Glycemic Index of Slowly Digestible Carbohydrate Alone and in Powdered Drink-Mix.
ABSTRACT: Consumer interest in food and beverages with carbohydrates offering steady glucose release and lower glycemic index (GI) continues to rise. Glycemic index is one of the metrics for carbohydrate quality. Slowly digestible carbohydrates (SDC) offer an ingredient solution to improve carbohydrate quality and meet consumer needs. SUSTRATM 2434 slowly digestible carbohydrate is a blend of tapioca flour and corn starch. The study objective was to determine the glycemic index of the SDC ingredient alone and in a powdered drink-mix. In a randomized, single-blind study, heathy adults (n = 14) consumed four test drinks, delivering 50 g available carbohydrates on separate days to measure GI. Participants either consumed dextrose in water (placebo), SDC ingredient in water, SDC drink-mix powder reconstituted in skim milk, or control drink-mix reconstituted in skim milk (without SDC). Post-prandial glucose response was measured over 4 h. SDC exhibited lower GI (0-2 h) and higher steady glucose release (beyond 2 h). SDC alone (GI = 27) and SDC in drink-mix (GI = 30.3) showed significantly lower GI (-27%) compared to dextrose (100) and the control drink-mix (41.5). SUSTRATM 2434 SDC is a low glycemic ingredient, suitable for product innovations with potential for low glycemic and steady glucose release claims.
Project description:Powdered milk products for children (Growing Up Milk Powders or GUMPs) containing added carbohydrates such as glucose and sucrose are now well established in parts of Asia. We surveyed GUMPs in Malaysia and Indonesia to determine the content of added carbohydrates. The ingredient lists and nutrition information panels were used to calculate the percentage of declared carbohydrates contributed by added carbohydrates and a subset of seven products was tested for their glycemic index (GI) and insulin responses in healthy adults. The glycemic load for each product was calculated. In total, 58 products (n = 24 in Malaysia and n = 34 in Indonesia) were surveyed. Added carbohydrate content (excluding fibre) ranged from 0 to 21.5 g per serve. Milk powders without added sources of carbohydrate had similar GI values to standard liquid whole milk. Products containing maltodextrins, corn or glucose syrups increased the GI by more than 2-fold, and glycemic load (GL) by 7-fold compared to milk powders with no added carbohydrates. Insulin responses were significantly but not strongly correlated with glucose responses (r = 0.32, p < 0.006). Children's milk powders containing higher levels of added carbohydrate ingredients elicit higher glucose and insulin responses than liquid or powdered whole milk.
Project description:Plant origin, processing, and domestic preparation may affect the postprandial glycemic response (PGR) of starchy foods. The objective of this study was to examine the possibility of integrating domestically cooked non-cereal starchy foods commonly consumed in Northeast Asia into glycemic management diet, and compare their glycemic characteristics with those of waxy and non-waxy whole grains and starchy beans. In a randomized crossover trial, ten healthy subjects consumed dried lily bulb (LB), lotus seed (LS), adlay (AD), waxy black rice (BR), millet (MI), and adzuki bean (AB), pre-soaked and each cooked for two time durations. Acute PGR tests and in vitro carbohydrate digestion were carried out for each test food. Both the LS and AB meals achieved low glycemic index (GI 21⁻51), while the other starchy foods failed to show significant difference with rice (GI 83⁻109). The hydrolysis indexes of LS and AB were 37.7%⁻61.1%, significantly lower than other test foods. The in vitro tests indicated that pre-soaking resulted in high rapidly digestible starch (RDS) and low resistant starch (RS). Careful choice of whole grain materials, minimized pre-soaking, and moderate cooking may be critical factors for successful postprandial glycemic management for diabetic and pre-diabetic.
Project description:Evidence of the role that dietary carbohydrates (total carbohydrates, dietary fiber, total sugars, dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL)) exerts on insulin levels in adolescents is controversial. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the association between dietary carbohydrates and insulin resistance in adolescents from Chiapas, México. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 217 adolescents. Sociodemographic, anthropometric, dietary and biochemical data were obtained. Total carbohydrates, dietary fiber, total sugars, dietary GI and GL were calculated from 24 h recalls. Two validated cut-off points for the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were used as surrogates of insulin resistance. Fasting insulin levels ? 14.38 ?U/mL were considered as abnormal. Multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to assess the association between tertiles of dietary carbohydrates and insulin resistance or hyperinsulinemia. In our study, adolescents with the highest dietary fiber intake had lower odds of HOMA-IR > 2.97 (OR = 0.34; 95% CI: 0.13-0.93) when adjusted for sex, age, body fat percentage and saturated fatty acids intake. No significant associations were found for the rest of the carbohydrate variables. In summary, high-fiber diets reduce the probability of insulin resistance in adolescents from marginalized areas of Chiapas, México.
Project description:Dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) typically have a positive relationship with obesity and diabetes, which are risk factors for liver cancer. However, studies on their association with liver cancer have yielded inconsistent results. Therefore, we assessed the association of GI, GL, and carbohydrates with liver cancer risk.A total of 72 966 women and 60 207 men from the Shanghai Women's Health Study (SWHS) and the Shanghai Men's Health Study (SMHS) were included for analysis. Food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) data were used to calculate daily dietary GI, GL, and carbohydrate intake. These values were energy adjusted and categorized into quintiles. The hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated with adjustment for potential confounders.After a median follow-up time of 11.2 years for the SWHS and 5.3 years for the SMHS, 139 and 208 incident liver cancer cases were identified in the SWHS and SMHS, respectively. In multivariable Cox regression models, no statistically significant trends by quintile of GI, GL, or carbohydrate intake were observed. Stratification by chronic liver disease/hepatitis, diabetes, or body mass index (BMI) did not alter the findings.There is little evidence that dietary GI, GL, or carbohydrates affect the incidence of liver cancer in this Asian population.
Project description:The study investigated the acute effects of meals containing either salmon or veal in combination with carbohydrates with high or low glycemic index (GI) on diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) (primary endpoint), appetite sensations, and energy intake (EI). Twenty-five overweight men and women ingested four iso-caloric test meals: salmon with mashed potatoes (high GI) (SM), salmon with wholegrain pasta (low GI) (SP), veal with mashed potatoes (VM) and veal with wholegrain pasta (VP). Energy expenditure was measured in the fasting state and six times postprandially for 25 min with 5-min breaks between each measurement. Appetite sensations were measured every 30 min. Blood samples, from arterialized venous blood, were drawn every 20 min until an ad libitum buffet-style lunch was served 3.5 h later. DIT was 40% higher after the SM meal compared to the SP meal (p = 0.002). Prospective food consumption was lower after the SM meal compared with the VP meal (p = 0.01). There were no differences in satiety, hunger, fullness, or ad libitum EI between the test meals (all p > 0.05). In conclusion, salmon with high GI carbohydrates increased DIT compared to salmon with low GI carbohydrates. This indicates that DIT is sensitive to the GI of the carbohydrates after intake of salmon but not veal.
Project description:Increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Asia has prompted the exploration of dietary fibers as an ingredient to attenuate glycemic response (GR). This study aims to compare the effects of replacing 50% of total carbohydrate with soluble corn fiber (SCF) or maltodextrin on the GR and insulin response (IR). In this randomized cross-over study, twenty-two healthy Chinese males aged between 21-60 years were recruited. The participants consumed glucose beverages and four test meals comprising SCF or maltodextrin in glutinous rice or as a drink. Repeated-measure ANOVA was used to compare the incremental area under the curve values of glucose (iAUGC) and insulin (iAUIC) of all the foods. Relative response (RR) of the beverages were also calculated and compared using paired t-test. SCF treatments had significantly lower iAUGC (p-value < 0.05) and iAUIC (p-value < 0.001) as compared to all treatments. Both treatments (rice and beverage) of maltodextrin were not significantly different from glucose (p-value > 0.05). Maltodextrin beverage had significantly increased postprandial GR and insulin secretion by 20% and 40%, respectively, when compared to SCF beverage (p-value < 0.001). This study shows that the inclusion of SCF into the diet is beneficial in controlling the postprandial GR. Replacing total carbohydrates with SCF effectively lowers GR and IR.
Project description:Background. Due to the higher prevalence of obesity and diabetes mellitus (DM), more pregnant women complicated with diabetes are in need of clinical care. Purpose. Compare the effect of including only low glycemic index (GI) carbohydrates (CHO) against all types of CHO on maternal glycemic control and on the maternal and newborn's nutritional status of women with type 2 DM and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods. Women (n = 107, ?29 weeks of gestation) were randomly assigned to one of two nutrition intervention groups: moderate energy and CHO restriction (Group 1: all types of CHO, Group 2: low GI foods). Results. No baseline differences in clinical data were observed. Capillary glucose concentrations throughout pregnancy were similar between groups. Fewer women in Group 2 exceeded weight gain recommendations. Higher risk of prematurity was observed in women in Group 2. No differences in glycemic control were observed between women with type 2 DM and those with GDM. Conclusions. Inclusion of low GI CHO as part of a comprehensive nutrition intervention is equally effective in improving glycemic control as compared to all types of CHO. This strategy had a positive effect in preventing excessive maternal weight gain but increased the risk of prematurity.
Project description:Background: The potential impact of prior meal composition on the postprandial glycemic response and glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) value determinations remains unclear.Objective: We determined the effect of meals that varied in macronutrient composition on the glycemic response and determination of GI and GL values of a subsequent standard test food.Design: Twenty healthy participants underwent 6 test sessions within 12 wk. The subjects received each of 3 isocaloric breakfast meals (i.e., high carbohydrate, high fat, or high protein) on separate days in a random order, which was followed by a standard set of challenges (i.e., white bread and a glucose drink) that were tested on separate days in a random order 4 h thereafter. Each challenge provided 50 g available carbohydrate. Arterialized venous blood was sampled throughout the 2-h postchallenge period. GI, GL, and insulin index (II) values were calculated with the use of the incremental area under the curve (AUCi) method, and serum lipids were determined with the use of standard assays.Results: The consumption of the high-protein breakfast before the white-bread challenge attenuated the rise in the postprandial serum glucose response (P < 0.0001) and resulted in lower glucose AUCi (P < 0.0001), GI (P = 0.0096), and GL (P = 0.0101) values than did the high-carbohydrate and high-fat breakfasts. The high-protein breakfast resulted in a lower insulin AUCi (P = 0.0146) for white bread than did the high-fat breakfast and a lower II value (P = 0.0285) than did the high-carbohydrate breakfast. The 3 breakfasts resulted in similar serum lipid responses to the white-bread challenge.Conclusions: These data indicate that the macronutrient composition of the prior meal influences the glycemic response and the determination of GI and GL values for white bread. Future studies are needed to determine whether the background food macronutrient composition influences mean dietary GI and GL values that are calculated for eating patterns, which may alter the interpretation of the associations between these values and chronic disease risk. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01023646.
Project description:Different types of carbohydrates have diverse glycemic response, thus glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) are used to assess this variation. The impact of dietary GI and GL in all-cause mortality is unknown. The objective of this study was to estimate the association between dietary GI and GL and risk of all-cause mortality in the PREDIMED study.The PREDIMED study is a randomized nutritional intervention trial for primary cardiovascular prevention based on community-dwelling men and women at high risk of cardiovascular disease. Dietary information was collected at baseline and yearly using a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). We assigned GI values of each item by a 5-step methodology, using the International Tables of GI and GL Values. Deaths were ascertained through contact with families and general practitioners, review of medical records and consultation of the National Death Index. Cox regression models were used to estimate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% CI for mortality, according to quartiles of energy-adjusted dietary GI/GL. To assess repeated measures of exposure, we updated GI and GL intakes from the yearly FFQs and used Cox models with time-dependent exposures.We followed 3,583 non-diabetic subjects (4.7 years of follow-up, 123 deaths). As compared to participants in the lowest quartile of baseline dietary GI, those in the highest quartile showed an increased risk of all-cause mortality [HR = 2.15 (95% CI: 1.15-4.04); P for trend = 0.012]. In the repeated-measures analyses using as exposure the yearly updated information on GI, we observed a similar association. Dietary GL was associated with all-cause mortality only when subjects were younger than 75 years.High dietary GI was positively associated with all-cause mortality in elderly population at high cardiovascular risk.
Project description:The consumption of sweetened beverages, refined foods, and pastries has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of depression in longitudinal studies. However, any influence that refined carbohydrates has on mood could be commensurate with their proportion in the overall diet; studies are therefore needed that measure overall intakes of carbohydrate and sugar, glycemic index (GI), and glycemic load.We hypothesized that higher dietary GI and glycemic load would be associated with greater odds of the prevalence and incidence of depression.This was a prospective cohort study to investigate the relations between dietary GI, glycemic load, and other carbohydrate measures (added sugars, total sugars, glucose, sucrose, lactose, fructose, starch, carbohydrate) and depression in postmenopausal women who participated in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study at baseline between 1994 and 1998 (n = 87,618) and at the 3-y follow-up (n = 69,954).We found a progressively higher dietary GI to be associated with increasing odds of incident depression in fully adjusted models (OR for the fifth compared with first quintile: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.37), with the trend being statistically significant (P = 0.0032). Progressively higher consumption of dietary added sugars was also associated with increasing odds of incident depression (OR for the fifth compared with first quintile: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.41; P-trend = 0.0029). Higher consumption of lactose, fiber, nonjuice fruit, and vegetables was significantly associated with lower odds of incident depression, and nonwhole/refined grain consumption was associated with increased odds of depression.The results from this study suggest that high-GI diets could be a risk factor for depression in postmenopausal women. Randomized trials should be undertaken to examine the question of whether diets rich in low-GI foods could serve as treatments and primary preventive measures for depression in postmenopausal women.