Novel non-synonymous mutations of PAX8 in a cohort of Chinese with congenital hypothyroidism.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:The transcription factor paired box 8 (PAX8) was associated with type 2 congenital non-goitrous hypothyroidism (CHNG2), a clinical phenotype of congenital hypothyroidism (CH). Though studied in a few regions with different ethnicities, the incidence of PAX8 mutations varied, even among Chinese cohorts in different regions. This study aimed to identify and characterize PAX8 mutations and explore the prevalence of its mutations in another cohort of CH. METHODS:The 105 unrelated Chinese patients with CH were collected from four major hospitals. Exomes of the 105 samples were sequenced by Hiseq 2000 platform to identify mutations of PAX8 on genomic DNAs extracted from peripheral blood samples. Luciferase reporter assays were used to assess the effects of mutations on the transcription of thyroid peroxidase (TPO). RESULTS:Three PAX8 mutations in four subjects were identified in 105 samples. One variant, rs189229644, was detected in two subjects, and categorized as uncertain significance. The other two missense mutations (275T>C/Ile92Thr and 398G>A/Arg133Gln) were not detected in three large-scale genotyping projects, namely 1000 Genome Project, Exome Aggregation Consortium and GO Exome Sequencing Project. Functional studies for the two mutations revealed that they could impair the transcription ability of PAX8 on one of its target genes, TPO. Therefore, the two mutations were causative for the pathogenesis of CHNG2. After combining the studies of PAX8 mutations, an average frequency of 1.74% (21/1209) could be obtained in Chinese patients with CH. CONCLUSION:The study specifically demonstrates the role of two mutations in impairing the transcription ability of PAX8, which should be considered as pathogenic variants for CH.
Project description:Based on mutations in PAX8 is associated with thyroid dysgenesis. We aim to identify and characterize PAX8 mutations in a large cohort of congenital hypothyroidism(CH) from thyroid dysgenesis in Chinese population.We screened 453 unrelated Chinese patients with CH from thyroid dysgenesis for PAX8 mutations by sequencing the whole coding regions of PAX8 on genomic DNA isolated from blood. Cell transfection assays using various vector constructs and induced mutagenesis as well as electrophoretic mobility shift assays were used to investigate the effects of selected mutations on the transcribing and binding activities of PAX8 at the promoters of target genes for thyroglobulin (TG) and thyroperoxidase (TPO).Five PAX8 mutations were found, yielding a mutation prevalence of 5/453 (1.1%). We selected two mutations in the critical paired domain of PAX8 and generated mutants D94N and G41V. We demonstrated G41V was unable to bind the specific sequence in the promoters of TG and TPO and activate them. D94N could bind to TG and TPO promoters and normally activate the TG promoter transcription but not the TPO promoter transcription. We also demonstrated a dominant negative role of the PAX8 mutants in impairing the function of the wild-type PAX8.We for the first time documented the prevalence and characterized the function of PAX8 mutations in CH in Chinese population. The study specifically demonstrated the role of novel mutations D94N and G41V in impairing the function of PAX8, providing further evidence for genetic PAX8 defects as a disease mechanism in CH.
Project description:The c.2268dup mutation in thyroid peroxidase (TPO) gene was reported to be a founder mutation in Taiwanese patients with dyshormonogenetic congenital hypothyroidism (CH). The functional impact of the mutation is not well documented. In this study, homozygous c.2268dup mutation was detected in two Malaysian-Chinese sisters with goitrous CH. Normal and alternatively spliced TPO mRNA transcripts were present in thyroid tissues of the two sisters. The abnormal transcript contained 34 nucleotides originating from intron 12. The c.2268dup is predicted to generate a premature termination codon (PTC) at position 757 (p.Glu757X). Instead of restoring the normal reading frame, the alternatively spliced transcript has led to another stop codon at position 740 (p.Asp739ValfsX740). The two PTCs are located at 116 and 201 nucleotides upstream of the exons 13/14 junction fulfilling the requirement for a nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD). Quantitative RT-PCR revealed an abundance of unidentified transcripts believed to be associated with the NMD. TPO enzyme activity was not detected in both patients, even though a faint TPO band of about 80?kD was present. In conclusion, the c.2268dup mutation leads to the formation of normal and alternatively spliced TPO mRNA transcripts with a consequential loss of TPO enzymatic activity in Malaysian-Chinese patients with goitrous CH.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Congenital hypothyroidism (CH), the most common neonatal metabolic disorder, is characterized by impaired neurodevelopment. Although several candidate genes have been associated with CH, comprehensive screening of causative genes has been limited. DESIGN AND METHODS:One hundred ten patients with primary CH were recruited in this study. All exons and exon-intron boundaries of 21 candidate genes for CH were analyzed by next-generation sequencing. And the inheritance pattern of causative genes was analyzed by the study of family pedigrees. RESULTS:Our results showed that 57 patients (51.82%) carried biallelic mutations (containing compound heterozygous mutations and homozygous mutations) in six genes (DUOX2, DUOXA2, DUOXA1, TG, TPO and TSHR) involved in thyroid hormone synthesis. Autosomal recessive inheritance of CH caused by mutations in DUOX2, DUOXA2, TG and TPO was confirmed by analysis of 22 family pedigrees. Notably, eight mutations in four genes (FOXE1, NKX2-1, PAX8 and HHEX) that lead to thyroid dysgenesis were identified in eight probands. These mutations were heterozygous in all cases and hypothyroidism was not observed in parents of these probands. CONCLUSIONS:Most cases of congenital hypothyroidism in China were caused by thyroid dyshormonogenesis rather than thyroid dysgenesis. This study identified previously reported causative genes for 57/110 Chinese patients and revealed DUOX2 was the most frequently mutated gene in these patients. Our study expanded the mutation spectrum of CH in Chinese patients, which was significantly different from Western countries.
Project description:The mutations in the dual oxidase 2 (DUOX2) and dual oxidase maturation factor 2 (DUOXA2) genes can cause congenital hypothyroidism (CH). This study reports the pedigree with goitrous congenital hypothyroidism (GCH) due to the coexistence of heterozygous mutations in the DUOX2 and DUOXA2 genes. The two sisters with GCH were diagnosed with CH at neonatal screening and were enrolled in this study. The DUOX2, DUOXA2, and thyroid peroxidase (TPO) genes were considered for genetic defects screening. Family members of the patients and normal controls were also enrolled and evaluated. The two girls harbored compound heterozygous mutations, including a new mutation of c.2654G>T (p.R885L) in the maternal DUOX2 allele and c.738C>G (p.Y246X) in the paternal DUOXA2 allele, that has been previously reported. The germline mutations from the families were consistent with an autosomal recessive inheritance pattern. No mutations in the TPO gene and the controls were observed.
Project description:To review the characteristics of newborn screening of congenital hypothyroidism (CH), we reviewed the newborn screening data, including the levels of blood spot thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and serum TSH and free thyroxine (FT4), of all newborn infants who accepted the newborn screening program during the last 14 years. In total, 437,342 newborn infants underwent CH screening and 192 infants were diagnosed with CH and the incidence of CH was 1:2278. The positive rate of the initial screening was 0.96%, and the positive predictive value was 4.8%. We also designed a target sequencing panel including 13 causative genes: DUOX2, TG, TPO, TSHR, TTF1, TTF2, PAX8, NKX2-5, GNAS, THRA, TSHB, IYD and SLC5A5, to identify the spectrum and prevalence of disease-causing gene mutations in Chinese CH patients. CH-causing genes were detected by targeted next-generation sequencing in 106 CH infants. A total of 132 mutations were identified in 69 cases (65.1%). Of these 132 mutations, 92 (69.70%), 28 (21.21%), and 12 (9.09%) were related to thyroid dyshormonogenesis, thyroid dysgenesis, and thyrotropin resistance, respectively. Mutations in CH-causing genes were found mainly in DUOX2, TG and TSHR, and DUOX2 is the most gene mutation in Chinese CH patients.
Project description:The coexistence of mutations in the dual oxidase maturation factor 2 (DUOXA2) and dual oxidase 2 (DUOX2) genes is rarely identified in congenital hypothyroidism (CH). This study reports a boy with CH due to a novel splice-site mutation in the DUOXA2 gene and a missense mutation in the DUOX2 gene. A four-year-old boy was diagnosed with CH at neonatal screening and was enrolled in this study. The DUOXA2, DUOX2, thyroid peroxidase (TPO), and thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) genes were considered for genetic defects screening. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes, and Sanger sequencing was used to screen the mutations in the exon fragments. Family members of the patient and the controls were also enrolled and evaluated. The boy harbored compound heterozygous mutations including a novel splice-site mutation c.554+5C>T in the maternal DUOXA2 allele and c.2654G>A (p.R885Q) in the paternal DUOX2 allele. The germline mutations from his parents were consistent with an autosomal recessive inheritance pattern. No mutations in the TPO and TSHR genes were detected. A novel splice-site mutation c.554+5C>T in the DUOXA2 gene and a mutation p.R885Q in the DUOX2 gene were identified in a 4-year-old patient with goitrous CH.
Project description:Thyroid dysgenesis (TD) is the most frequent cause of congenital hypothyroidism (CH), but its pathogenesis remains unclear. As a thyroid transcription factor, paired box transcription factor 8 (PAX8) is essential for thyroid organogenesis and development.To screen PAX8 mutations and characterize the features of these mutations in Chinese TD patients.Blood samples were collected from 63 TD patients in Shandong Province, China, and genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes. Exon 3~4 of PAX8 were analyzed by PCR and direct sequencing.Direct sequencing of PAX8 revealed a heterozygous missense mutation (c.155G/C, P.Arg52Pro) in one child with agenesis. Genetic screening of the child's family revealed that the clinically unaffected parents do not carry the mutation, suggesting that the identified sequence change is a de novo mutation.We report a heterozygous missense de novo mutation in PAX8 in one out of 63 unrelated Chinese TD patients, showing that the PAX8 mutation rate is very low in TD patients in China. However, de novo mutation and epigenetic mechanisms need to be considered in the future study.
Project description:Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) abnormality is one of the causes of congenital hypothyroidism. Two missense mutations were found as a compound heterozygous mutation in two siblings with congenital goitrous hypothyroidism. One of these mutations, G614A (R175Q), was a novel mutation. Characterization of the novel mutation and a cotransfection experiment with two mutated TPO mRNAs were carried out. G614A-mRNA introduced into CHO-K1 cells expressed TPO protein with the same molecular weight as that of wild-type mRNA. The R175Q-TPO was thought to possess enzyme activity. In terms of localization, a very small amount of mutated TPO was expressed on the plasma membrane of CHO-K1 cells. This plasma membrane expression of R175Q-TPO was insufficient to perform thyroid hormone synthesis, but was markedly different from R665W-TPO. When G614A- and C2083T-mRNAs were cotransfected, cell surface TPO-positive cells were only 13.1% in contrast to 54.4% for wild-type mRNA. The low positivity and intensity of cell surface TPO suggested that in the patients' thyroids thyroid hormone synthesis was hardly performed. The congenital hypothyroidism of the patients was thought to be a result of the mutations of the TPO gene (G614A/C2083T).
Project description:OBJECTIVES:The c.2268dup mutation in the thyroid peroxidase (TPO) gene is the most common TPO alteration reported in Taiwanese patients with thyroid dyshormonogenesis. The ancestors of these patients are believed to originate from the southern province of China. Our previous study showed that this mutation leads to reduced abundance of the TPO protein and loss of TPO enzyme activity in a Malaysian-Chinese family with goitrous hypothyroidism. The aim of our study was to provide further data on the incidence of the c.2268dup mutation in a cohort of Malaysian-Chinese and its possible phenotypic effects. SETTING:Cohort study. PARTICIPANTS:Twelve biologically unrelated Malaysian-Chinese patients with congenital hypothyroidism were recruited in this study. All patients showed high thyrotropin and low free thyroxine levels at the time of diagnosis with proven presence of a thyroid gland. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE:Screening of the c.2268dup mutation in the TPO gene in all patients was carried out using a PCR-direct DNA sequencing method. SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURE:Further screening for mutations in other exonic regions of the TPO gene was carried out if the patient was a carrier of the c.2268dup mutation. RESULTS:The c.2268dup mutation was detected in 4 of the 12 patients. Apart from the c.2268dup and a previously documented mutation (c.2647C>T), two novel TPO alterations, c.670_672del and c.1186C>T, were also detected in our patients. In silico analyses predicted that the novel alterations affect the structure/function of the TPO protein. CONCLUSIONS:The c.2268dup mutation was detected in approximately one-third of the Malaysian-Chinese patients with thyroid dyshormonogenesis. The detection of the novel c.670_672del and c.1186C>T alterations expand the mutation spectrum of TPO associated with thyroid dyshormonogenesis.
Project description:Neonatal screening in Macedonia detects congenital hypothyroidism (CH) with an incidence of 1 in 1,585, and more than 50% of cases exhibit a normally located gland-in-situ (GIS). Monogenic mutations causing dyshormonogenesis may underlie GIS CH; additionally, a small proportion of thyroid hypoplasia has a monogenic cause, such as TSHR and PAX8 defects. The genetic architecture of Macedonian CH cases has not previously been studied. We recruited screening-detected, non-syndromic GIS CH or thyroid hypoplasia cases (n = 40) exhibiting a spectrum of biochemical thyroid dysfunction ranging from severe permanent to mild transient CH and including 11 familial cases. Cases were born at term, with birth weight >3,000 g, and thyroid morphologies included goiter (n = 11), thyroid hypoplasia (n = 6), and apparently normal-sized thyroid. A comprehensive, phenotype-driven, Sanger sequencing approach was used to identify genetic mutations underlying CH, by sequentially screening known dyshormonogenesis-associated genes and TSHR in GIS cases and TSHR and PAX8 in cases with thyroid hypoplasia. Potentially pathogenic variants were identified in 14 cases, of which four were definitively causative; we also detected digenic variants in three cases. Seventeen variants (nine novel) were identified in TPO (n = 4), TG (n = 3), TSHR (n = 4), DUOX2 (n = 4), and PAX8 (n = 2). No mutations were detected in DUOXA2, NIS, IYD, and SLC26A7. The relatively low mutation frequency suggests that factors other than recognized monogenic causes (oligogenic variants, environmental factors, or novel genes) may contribute to GIS CH in this region. Future non-hypothesis-driven, next-generation sequencing studies are required to confirm these findings.