained enormous success during the past several years. The development of highly specific antibodies, novel marine toxins' applications, and innovative linker technologies all accelerate the rapid R&D of ADCs. Meanwhile, some challenges remain to be solved for future ADCs. For instance, varieties of site-specific conjugation have been proposed for solving the inhomogeneity of DARs (Drug Antibody Ratios). In this review, the usages of various natural toxins, especially marine cytotoxins, and the development strategies for ADCs in the past decade are summarized. Representative ADCs with marine cytotoxins in the pipeline are introduced and characterized with their new features, while perspective comments for future ADCs are proposed.