Tumor-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Inhibit Natural Killer Cell Function in Pancreatic Cancer.
ABSTRACT: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal malignancies. Tumor-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) induce pre-metastatic niche formation to promote metastasis. We isolated EVs from a highly-metastatic pancreatic cancer cell line and patient-derived primary cancer cells by ultracentrifugation. The protein content of EVs was analyzed by mass spectrometry. The effects of PDAC-derived EVs on natural kill (NK) cells were investigated by flow cytometry. The serum EVs' TGF-?1 levels were quantified by ELISA. We found that integrins were enriched in PDAC-derived EVs. The expression of NKG2D, CD107a, TNF-?, and INF-? in NK cells was significantly downregulated after co-culture with EVs. NK cells also exhibited decreased levels of CD71 and CD98, as well as impaired glucose uptake ability. In addition, NK cell cytotoxicity against pancreatic cancer stem cells was attenuated. Moreover, PDAC-derived EVs induced the phosphorylation of Smad2/3 in NK cells. Serum EVs' TGF-?1 was significantly increased in PDAC patients. Our findings emphasize the immunosuppressive role of PDAC-derived EVs and provide new insights into our understanding of NK cell dysfunction regarding pre-metastatic niche formation in PDAC.
Project description:Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs) are highly metastatic with poor prognosis, mainly due to delayed detection. We hypothesized that intercellular communication is critical for metastatic progression. Here, we show that PDAC-derived exosomes induce liver pre-metastatic niche formation in naive mice and consequently increase liver metastatic burden. Uptake of PDAC-derived exosomes by Kupffer cells caused transforming growth factor ? secretion and upregulation of fibronectin production by hepatic stellate cells. This fibrotic microenvironment enhanced recruitment of bone marrow-derived macrophages. We found that macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) was highly expressed in PDAC-derived exosomes, and its blockade prevented liver pre-metastatic niche formation and metastasis. Compared with patients whose pancreatic tumours did not progress, MIF was markedly higher in exosomes from stage I PDAC patients who later developed liver metastasis. These findings suggest that exosomal MIF primes the liver for metastasis and may be a prognostic marker for the development of PDAC liver metastasis.
Project description:Tumor-secreted extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been identified as mediators of cancer-host intercellular communication and shown to support pre-metastatic niche formation by modulating stromal cells at future metastatic sites. While osteosarcoma, the most common primary malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents, has a high propensity for pulmonary metastases, the interaction of osteosarcoma cells with resident lung cells remains poorly understood. Here, we deliver foundational in vitro evidence that osteosarcoma cell-derived EVs drive myofibroblast/cancer-associated fibroblast differentiation. Human lung fibroblasts displayed increased invasive competence, in addition to increased ?-smooth muscle actin expression and fibronectin production upon EV treatment. Furthermore, we demonstrate, through the use of transforming growth factor beta receptor 1 (TGFBR1) inhibitors and CRISPR-Cas9-mediated knockouts, that TGF?1 present in osteosarcoma cell-derived EVs is responsible for lung fibroblast differentiation. Overall, our study highlights osteosarcoma-derived EVs as novel regulators of lung fibroblast activation and provides mechanistic insight into how osteosarcoma cells can modulate distant cells to potentially support metastatic progression.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cancer cell-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) have previously been shown to contribute to pre-metastatic niche formation. Specifically, aggressive tumors secrete pro-metastatic EVs that travel in the circulation to distant organs to modulate the microenvironment for future metastatic spread. Previous studies have focused on the interface between pro-metastatic EVs and epithelial/endothelial cells in the pre-metastatic niche. However, EV interactions with circulating components such as low-density lipoprotein (LDL) have been overlooked. RESULTS:This study demonstrates that EVs derived from brain metastases cells (Br-EVs) and corresponding regular cancer cells (Reg-EVs) display different interactions with LDL. Specifically, Br-EVs trigger LDL aggregation, and the presence of LDL accelerates Br-EV uptake by monocytes, which are key components in the brain metastatic niche. CONCLUSIONS:Collectively, these data are the first to demonstrate that pro-metastatic EVs display distinct interactions with LDL, which impacts monocyte internalization of EVs.
Project description:Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), which accounts for 96% of all pancreatic cancer cases, is characterized by rapid progression, invasion and metastasis. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-?) signaling is an essential pathway in metastatic progression and microRNAs (miRNA) play central roles in the regulation of various biological and pathologic processes including cancer metastasis. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in regulation of miRNAs and activation of TGF-? signaling in PDAC remain to be established. The results of this study suggested that miR-323-3p expression in PDAC tissues and cell lines was significantly decreased compared to levels in normal pancreatic tissues and primary cultured pancreatic duct epithelial cells. Further investigation revealed that miR-323-3p directly targeted and suppressed SMAD2 and SMAD3, both key components in TGF-? signaling. Lower levels of miR-323-3p predicted poorer prognosis in patients with PDAC. Ectopic overexpression of miR-323-3p significantly inhibited, while silencing of miR-323-3p increased the migration and invasion abilities of PDAC cells in vitro. Moreover, using an in vivo mouse model, we demonstrated that overexpressing of miR-323-3p significantly reduced, while knockdown of miR-323-3p enhanced lung metastatic colonization of PANC-1 cells. Furthermore, miR-323-3p-induced TGF-b signaling inhibition and cell motility suppression were partially rescued by overexpressing of Smad2 and Smad3 in PDAC cells. Our findings suggest that re-expression of miR-323-3p might offer a novel therapeutic target against metastasis in patients with PDAC.
Project description:Extracellular vesicles (EV) are considered as a promising diagnostic tool for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), a disease with a poor 5-year survival that has not improved in the past years. PDAC patient-derived 3D organoids maintain the intratumoral cellular heterogeneity, characteristic for the tumor in vivo.Thus, they represent an ideal in vitro model system to study human cancers. Here we show that the miRNA cargo of EVs from PDAC organoids largely differs among patients. However, we detected a common set of EV miRNAs that were present in matched organoids and blood plasma samples of individual patients. Importantly, the levels of EV miR-21 and miR-195 were higher in PDAC blood EV preparations than in healthy controls, albeit we found no difference compared to chronic pancreatitis (CP) samples. In addition, here we report that the accumulation of collagen I, a characteristic change in the extracellular matrix (ECM) in both CP and PDAC, largely increases EV release from pancreatic ductal organoids. This provides a possible explanation why both CP and PDAC patient-derived plasma samples have an elevated amount of CD63 + EVs. Collectively, we show that PDAC patient-derived organoids represent a highly relevant model to analyze the cargo of tumor cell-derived EVs. Furthermore, we provide evidence that not only driver mutations, but also changes in the ECM may critically modify EV release from pancreatic ductal cells.
Project description:Extracellular vesicles (EVs) like exosomes and shed microvesicles are generated by many different cells. However, among all the cells, cancer cells are now recognized to secrete more EVs than healthy cells. Tumor-derived EVs can be isolated from biofluids such as blood, urine, ascitic fluid, and saliva. Their numerous components (nucleic acids, proteins, and lipids) possess many pleiotropic functions involved in cancer progression. The tumor-derived EVs generated under the influence of tumor microenvironment play distant roles and promote cellular communication by directly interacting with different cells. Moreover, they modulate extracellular matrix remodeling and tumor progression. Tumor-derived EVs are involved in pre-metastatic niche formation, dependent on the EV-associated protein receptors, and in cancer chemoresistance as they transfer drug-resistance-related genes to recipient cells. Recent advances in preclinical and clinical fields suggest their potential use as biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis as well as for drug delivery in cancer. In this Review, we discuss EV characteristics and pro-tumor capacities, and highlight the future crucial impact of tumor-derived EVs in pancreatic cancer diagnosis and prognosis.
Project description:Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the fourth most common cause of cancer death in North America. Activating KRAS mutations and Smad4 loss occur in approximately 90% and 55% of PDAC, respectively. While their roles in the early stages of PDAC development have been confirmed in genetically modified mouse models, their roles in the multistep malignant transformation of human pancreatic duct cells have not been directly demonstrated. Here, we report that Smad4 represents a barrier in KRAS-mediated malignant transformation of the near normal immortalized human pancreatic duct epithelial (HPDE) cell line model. Marked Smad4 downregulation by shRNA in KRAS (G12V) expressing HPDE cells failed to cause tumorigenic transformation. However, KRAS-mediated malignant transformation occurred in a new HPDE-TGF-β resistant (TβR) cell line that completely lacks Smad4 protein expression and is resistant to the mito-inhibitory activity of TGF-β. This transformation resulted in tumor formation and development of metastatic phenotype when the cells were implanted orthotopically into the mouse pancreas. Smad4 restoration re-established TGF-β sensitivity, markedly increased tumor latency by promoting apoptosis, and decreased metastatic potential. These results directly establish the critical combination of the KRAS oncogene and complete Smad4 inactivation in the multi-stage malignant transformation and metastatic progression of normal human HPDE cells.
Project description:Expression of the small GTPase, Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1B (RAC1B), a RAC1-related member of the Rho GTPase family, in tumor tissues of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has been shown previously to correlate positively with patient survival, but the underlying mechanism(s) and the target genes involved have remained elusive. Screening of a panel of established PDAC-derived cell lines by immunoblotting indicated that both RAC1B and Mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3 (SMAD3) were more abundantly expressed in poorly metastatic and well-differentiated lines as opposed to highly metastatic, poorly differentiated ones. Both siRNA-mediated RAC1B knockdown in the transforming growth factor (TGF)-?-sensitive PDAC-derived cell lines, Panc1 and PaCa3, or CRISPR/Cas-mediated knockout of exon 3b of RAC1 in Panc1 cells resulted in a dramatic decrease in the expression of SMAD3. Unexpectedly, the knockdown of SMAD3 reproduced the promigratory activity of a RAC1B knockdown in Panc1 and PaCa3, but not in TGF-?-resistant BxPC3 and Capan1 cells, while forced expression of SMAD3 alone was able to mimic the antimigratory effect of ectopic RAC1B overexpression in Panc1 cells. Moreover, overexpression of SMAD3 was able to rescue Panc1 cells from the RAC1B knockdown-induced increase in cell migration, while knockdown of SMAD3 prevented the RAC1B overexpression-induced decrease in cell migration. Using pharmacological and dominant-negative inhibition of SMAD3 C-terminal phosphorylation, we further show that the migration-inhibiting effect of SMAD3 is independent of its activation by TGF-?. Finally, we provide evidence that the antimigratory program of RAC1B-SMAD3 in Panc1 cells is executed through upregulation of the migration and TGF-? inhibitor, biglycan (BGN). Together, our data suggest that a RAC1B-SMAD3-BGN axis negatively controls cell migration and that SMAD3 can induce antimigratory genes, i.e., BGN independent of its role as a signal transducer for TGF-?. Therefore, targeting this novel pathway for activation is a potential therapeutic strategy in highly metastatic PDAC to interfere with invasion and metastasis.
Project description:microRNAs (miRNA) in extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been investigated as potential biomarkers for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). However, a mixed population of EVs is often obtained using conventional exosome isolation methods for biomarker development. EVs are derived from different cellular processes and present in various sizes, therefore miRNA expression among them is undoubtedly different. We developed a simple protocol utilizing sequential filtration and ultracentrifugation to separate PDAC EVs into three groups, one with an average diameter of more than 220 nm, named operational 3 (OP3); one with average diameters between 100–220 nm, named operational 2 (OP2); and another with average diameters around 100 nm, named operational 1 (OP1)). EVs were isolated from conditioned cell culture media and plasma of human PDAC xenograft mice and early stage PDAC patients, and verified by nanoparticle tracking, western blot, and electronic microscopy. We demonstrate that exosome specific markers are only enriched in the OP1 group. qRT-PCR analysis of miRNA expression in EVs from PDAC cells revealed that expression of miR-196a and miR-1246, two previously identified miRNAs highly enriched in PDAC cell-derived exosomes, is significantly elevated in the OP1 group relative to the other EV groups. This was confirmed using plasma EVs from PDAC xenograft mice and patients with localized PDAC. Our results indicate that OP1 can be utilized for the identification of circulating EV miRNA signatures as potential biomarkers for PDAC.
Project description:BackgroundThe secretion of soluble factors enables communication between tumour cells and the surrounding microenvironment and plays an important role in oncogenesis. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is characterised by a highly reactive microenvironment, harbouring a variety of cell types, including S100A8/S100A9-expressing monocytes. S100A8/S100A9 proteins regulate the behaviour of cancer cells by inducing pre-metastatic cascades associated with cancer spread. The aim of this study was to examine how S100A8/A9 proteins mediate tumour-stroma crosstalk in PDAC.MethodsCytokine profiling of pancreatic cancer cell-derived conditioned media was performed using Bio-Plex Pro 27 Plex Human Cytokine assays. Protein expression and activation of downstream signalling effectors and NF-?B were assessed by western blotting analysis and reporter assays respectively.ResultsStimulation of cultured pancreatic cancer cells with S100A8 and S100A9 increased the secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-8, TNF-?, and FGF. S100A8, but not S100A9 induced PDGF secretion. Conversely, pancreatic cancer cell-derived conditioned media and the individual cytokines, TNF-? and TGF-? induced the expression of S100A8 and S100A9 proteins in the HL-60 monocytic cell line and primary human monocytes, while FGF and IL-8 induced the expression of S100A9 only. S100A8 and S100A9 activated MAPK and NF-?B signalling in pancreatic cancer. This was partially mediated via activation of the receptor of advanced glycosylation end-product (RAGE).ConclusionS100A8 and S100A9 proteins induce specific cytokine secretion from PDAC cells, which in turn enhances the expression of S100A8/A9. This paracrine crosstalk could have implications for PDAC invasiveness and metastatic potential.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (10.1186/s12885-018-5161-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.