The Recretohalophyte Tamarix TrSOS1 Gene Confers Enhanced Salt Tolerance to Transgenic Hairy Root Composite Cotton Seedlings Exhibiting Virus-Induced Gene Silencing of GhSOS1.
ABSTRACT: The salt overly sensitive 1 (SOS1) gene encodes the plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter, SOS1, that is mainly responsible for extruding Na+ from the cytoplasm and reducing the Na+ content in plants under salt stress and is considered a vital determinant in conferring salt tolerance to the plant. However, studies on the salt tolerance function of the TrSOS1 gene of recretohalophytes, such as Tamarix, are limited. In this work, the effects of salt stress on cotton seedlings transformed with tobacco-rattle-virus-based virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of the endogenous GhSOS1 gene, or Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain K599-mediated TrSOS1-transgenic hairy root composite cotton plants exhibiting VIGS of GhSOS1 were first investigated. Then, with Arabidopsis thaliana AtSOS1 as a reference, differences in the complementation effect of TrSOS1 or GhSOS1 in a yeast mutant were compared under salt treatment. Results showed that compared to empty-vector-transformed plants, GhSOS1-VIGS-transformed cotton plants were more sensitive to salt stress and had reduced growth, insufficient root vigor, and increased Na+ content and Na+/K+ ratio in roots, stems, and leaves. Overexpression of TrSOS1 enhanced the salt tolerance of hairy root composite cotton seedlings exhibiting GhSOS1-VIGS by maintaining higher root vigor and leaf relative water content (RWC), and lower Na+ content and Na+/K+ ratio in roots, stems, and leaves. Transformations of TrSOS1, GhSOS1, or AtSOS1 into yeast NHA1 (Na+/H+ antiporter 1) mutant reduced cellular Na+ content and Na+/K+ ratio, increased K+ level under salt stress, and had good growth complementation in saline conditions. In particular, the ability of TrSOS1 or GhSOS1 to complement the yeast mutant was better than that of AtSOS1. This may indicate that TrSOS1 is an effective substitute and confers enhanced salt tolerance to transgenic hairy root composite cotton seedlings, and even the SOS1 gene from salt-tolerant Tamarix or cotton may have higher efficiency than salt-sensitive Arabidopsis in regulating Na+ efflux, maintaining Na+ and K+ homeostasis, and therefore contributing to stronger salt tolerance.
Project description:A mutation of AtSOS1 (Salt Overly Sensitive 1), a plasma membrane Na(+)/H(+)-antiporter in Arabidopsis thaliana, leads to a salt-sensitive phenotype accompanied by the death of root cells under salt stress. Intracellular events and changes in gene expression were compared during a non-lethal salt stress between the wild type and a representative SOS1 mutant, atsos1-1, by confocal microscopy using ion-specific fluorophores and by quantitative RT-PCR. In addition to the higher accumulation of sodium ions, atsos1-1 showed inhibition of endocytosis, abnormalities in vacuolar shape and function, and changes in intracellular pH compared to the wild type in root tip cells under stress. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed a dramatically faster and higher induction of root-specific Ca(2+) transporters, including several CAXs and CNGCs, and the drastic down-regulation of genes involved in pH-homeostasis and membrane potential maintenance. Differential regulation of genes for functions in intracellular protein trafficking in atsos1-1 was also observed. The results suggested roles of the SOS1 protein, in addition to its function as a Na(+)/H(+) antiporter, whose disruption affected membrane traffic and vacuolar functions possibly by controlling pH homeostasis in root cells.
Project description:SOS1 transporters play an essential role in plant salt tolerance. Although SOS1 is known to encode a plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter, the transport mechanisms by which these transporters contribute to salt tolerance at the level of the whole root are unclear. Gene expression and flux measurements have provided conflicting evidence for the location of SOS1 transporter activity, making it difficult to determine their function. Whether SOS1 transporters load or unload Na+ from the root xylem transpiration stream is also disputed. To address these areas of contention, we applied a mathematical model to answer the question: what is the function of SOS1 transporters in salt-stressed Arabidopsis roots? We used our biophysical model of ion and water transport in a salt-stressed root to simulate a wide range of SOS1 transporter locations in a model Arabidopsis root, providing a level of detail that cannot currently be achieved by experimentation. We compared our simulations with available experimental data to find reasonable parameters for the model and to determine likely locations of SOS1 transporter activity. We found that SOS1 transporters are likely to be operating in at least one tissue of the outer mature root, in the mature stele, and in the epidermis of the root apex. SOS1 transporter activity in the mature outer root cells is essential to maintain low cytosolic Na+ levels in the root and also restricts the uptake of Na+ to the shoot. SOS1 transporters in the stele actively load Na+ into the xylem transpiration stream, enhancing the transport of Na+ and water to the shoot. SOS1 transporters acting in the apex restrict cytosolic Na+ concentrations in the apex but are unable to maintain low cytosolic Na+ levels in the mature root. Our findings suggest that targeted, tissue-specific overexpression or knockout of SOS1 may lead to greater salt tolerance than has been achieved with constitutive gene changes. Tissue-specific changes to the expression of SOS1 could be used to identify the appropriate balance between limiting Na+ uptake to the shoot while maintaining water uptake, potentially leading to enhancements in salt tolerance.
Project description:The Panax ginseng TIP gene PgTIP1 was previously demonstrated to have high water channel activity by its heterologous expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes and in yeast; it also plays a significant role in growth of PgTIP1-transgenic Arabidopsis plants under favorable conditions and has enhanced tolerance toward salt and drought treatment. In this work, we first investigated the physiological effects of heterologous PgTIP1 expression in soybean cotyledon hairy roots or composite plants mediated by Agrobacterium rhizogenes toward enhanced salt tolerance. The PgTIP1-transgenic soybean plants mediated by the pollen tube pathway, represented by the lines N and J11, were analyzed at the physiological and molecular levels for enhanced salt tolerance. The results showed that in terms of root-specific heterologous expression, the PgTIP1-transformed soybean cotyledon hairy roots or composite plants displayed superior salt tolerance compared to the empty vector-transformed ones according to the mitigatory effects of hairy root growth reduction, drop in leaf RWC, and rise in REL under salt stress. Additionally, declines in K+ content, increases in Na+ content and Na+/K+ ratios in the hairy roots, stems, or leaves were effectively alleviated by PgTIP1-transformation, particularly the stems and leaves of composite soybean plants. At the whole plant level, PgTIP1-trasgenic soybean lines were found to possess stronger root vigor, reduced root and leaf cell membrane damage, increased SOD, POD, CAT, and APX activities, steadily increased leaf Tr, RWC, and Pn values, and smaller declines in chlorophyll and carotenoid content when exposed to salt stress compared to wild type. Moreover, the distribution patterns of Na+, K+, and Cl- in the roots, stems, and leaves of salt-stressed transgenic plants were readjusted, in that the absorbed Na+ and Cl- were mainly restricted to the roots to reduce their transport to the shoots, and the transport of root-absorbed K+ to the shoots was simultaneously promoted. PgTIP1 transformation into soybean plants enhanced the expression of some stress-related genes (GmPOD, GmAPX1, GmSOS1, and GmCLC1) in the roots and leaves under salt treatment. This indicates that the causes of enhanced salt tolerance of heterologous PgTIP1-transformed soybean are associated with the positive regulation on water relations, ion homeostasis, and ROS scavenging under salt stress both at root-specific and whole plant levels.
Project description:Salt tolerance in plants is mediated by Na+ extrusion from the cytosol by the plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter SOS1. This is activated in Arabidopsis root by the protein kinase complex SOS2-SOS3 and in Arabidopsis shoot by the protein kinase complex CBL10-SOS2, with SOS2 as a key node in the two pathways. The sos1 mutant is more sensitive than the sos2 mutant, suggesting that other partners may positively regulate SOS1 activity. Arabidopsis has 26 CIPK family proteins of which CIPK8 is the closest homolog to SOS2. It is hypothesized that CIPK8 can activate Na+ extrusion by SOS1 similarly to SOS2. The plasma membrane Na+/H+ exchange activity of transgenic yeast co-expressing CBL10, CIPK8, and SOS1 was higher than that of untransformed and SOS1 transgenic yeast, resulting in a lower Na+ accumulation and a better growth phenotype under salinity. However, CIPK8 could not interact with SOS3, and the co-expression of SOS3, CIPK8, and SOS1 in yeast did not confer a significant salt tolerance phenotype relative to SOS1 transgenic yeast. Interestingly, cipk8 displayed a slower Na+ efflux, a higher Na+ level, and a more sensitive phenotype than wild-type Arabidopsis, but grew better than sos2 under salinity stress. As expected, sos2cipk8 exhibited a more severe salt damage phenotype relative to cipk8 or sos2. Overexpression of CIPK8 in both cipk8 and sos2cipk8 attenuated the salt sensitivity phenotype. These results suggest that CIPK8-mediated activation of SOS1 is CBL10-dependent and SOS3-independent, indicating that CIPK8 and SOS2 activity in shoots is sufficient for regulating Arabidopsis salt tolerance.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Soil salinity adversely affects plant growth and development and disturbs intracellular ion homeostasis resulting cellular toxicity. The Salt Overly Sensitive 1 (SOS1) gene encodes a plasma membrane Na(+)/H(+) antiporter that plays an important role in imparting salt stress tolerance to plants. Here, we report the cloning and characterisation of the SbSOS1 gene from Salicornia brachiata, an extreme halophyte. RESULTS:The SbSOS1 gene is 3774 bp long and encodes a protein of 1159 amino acids. SbSOS1 exhibited a greater level of constitutive expression in roots than in shoots and was further increased by salt stress. Overexpressing the S. brachiata SbSOS1 gene in tobacco conferred high salt tolerance, promoted seed germination and increased root length, shoot length, leaf area, fresh weight, dry weight, relative water content (RWC), chlorophyll, K(+)/Na(+) ratio, membrane stability index, soluble sugar, proline and amino acid content relative to wild type (WT) plants. Transgenic plants exhibited reductions in electrolyte leakage, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and MDA content in response to salt stress, which probably occurred because of reduced cytosolic Na(+) content and oxidative damage. At higher salt stress, transgenic tobacco plants exhibited reduced Na(+) content in root and leaf and higher concentrations in stem and xylem sap relative to WT, which suggests a role of SbSOS1 in Na(+) loading to xylem from root and leaf tissues. Transgenic lines also showed increased K(+) and Ca(2+) content in root tissue compared to WT, which reflect that SbSOS1 indirectly affects the other transporters activity. CONCLUSIONS:Overexpression of SbSOS1 in tobacco conferred a high degree of salt tolerance, enhanced plant growth and altered physiological and biochemical parameters in response to salt stress. In addition to Na(+) efflux outside the plasma membrane, SbSOS1 also helps to maintain variable Na(+) content in different organs and also affect the other transporters activity indirectly. These results broaden the role of SbSOS1 in planta and suggest that this gene could be used to develop salt-tolerant transgenic crops.
Project description:Salt stress is one of the main factors that affect both growth and development of plants. Maintaining K+/Na+ balance in the cytoplasm is important for metabolism as well as salt resistance in plants. In the present study, we monitored the growth (height and diameter) of transgenic Populus alba × P. berolinensis trees (ABJ01) carrying JERF36s gene (a tomato jasmonic/ethylene responsive factors gene) over 4 years, which showed faster growth and significant salt tolerance compared with non-transgenic poplar trees (9#). The expression of NHX1 and SOS1 genes that encode Na+/H+ antiporters in the vacuole and plasma membranes was measured in leaves under NaCl stress. Non-invasive micro-test techniques (NMT) were used to analyse ion flux of Na+, K+, and H+ in the root tip of seedlings under treatment with100 mM NaCl for 7, 15, and 30 days. Results showed that the expression of NHX1 and SOS1 was much higher in ABJ01 compared with 9#, and the Na+ efflux and H+ influx fluxes of root were remarkable higher in ABJ01 than in 9#, but K+ efflux exhibited lower level. All above suggest that salt stress induces NHX1 and SOS1 to a greater expression level in ABJ01, resulting in the accumulation of Na+/H+ antiporter to better maintain K+/Na+ balance in the cytoplasm of this enhanced salt resistant variety. This may help us to better understand the mechanism of transgenic poplars with improving salt tolerance by overexpressing JERF36s and could provide a basis for future breeding programs aimed at improving salt resistance in transgenic poplar.
Project description:Drought and high salinity are key limiting factors for cotton production. Therefore, research is increasingly focused on the underlying stress response mechanisms of cotton. We first identified and cloned a novel gene encoding the 525 amino acids in cotton, namely GhWRKY6. qRT-PCR analysis indicated that GhWRKY6 was induced by NaCl, PEG 6000 and ABA. Analyses of germination rate and root length indicated that overexpression of GhWRKY6 in Arabidopsis resulted in hypersensitivity to ABA, NaCl, and PEG 6000. In contrast, the loss-of-function mutant wrky6 was insensitive and had slightly longer roots than the wild-type did under these treatment conditions. Furthermore, GhWRKY6 overexpression in Arabidopsis modulated salt- and drought-sensitive phenotypes and stomatal aperture by regulating ABA signaling pathways, and reduced plant tolerance to abiotic stress through reactive oxygen species (ROS) enrichment, reduced proline content, and increased electrolytes and malondialdehyde (MDA). The expression levels of a series of ABA-, salt- and drought-related marker genes were altered in overexpression seedlings. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) technology revealed that down-regulation of GhWRKY6 increased salt tolerance in cotton. These results demonstrate that GhWRKY6 is a negative regulator of plant responses to abiotic stress via the ABA signaling pathway.
Project description:Plant salt tolerance can be improved by grafting onto salt-tolerant rootstocks. However, the underlying signaling mechanisms behind this phenomenon remain largely unknown. To address this issue, we used a range of physiological and molecular techniques to study responses of self-grafted and pumpkin-grafted cucumber plants exposed to 75 mM NaCl stress. Pumpkin grafting significantly increased the salt tolerance of cucumber plants, as revealed by higher plant dry weight, chlorophyll content and photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), and lower leaf Na+ content. Salinity stress resulted in a sharp increase in H2O2 production, reaching a peak 3 h after salt treatment in the pumpkin-grafted cucumber. This enhancement was accompanied by elevated relative expression of respiratory burst oxidase homologue (RBOH) genes RbohD and RbohF and a higher NADPH oxidase activity. However, this increase was much delayed in the self-grafted plants, and the difference between the two grafting combinations disappeared after 24 h. The decreased leaf Na+ content of pumpkin-grafted plants was achieved by higher Na+ exclusion in roots, which was driven by the Na+/H+ antiporter energized by the plasma membrane H+-ATPase, as evidenced by the higher plasma membrane H+-ATPase activity and higher transcript levels for PMA and SOS1. In addition, early stomatal closure was also observed in the pumpkin-grafted cucumber plants, reducing water loss and maintaining the plant's hydration status. When pumpkin-grafted plants were pretreated with an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, diphenylene iodonium (DPI), the H2O2 level decreased significantly, to the level found in self-grafted plants, resulting in the loss of the salt tolerance. Inhibition of the NADPH oxidase-mediated H2O2 signaling in the root also abolished a rapid stomatal closure in the pumpkin-grafted plants. We concluded that the pumpkin-grafted cucumber plants increase their salt tolerance via a mechanism involving the root-sourced respiratory burst oxidase homologue-dependent H2O2 production, which enhances Na+ exclusion from the root and promotes an early stomatal closure.
Project description:Crop productivity is greatly affected by soil salinity; therefore, improvement in salinity tolerance of crops is a major goal in salt-tolerant breeding. The Salt Overly Sensitive (SOS) signal-transduction pathway plays a key role in ion homeostasis and salt tolerance in plants. Here, we report that overexpression of Arabidopsis thaliana SOS1+SOS2+SOS3 genes enhanced salt tolerance in tall fescue. The transgenic plants displayed superior growth and accumulated less Na+ and more K+ in roots after 350 mM NaCl treatment. Moreover, Na+ enflux, K+ influx, and Ca2+ influx were higher in the transgenic plants than in the wild-type plants. The activities of the enzyme superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase, and proline content in the transgenic plants were significantly increased; however, the malondialdehyde content decreased in transgenic plants compared to the controls. These results suggested that co-expression of A. thaliana SOS1+SOS2+SOS3 genes enhanced the salt tolerance in transgenic tall fescue.
Project description:The Arabidopsis gene AtNHX1 encodes a vacuolar membrane-bound sodium/proton (Na(+)/H(+)) antiporter that transports Na(+) into the vacuole and exports H(+) into the cytoplasm. The Arabidopsis gene SOS1 encodes a plasma membrane-bound Na(+)/H(+) antiporter that exports Na(+) to the extracellular space and imports H(+) into the plant cell. Plants rely on these enzymes either to keep Na(+) out of the cell or to sequester Na(+) into vacuoles to avoid the toxic level of Na(+) in the cytoplasm. Overexpression of AtNHX1 or SOS1 could improve salt tolerance in transgenic plants, but the improved salt tolerance is limited. NaCl at concentration >200 mM would kill AtNHX1-overexpressing or SOS1-overexpressing plants. Here it is shown that co-overexpressing AtNHX1 and SOS1 could further improve salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, making transgenic Arabidopsis able to tolerate up to 250 mM NaCl treatment. Furthermore, co-overexpression of AtNHX1 and SOS1 could significantly reduce yield loss caused by the combined stresses of heat and salt, confirming the hypothesis that stacked overexpression of two genes could substantially improve tolerance against multiple stresses. This research serves as a proof of concept for improving salt tolerance in other plants including crops.