ABSTRACT: ADP-ribosylation refers to the addition of one or more ADP-ribose groups onto proteins. The attached ADP-ribose monomers or polymers, commonly known as poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR), modulate the activities of the modified substrates or their binding affinities to other proteins. However, progress in this area is hindered by a lack of tools to investigate this protein modification. Here, we describe a new method named ELTA (enzymatic labeling of terminal ADP-ribose) for labeling free or protein-conjugated ADP-ribose monomers and polymers at their 2'-OH termini using the enzyme OAS1 and dATP. When coupled with various dATP analogs (e.g., radioactive, fluorescent, affinity tags), ELTA can be used to explore PAR biology with techniques routinely used to investigate DNA or RNA function. We demonstrate that ELTA enables the biophysical measurements of protein binding to PAR of a defined length, detection of PAR length from proteins and cells, and enrichment of sub-femtomole amounts of ADP-ribosylated peptides from cell lysates.
Project description:Poly(ADP-ribose), or PAR, is a cellular polymer implicated in DNA/RNA metabolism, cell death, and cellular stress response via its role as a post-translational modification, signaling molecule, and scaffolding element. PAR is synthesized by a family of proteins known as poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases, or PARPs, which attach PAR polymers to various amino acids of substrate proteins. The nature of these polymers (large, charged, heterogeneous, base-labile) has made these attachment sites difficult to study by mass spectrometry. Here we propose a new pipeline that allows for the identification of mono(ADP-ribosyl)ation and poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation sites via the enzymatic product of phosphodiesterase-treated ADP-ribose, or phospho(ribose). The power of this method lies in the enrichment potential of phospho(ribose), which we show to be enriched by phosphoproteomic techniques when a neutral buffer, which allows for retention of the base-labile attachment site, is used for elution. Through the identification of PARP-1 in vitro automodification sites as well as endogenous ADP-ribosylation sites from whole cells, we have shown that ADP-ribose can exist on adjacent amino acid residues as well as both lysine and arginine in addition to known acidic modification sites. The universality of this technique has allowed us to show that enrichment of ADP-ribosylated proteins by macrodomain leads to a bias against ADP-ribose modifications conjugated to glutamic acids, suggesting that the macrodomain is either removing or selecting against these distinct protein attachments. Ultimately, the enrichment pipeline presented here offers a universal approach for characterizing the mono- and poly(ADP-ribosyl)ated proteome.
Project description:Modification of eukaryotic proteins is a powerful strategy used by pathogenic bacteria to modulate host cells during infection. Previously, we demonstrated that Helicobacter pylori modify an unidentified protein within mammalian cell lysates in a manner consistent with the action of a bacterial ADP-ribosylating toxin. Here, we identified the modified eukaryotic factor as the abundant nuclear factor poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1), which is important in the pathologies of several disease states typically associated with chronic H. pylori infection. However, rather than being ADP-ribosylated by an H. pylori toxin, the intrinsic poly(ADP-ribosyl) polymerase activity of PARP-1 is activated by a heat- and protease-sensitive H. pylori factor, resulting in automodification of PARP-1 with polymers of poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR). Moreover, during infection of gastric epithelial cells, H. pylori induce intracellular PAR-production by a PARP-1-dependent mechanism. Activation of PARP-1 by a pathogenic bacterium represents a previously unrecognized strategy for modulating host cell signaling during infection.
Project description:The post-translational modification (PTM) and signaling molecule poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) has an impact on diverse biological processes. This PTM is regulated by a series of ADP-ribosyl glycohydrolases (PARG enzymes) that cleave polymers and/or liberate monomers from their protein targets. Existing methods for monitoring these hydrolases rely on detection of the natural substrate, PAR, commonly achieved via radioisotopic labeling. Here we disclose a general substrate for monitoring PARG activity, TFMU-ADPr, which directly reports on total PAR hydrolase activity via release of a fluorophore; this substrate has excellent reactivity, generality (processed by the major PARG enzymes), stability, and usability. A second substrate, TFMU-IDPr, selectively reports on PARG activity only from the enzyme ARH3. Use of these probes in whole-cell lysate experiments has revealed a mechanism by which ARH3 is inhibited by cholera toxin. TFMU-ADPr and TFMU-IDPr are versatile tools for assessing small-molecule inhibitors in vitro and probing the regulation of ADP-ribosyl catabolic enzymes.
Project description:ADP-ribosylation refers to the post-translational modification of protein substrates with monomers or polymers of the small molecule ADP-ribose. ADP-ribosylation is enzymatically regulated and plays roles in cellular processes including DNA repair, nucleic acid metabolism, cell death, cellular stress responses, and antiviral immunity. Recent advances in the field of ADP-ribosylation have led to the development of proteomics approaches to enrich and identify endogenous ADP-ribosylated peptides by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A number of these methods rely on reverse-phase solid-phase extraction as a critical step in preparing cellular peptides for further enrichment steps in proteomics workflows. The anionic ion-pairing reagent trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) is typically used during reverse-phase solid-phase extraction to promote retention of tryptic peptides. Here we report that TFA and other carboxylate ion-pairing reagents are inefficient for reverse-phase solid-phase extraction of ADP-ribosylated peptides. Substitution of TFA with cationic ion-pairing reagents, such as triethylammonium acetate (TEAA), improves recovery of ADP-ribosylated peptides. We further demonstrate that substitution of TFA with TEAA in a proteomics workflow specific for identifying ADP-ribosylated peptides increases identification rates of ADP-ribosylated peptides by LC-MS/MS.
Project description:Reversible post-translational modification by poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) regulates chromatin structure, DNA repair and cell fate in response to genotoxic stress. PAR glycohydrolase (PARG) removes PAR chains from poly ADP-ribosylated proteins to restore protein function and release oligo(ADP-ribose) chains to signal damage. Here we report crystal structures of mammalian PARG and its complex with a substrate mimic that reveal an open substrate-binding site and a unique 'tyrosine clasp' enabling endoglycosidic cleavage of branched PAR chains.
Project description:Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) act as DNA break sensors and catalyze the synthesis of polymers of ADP-ribose (PAR) covalently attached to acceptor proteins at DNA damage sites. It has been demonstrated that both mammalian PARP1 and PARP2 PARylate double-strand break termini in DNA oligonucleotide duplexes in vitro. Here, we show that mammalian PARP2 and PARP3 can PARylate and mono(ADP-ribosyl)ate (MARylate), respectively, 5'- and 3'-terminal phosphate residues at double- and single-strand break termini of a DNA molecule containing multiple strand breaks. PARP3-catalyzed DNA MARylation can be considered a new type of reversible post-replicative DNA modification. According to DNA substrate specificity of PARP3 and PARP2, we propose a putative mechanistic model of PARP-catalyzed strand break-oriented ADP-ribosylation of DNA termini. Notably, PARP-mediated DNA ADP-ribosylation can be more effective than PARPs' auto-ADP-ribosylation depending on the DNA substrates and reaction conditions used. Finally, we show an effective PARP3- or PARP2-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of high-molecular-weight (?3-kb) DNA molecules, PARP-mediated DNA PARylation in cell-free extracts and a persisting signal of anti-PAR antibodies in a serially purified genomic DNA from bleomycin-treated poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase-depleted HeLa cells. These results suggest that certain types of complex DNA breaks can be effectively ADP-ribosylated by PARPs in cellular response to DNA damage.
Project description:Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs/ARTDs) use nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) to catalyse the synthesis of a long branched poly(ADP-ribose) polymer (PAR) attached to the acceptor amino acid residues of nuclear proteins. PARPs act on single- and double-stranded DNA breaks by recruiting DNA repair factors. Here, in in vitro biochemical experiments, we found that the mammalian PARP1 and PARP2 proteins can directly ADP-ribosylate the termini of DNA oligonucleotides. PARP1 preferentially catalysed covalent attachment of ADP-ribose units to the ends of recessed DNA duplexes containing 3'-cordycepin, 5'- and 3'-phosphate and also to 5'-phosphate of a single-stranded oligonucleotide. PARP2 preferentially ADP-ribosylated the nicked/gapped DNA duplexes containing 5'-phosphate at the double-stranded termini. PAR glycohydrolase (PARG) restored native DNA structure by hydrolysing PAR-DNA adducts generated by PARP1 and PARP2. Biochemical and mass spectrometry analyses of the adducts suggested that PARPs utilise DNA termini as an alternative to 2'-hydroxyl of ADP-ribose and protein acceptor residues to catalyse PAR chain initiation either via the 2',1?-O-glycosidic ribose-ribose bond or via phosphodiester bond formation between C1' of ADP-ribose and the phosphate of a terminal deoxyribonucleotide. This new type of post-replicative modification of DNA provides novel insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying biological phenomena of ADP-ribosylation mediated by PARPs.
Project description:Most members of the poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase family, PARP family, have a catalytic activity that involves the transfer of ADP-ribose from a beta-NAD+-molecule to protein acceptors. It was recently discovered by Talhaoui et al. that DNA-dependent PARP1 and PARP2 can also modify DNA. Here, we demonstrate that DNA-dependent PARP3 can modify DNA and form a specific primed structure for further use by the repair proteins. We demonstrated that gapped DNA that was ADP-ribosylated by PARP3 could be ligated to double-stranded DNA by DNA ligases. Moreover, this ADP-ribosylated DNA could serve as a primed DNA substrate for PAR chain elongation by the purified proteins PARP1 and PARP2 as well as by cell-free extracts. We suggest that this ADP-ribose modification can be involved in cellular pathways that are important for cell survival in the process of double-strand break formation.
Project description:Fertilization in sea urchins is followed by the replacement of sperm-specific histones by cleavage-stage histone variants recruited from maternal stores. Such remodelling of zygote chromatin involves a cysteine proteinase that degrades the sperm-specific histones in a selective manner, leaving the maternal cleavage-stage histone variants intact. The mechanism that determines the selectivity of the sperm-histone-selective proteinase (SpH-proteinase) was analysed by focusing on the post-translational modification status of both sets of histones. It has previously been reported that only native cleavage-stage histones are poly(ADP-ribosylated), whereas the sperm-specific histones are not modified. To determine whether the poly(ADP-ribose) moiety afforded protection from degradation, the ADP-ribose polymers were removed from the cleavage-stage histones in vitro; these proteins were then assayed as potential substrates of the SpH-proteinase. Strikingly, the cleavage-stage histone variants were extensively degraded after the enzymic removal of their ADP-ribose moieties. In addition, the SpH cysteine proteinase was not inhibited by isolated poly(ADP-ribose) polymers. Consequently, only poly(ADP-ribosylated) cleavage-stage histone variants are protected from proteolysis. These results demonstrate a novel role for this type of post-translational modification, namely the protection of nuclear proteins against nuclear proteinases after fertilization.
Project description:UNLABELLED:ADP-ribosylation is a posttranslational protein modification in which ADP-ribose is transferred from NAD(+) to specific acceptors to regulate a wide variety of cellular processes. The macro domain is an ancient and highly evolutionarily conserved protein domain widely distributed throughout all kingdoms of life, including viruses. The human TARG1/C6orf130, MacroD1, and MacroD2 proteins can reverse ADP-ribosylation by acting on ADP-ribosylated substrates through the hydrolytic activity of their macro domains. Here, we report that the macro domain from hepatitis E virus (HEV) serves as an ADP-ribose-protein hydrolase for mono-ADP-ribose (MAR) and poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) chain removal (de-MARylation and de-PARylation, respectively) from mono- and poly(ADP)-ribosylated proteins, respectively. The presence of the HEV helicase in cis dramatically increases the binding of the macro domain to poly(ADP-ribose) and stimulates the de-PARylation activity. Abrogation of the latter dramatically decreases replication of an HEV subgenomic replicon. The de-MARylation activity is present in all three pathogenic positive-sense, single-stranded RNA [(+)ssRNA] virus families which carry a macro domain: Coronaviridae (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and human coronavirus 229E), Togaviridae (Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus), and Hepeviridae (HEV), indicating that it might be a significant tropism and/or pathogenic determinant. IMPORTANCE:Protein ADP-ribosylation is a covalent posttranslational modification regulating cellular protein activities in a dynamic fashion to modulate and coordinate a variety of cellular processes. Three viral families, Coronaviridae, Togaviridae, and Hepeviridae, possess macro domains embedded in their polyproteins. Here, we show that viral macro domains reverse cellular ADP-ribosylation, potentially cutting the signal of a viral infection in the cell. Various poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases which are notorious guardians of cellular integrity are demodified by macro domains from members of these virus families. In the case of hepatitis E virus, the adjacent viral helicase domain dramatically increases the binding of the macro domain to PAR and simulates the demodification activity.