A Derivative of Butyric Acid, the Fermentation Metabolite of Staphylococcus epidermidis, Inhibits the Growth of a Staphylococcus aureus Strain Isolated from Atopic Dermatitis Patients.
ABSTRACT: The microbiome is a rich source of metabolites for the development of novel drugs. Butyric acid, for example, is a short-chain fatty acid fermentation metabolite of the skin probiotic bacterium Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis). Glycerol fermentation of S. epidermidis resulted in the production of butyric acid and effectively hindered the growth of a Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) strain isolated from skin lesions of patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) in vitro and in vivo. This approach, however, is unlikely to be therapeutically useful since butyric acid is malodorous and requires a high concentration in the mM range for growth suppression of AD S. aureus. A derivative of butyric acid, BA-NH-NH-BA, was synthesized by conjugation of two butyric acids to both ends of an -NH-O-NH- linker. BA-NH-NH-BA significantly lowered the concentration of butyric acid required to inhibit the growth of AD S. aureus. Like butyric acid, BA-NH-NH-BA functioned as a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor by inducing the acetylation of Histone H3 lysine 9 (AcH3K9) in human keratinocytes. Furthermore, BA-NH-NH-BA ameliorated AD S. aureus-induced production of pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-6 and remarkably reduced the colonization of AD S. aureus in mouse skin. These results describe a novel derivative of a skin microbiome fermentation metabolite that exhibits anti-inflammatory and S. aureus bactericidal activity.
Project description:Pruritus and inflammation associated with accumulation of calcium phosphate (CaP) under the skin are common problems among dialysis patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The role of skin commensal microbiota in the CaP-induced uremic pruritus remains uncharacterized. Skin Cutibacterium acnes (C. acnes) can solubilize CaP by the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as butyric acid, through glucose fermentation. Like butyric acid, the N-[2-(2-Butyrylamino-ethoxy)-ethyl]-butyramide (BA-NH-NH-BA), a butyric acid derivative, remarkably induced acetylation of histone H3 lysine 9 (AcH3K9) in keratinocytes. Topical application of fermenting C. acnes, butyric acid or BA-NH-NH-BA onto mouse skin effectively ameliorated CaP-induced skin itching, interleukin (IL)-6 up-regulation in keratinocytes, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 activation in dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Activation of ERK 1/2 by CaP was markedly reduced in IL-6 knockout mice. Genus Cutibacterium was detected in relatively low abundance in itchy skin of patients with CKD. Our results identify a role for the skin fermenting C. acnes in ameliorating CaP-induced activation of IL-6/p-ERK signaling and resulting skin inflammation. Furthermore, we provide evidence for the potential therapeutic efficacy of BA-NH-NH-BA as a postbiotic for the treatment of uremic pruritus.
Project description:Collagen type I is a key structural component of dermis tissue and is produced by fibroblasts and the extracellular matrix. The skin aging process, which is caused by intrinsic or extrinsic factors, such as natural aging or free radical exposure, greatly reduces collagen expression, thereby leading to obstructed skin elasticity. We investigated the effective fermentation of Cetearyl isononanoate (CIN), a polyethylene glycol (PEG) analog, as a carbon source with the skin probiotic bacterium <i>Staphylococcus epidermidis</i> (<i>S.</i><i>epidermidis</i>) or butyrate, as their fermentation metabolites could noticeably restore collagen expression through phosphorylated extracellular signal regulated kinase (p-ERK) activation in mouse fibroblast cells and skin. Both the in vitro and in vivo knockdown of short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) or free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFaR2) considerably blocked the probiotic effect of <i>S. epidermidis</i> on p-ERK-induced collagen type I induction. These results demonstrate that butyric acid (BA) in the metabolites of fermenting skin probiotic bacteria mediates FFaR2 to induce the synthesis of collagen through p-ERK activation. We hereby imply that metabolites from the probiotic <i>S. epidermidis</i> fermentation of CIN as a potential carbon source could restore impaired collagen in the dermal extracellular matrix (ECM), providing integrity and elasticity to skin.
Project description:Recent creation of a Unified Microbiome Initiative (UMI) has the aim of understanding how microbes interact with each other and with us. When pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus infects the skin, the interplay between S. aureus and skin commensal bacteria occurs. Our previous data revealed that skin commensal bacteria can mediate fermentation against the growth of USA300, a community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus MRSA. By using a fermentation process with solid media on a small scale, we define poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (PEG-DMA) as a selective fermentation initiator which can specifically intensify the probiotic ability of skin commensal Staphylococcus epidermidis bacteria. At least five short-chain fatty acids including acetic, butyric and propionic acids with anti-USA300 activities are produced by PEG-DMA fermentation of S. epidermidis. Furthermore, the S. epidermidis-laden PEG-DMA hydrogels effectively decolonized USA300 in skin wounds in mice. The PEG-DMA and its derivatives may become novel biomaterials to specifically tailor the human skin microbiome against invading pathogens.
Project description:The glycerol fermentation of probiotic Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) in the skin microbiome produced butyric acid in vitro at concentrations in the millimolar range. The exposure of dorsal skin of mice to ultraviolet B (UVB) light provoked a significant increased production of pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-6 cytokine. Topical application of butyric acid alone or S. epidermidis with glycerol remarkably ameliorated the UVB-induced IL-6 production. In vivo knockdown of short-chain fatty acid receptor 2 (FFAR2) in mouse skin considerably blocked the probiotic effect of S. epidermidis on suppression of UVB-induced IL-6 production. These results demonstrate that butyric acid in the metabolites of fermenting skin probiotic bacteria mediates FFAR2 to modulate the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines induced by UVB.
Project description:Acne dysbiosis happens when there is a microbial imbalance of the over-growth of Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) in the acne microbiome. In our previous study, we demonstrated that Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis, a probiotic skin bacterium) can exploit glycerol fermentation to produce short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) which have antimicrobial activities to suppress the growth of P. acnes. Unlike glycerol, sucrose is chosen here as a selective fermentation initiator (SFI) that can specifically intensify the fermentation activity of S. epidermidis, but not P. acnes. A co-culture of P. acnes and fermenting S. epidermidis in the presence of sucrose significantly led to a reduction in the growth of P. acnes. The reduction was abolished when P. acnes was co-cultured with non-fermenting S. epidermidis. Results from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis revealed four SCFAs (acetic acid, butyric acid, lactic acid, and succinic acid) were detectable in the media of S. epidermidis sucrose fermentation. To validate the interference of S. epidermidis sucrose fermentation with P. acnes, mouse ears were injected with both P. acnes and S. epidermidis plus sucrose or phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The level of macrophage-inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and the number of P. acnes in ears injected with two bacteria plus sucrose were considerably lower than those in ears injected with two bacteria plus PBS. Our results demonstrate a precision microbiome approach by using sucrose as a SFI for S. epidermidis, holding future potential as a novel modality to equilibrate dysbiotic acne.
Project description:Interactions between the immune system and skin bacteria are of major importance in the pathophysiology of atopic dermatitis (AD), yet our understanding of them is limited. From a cohort of very young AD children (1 to 3 years old), sensitized to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus allergens (Der p), we conducted culturomic analysis of skin microbiota, cutaneous transcript profiling and quantification of anti-Der p CD4+ T cells. This showed that the presence of S. aureus in inflamed skin of AD patients was associated with a high IgE response, increased expression of inflammatory and Th2/Th22 transcripts and the prevalence of a peripheral Th2 anti-Der p response. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDC) exposed to the S. aureus and S. epidermidis secretomes were found to release pro-inflammatory IFN-? and anti-inflammatory IL-10, respectively. Allogeneic moDC exposed to the S. aureus secretome also induced the proliferation of CD4+ T cells and this effect was counteracted by concurrent exposure to the S. epidermidis secretome. In addition, whereas the S. epidermidis secretome promoted the activity of regulatory T cells (Treg) in suppressing the proliferation of conventional CD4+ T cells, the Treg lost this ability in the presence of the S. aureus secretome. We therefore conclude that S. aureus may cause and promote inflammation in the skin of AD children through concomitant Th2 activation and the silencing of resident Treg cells. Commensals such as S. epidermidis may counteract these effects by inducing the release of IL-10 by skin dendritic cells.
Project description:The heterogeneous course, severity, and treatment responses among patients with atopic dermatitis (AD; eczema) highlight the complexity of this multifactorial disease. Prior studies have used traditional typing methods on cultivated isolates or sequenced a bacterial marker gene to study the skin microbial communities of AD patients. Shotgun metagenomic sequence analysis provides much greater resolution, elucidating multiple levels of microbial community assembly ranging from kingdom to species and strain-level diversification. We analyzed microbial temporal dynamics from a cohort of pediatric AD patients sampled throughout the disease course. Species-level investigation of AD flares showed greater Staphylococcus aureus predominance in patients with more severe disease and Staphylococcus epidermidis predominance in patients with less severe disease. At the strain level, metagenomic sequencing analyses demonstrated clonal S. aureus strains in more severe patients and heterogeneous S. epidermidis strain communities in all patients. To investigate strain-level biological effects of S. aureus, we topically colonized mice with human strains isolated from AD patients and controls. This cutaneous colonization model demonstrated S. aureus strain-specific differences in eliciting skin inflammation and immune signatures characteristic of AD patients. Specifically, S. aureus isolates from AD patients with more severe flares induced epidermal thickening and expansion of cutaneous T helper 2 (TH2) and TH17 cells. Integrating high-resolution sequencing, culturing, and animal models demonstrated how functional differences of staphylococcal strains may contribute to the complexity of AD disease.
Project description:Background: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common inflammatory skin disease with a TH2 immune polarity and is often colonized with Staphylococcus aureus. Despite recent advances in understanding Staphylococcus species infection and the impact of polar TH cytokines on the skin, the interactions between these factors in AD pathology are poorly understood. Methods: AD-related key immune biomarkers were measured by quantitative real-time PCR in human keratinocytes exposed heat-killed S. epidermidis or S. aureus with/without polar T-cell derived cytokines such as IFN-γ (TH1), IL-4/IL-13 (TH2), and IL-22 (TH22). Further analysis was performed by RNA-sequencing to define broader responses in both Staphylococcus species and polar cytokines. The similarity of gene expression patterns in AD skin lesions and stimulated keratinocytes was evaluated by gene-set variation analysis (GSVA). Results: Gene expression analysis exhibited distinct immune responses in keratinocytes depending on individual bacterial or polar cytokine exposure. Besides, numerous genes were synergistically upregulated by the combination exposure of bacteria and polar TH cytokines. Moreover, GSVA revealed that combined exposure of S. aureus and IL-4 + IL-13 exhibited significantly higher correlations with a genomic signature of AD skin lesions than their single exposure or combinations of other polar TH cytokines. Conclusions: Our findings provide novel insights into AD-related transcriptional activation and illustrate a potentially novel pathogenic function of S. aureus and IL-4/IL-13 interactions in AD. Overall design: human keratinocyte mRNA profiles exposed heat-killed Staphylococcus epidermidis or Staphylococcus aureus with/without polarizing T-cell derived cytokines: IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-13, and IL-22.
Project description:The microbiome can promote or disrupt human health by influencing both adaptive and innate immune functions. We tested whether bacteria that normally reside on human skin participate in host defense by killing Staphylococcus aureus, a pathogen commonly found in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) and an important factor that exacerbates this disease. High-throughput screening for antimicrobial activity against S. aureus was performed on isolates of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) collected from the skin of healthy and AD subjects. CoNS strains with antimicrobial activity were common on the normal population but rare on AD subjects. A low frequency of strains with antimicrobial activity correlated with colonization by S. aureus The antimicrobial activity was identified as previously unknown antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) produced by CoNS species including Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus hominis These AMPs were strain-specific, highly potent, selectively killed S. aureus, and synergized with the human AMP LL-37. Application of these CoNS strains to mice confirmed their defense function in vivo relative to application of nonactive strains. Strikingly, reintroduction of antimicrobial CoNS strains to human subjects with AD decreased colonization by S. aureus These findings show how commensal skin bacteria protect against pathogens and demonstrate how dysbiosis of the skin microbiome can lead to disease.
Project description:Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis are two major skin associated bacteria, and Substance P (SP) is a major skin neuropeptide. Since bacteria are known to sense and response to many human hormones, we investigated the effects of SP on Staphylococci virulence in reconstructed human epidermis model and HaCaT keratinocytes. We show that SP is stimulating the virulence of S. aureus and S. epidermidis in a reconstructed human epidermis model. qRT-PCR array analysis of 64 genes expressed by keratinocytes in the response to bacterial infection revealed a potential link between the action of SP on Staphylococci and skin physiopathology. qRT-PCR and direct assay of cathelicidin and human ?-defensin 2 secretion also provided that demonstration that the action of SP on bacteria is independent of antimicrobial peptide expression by keratinocytes. Considering an effect of SP on S. aureus and S. epidermidis, we observed that SP increases the adhesion potential of both bacteria on keratinocytes. However, SP modulates the virulence of S. aureus and S. epidermidis through different mechanisms. The response of S. aureus is associated with an increase in Staphylococcal Enterotoxin C2 (SEC2) production and a reduction of exolipase processing whereas in S. epidermidis the effect of SP appears mediated by a rise in biofilm formation activity. The Thermo unstable ribosomal Elongation factor Ef-Tu was identified as the SP-interacting protein in S. aureus and S. epidermidis. SP appears as an inter-kingdom communication factor involved in the regulation of bacterial virulence and essential for skin microflora homeostasis.