Radionuclide generator-based production of therapeutic 177Lu from its long-lived isomer 177mLu.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:In this work, a lutetium-177 (177Lu) production method based on the separation of nuclear isomers, 177mLu & 177Lu, is reported. The 177mLu-177Lu separation is performed by combining the use of DOTA & DOTA-labelled peptide (DOTATATE) and liquid-liquid extraction. METHODS:The 177mLu cations were complexed with DOTA & DOTATATE and kept at 77 K for periods of time to allow 177Lu production. The freed 177Lu ions produced via internal conversion of 177mLu were then extracted in dihexyl ether using 0.01 M di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (DEHPA) at room temperature. The liquid-liquid extractions were performed periodically for a period up to 35 days. RESULTS:A maximum 177Lu/177mLu activity ratio of 3500 ± 500 was achieved with [177mLu]Lu-DOTA complex, in comparison to 177Lu/177mLu activity ratios of 1086 ± 40 realized using [177mLu]Lu-DOTATATE complex. The 177Lu-177mLu separation was found to be affected by the molar ratio of lutetium and DOTA. A 177Lu/177mLu activity ratio up to 3500 ± 500 was achieved with excess DOTA in comparison to 177Lu/177mLu activity ratio 1500 ± 600 obtained when lutetium and DOTA were present in molar ratio of 1:1. Further, the 177Lu ion extraction efficiency, decreases from 95 ± 4% to 58 ± 2% in the presence of excess DOTA. CONCLUSION:The reported method resulted in a 177Lu/ 177mLu activity ratio up to 3500 after the separation. This ratio is close to the lower end of 177Lu/177mLu activity ratios, attained currently during the direct route 177Lu production for clinical applications (i.e. 4000-10,000). This study forms the basis for further extending the liquid-liquid extraction based 177mLu-177Lu separation in order to lead to a commercial 177mLu/177Lu radionuclide generator.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Lutetium-177-DOTA-octreotate (177Lu-DOTATATE) significantly increases survival and response rates in patients with grade I and grade II neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). However, survival and response rates are significantly lower in patients with bulky liver metastases. Increasing the tumor-absorbed dose in liver metastases may improve response to 177Lu-DOTATATE. The LUTIA (Lutetium Intra-Arterial) study aims to increase the tumor-absorbed dose in liver metastases by intra-arterial (IA) administration of 177Lu-DOTATATE, compared to conventional intravenous (IV) administration. METHODS:A multicenter, within-patient randomized controlled trial (RCT) in 26 patients with progressive, liver-dominant, unresectable grade I or grade II NET will be conducted. Patients with bilobar bulky disease will be randomly allocated to receive IA treatment into either the left or the right hepatic artery. Using this approach, one liver lobe will be treated intra-arterially (first-pass effect), while the contralateral lobe will receive an intravenous treatment as a second-pass effect. The primary endpoint of this study is the difference in tumor-to-non-tumor ratio of 177Lu-DOTATATE uptake between the two liver lobes on post-treatment SPECT/CT (IA versus IV). Secondary endpoints include absorbed dose in both liver lobes, tumor response, dose-response relationship, toxicity, uptake in extrahepatic lesions, and renal uptake. DISCUSSION:This multicenter, within-patient RCT will investigate whether IA administration of 177Lu-DOTATATE results in a higher activity concentration in liver metastases compared to IV administration. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03590119. Registered on 17 July 2018.
Project description:Radiolabeled somatostatin analog therapy has become an established treatment method for patients with well to moderately differentiated unresectable or metastatic neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). The most frequently used somatostatin analogs in clinical practice are octreotide and octreotate. However, both peptides showed suboptimal retention within tumors. The aim of this first-in-humans study is to explore the safety and dosimetry of a long-acting radiolabeled somatostatin analog, 177Lu-1, 4, 7, 10-tetra-azacyclododecane-1, 4, 7, 10-tetraacetic acid-Evans blue-octreotate (177Lu-DOTA-EB-TATE). Methods: Eight patients (6 men and 2 women; age range, 27-61 y) with advanced metastatic NETs were recruited. Five patients received a single dose, 0.35-0.70 GBq (9.5-18.9 mCi), of 177Lu-DOTA-EB-TATE and underwent serial whole-body planar and SPECT/CT scans at 2, 24, 72, 120, and 168 h after injection. The other 3 patients received intravenous injection of 0.28-0.41 GBq (7.5-11.1 mCi) of 177Lu-DOTATATE for the same imaging acquisition procedures at 1, 3, 4, 24, and 72 h after injection. The dosimetry was calculated using the OLINDA/EXM 1.1 software. Results: Administration of 177Lu-DOTA-EB-TATE was well tolerated, with no adverse symptoms being noticed or reported in any of the patients. Compared with 177Lu-DOTATATE, 177Lu-DOTA-EB-TATE showed extended circulation in the blood and achieved a 7.9-fold increase of tumor dose delivery. The total-body effective doses were 0.205 ± 0.161 mSv/MBq for 177Lu-DOTA-EB-TATE and 0.174 ± 0.072 mSv/MBq for 177Lu-DOTATATE. Significant dose delivery increases to the kidneys and bone marrow were also observed in patients receiving 177Lu-DOTA-EB-TATE compared with those receiving 177Lu-DOTATATE (3.2 and 18.2-fold, respectively). Conclusion: By introducing an albumin-binding moiety, 177Lu-DOTA-EB-TATE showed remarkably higher uptake and retention in NETs as well as significantly increased accumulation in the kidneys and red marrow. It has great potential to be used in peptide receptor radionuclide therapy for NETs with lower dose and less frequency of administration.
Project description:PURPOSE:Chimeric antibody Miltuximab®, a human IgG1 engineered from the parent antibody MIL-38, is in clinical development for solid tumour therapy. Miltuximab® targets glypican-1 (GPC-1), a cell surface protein involved in tumour growth, which is overexpressed in solid tumours, including prostate cancer (PCa). This study investigated the potential of 89Zr-labelled Miltuximab® as an imaging agent, and 177Lu-labelled Miltuximab® as a targeted beta therapy, in a mouse xenograft model of human prostate cancer. METHODS:Male BALB/c nude mice were inoculated subcutaneously with GPC-1-positive DU-145 PCa cells. In imaging and biodistribution studies, mice bearing palpable tumours received (a) 2.62?MBq [89Zr]Zr-DFO-Miltuximab® followed by PET-CT imaging, or (b) 6?MBq [177Lu]Lu-DOTA-Miltuximab® by Cerenkov imaging, and ex vivo assessment of biodistribution. In an initial tumour efficacy study, mice bearing DU-145 tumours were administered intravenously with 6?MBq [177Lu]Lu-DOTA-Miltuximab® or control DOTA-Miltuximab® then euthanised after 27?days. In a subsequent survival efficacy study, tumour-bearing mice were given 3 or 10?MBq of [177Lu]Lu-DOTA-Miltuximab®, or control, and followed up to 120?days. RESULTS:Antibody accumulation in DU-145 xenografts was detected by PET-CT imaging using [89Zr]Zr-DFO-Miltuximab® and confirmed by Cerenkov luminescence imaging post injection of [177Lu]Lu-DOTA-Miltuximab®. Antibody accumulation was higher (% IA/g) in tumours than other organs across multiple time points. A single injection with 6?MBq of [177Lu]Lu-DOTA-Miltuximab® significantly inhibited tumour growth as compared with DOTA-Miltuximab® (control). In the survival study, mice treated with 10?MBq [177Lu]Lu-DOTA-Miltuximab® had significantly prolonged survival (mean 85?days) versus control (45?days), an effect associated with increased cancer cell apoptosis. Tissue histopathology assessment showed no abnormalities associated with [177Lu]Lu-DOTA-Miltuximab®, in line with other observations of tolerability, including body weight stability. CONCLUSION:These findings demonstrate the potential utility of Miltuximab® as a PET imaging agent ([89Zr]Zr-DFO-Miltuximab®) and a beta therapy ([177Lu]Lu-DOTA-Miltuximab®) in patients with PCa or other GPC-1 expressing tumours.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) are overexpressed on >?90% of pancreatic cancers (PnCa) and represent an attractive target for the development of novel therapies, including radioimmunotherapy (RIT). Our aim was to study RIT of subcutaneous (s.c.) PANC-1 human PnCa xenografts in mice using the anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody, panitumumab labeled with Auger electron (AE)-emitting, 111In or ?-particle emitting, 177Lu at amounts that were non-toxic to normal tissues. RESULTS:Panitumumab was conjugated to DOTA chelators for complexing 111In or 177Lu (panitumumab-DOTA-[111In]In and panitumumab-DOTA-[177Lu]Lu) or to a metal-chelating polymer (MCP) with multiple DOTA to bind 111In (panitumumab-MCP-[111In]In). Panitumumab-DOTA-[177Lu]Lu was more effective per MBq exposure at reducing the clonogenic survival in vitro of PANC-1 cells than panitumumab-DOTA-[111In]In or panitumumab-MCP-[111In]In. Panitumumab-DOTA-[177Lu]Lu caused the greatest density of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in the nucleus measured by immunofluorescence for ?-H2AX. The absorbed dose in the nucleus was 3.9-fold higher for panitumumab-DOTA-[177Lu]Lu than panitumumab-DOTA-[111In]In and 7.7-fold greater than panitumumab-MCP-[111In]In. No normal tissue toxicity was observed in NOD/SCID mice injected intravenously (i.v.) with 10.0?MBq (10??g; ~?0.07 nmoles) of panitumumab-DOTA-[111In]In or panitumumab-MCP-[111In]In or in NRG mice injected i.v. with 6.0?MBq (10??g; ~?0.07 nmoles) of panitumumab-DOTA-[177Lu]Lu. There was no decrease in complete blood cell counts (CBC) or increased serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) or creatinine (Cr) or decreased body weight. RIT inhibited the growth of PANC-1 tumours but a 5-fold greater total amount of panitumumab-DOTA-[111In]In or panitumumab-MCP-[111In]In (30?MBq; 30??g; ~?0.21 nmoles) administered in three fractionated amounts every three weeks was required to achieve greater or equivalent tumour growth inhibition, respectively, compared to a single amount of panitumumab-DOTA-[177Lu]Lu (6?MBq; 10??g; ~?0.07 nmoles). The tumour doubling time (TDT) for NOD/SCID mice with s.c. PANC-1 tumours treated with panitumumab-DOTA-[111In]In or panitumumab-MCP-[111In]In was 51.8?days and 28.1?days, respectively. Panitumumab was ineffective yielding a TDT of 15.3?days vs. 15.6?days for normal saline treated mice. RIT of NRG mice with s.c. PANC-1 tumours with 6.0?MBq (10??g; ~?0.07 nmoles) of panitumumab-DOTA-[177Lu]Lu increased the TDT to 20.9?days vs. 11.5?days for panitumumab and 9.1?days for normal saline. The absorbed doses in PANC-1 tumours were 8.8?±?3.0?Gy and 2.6?±?0.3?Gy for panitumumab-DOTA-[111In]In and panitumumab-MCP-[111In]In, respectively, and 11.6?±?4.9?Gy for panitumumab-DOTA-[177Lu]Lu. CONCLUSION:RIT with panitumumab labeled with Auger electron-emitting, 111In or ?-particle-emitting, 177Lu inhibited the growth of s.c. PANC-1 tumours in NOD/SCID or NRG mice, at administered amounts that caused no normal tissue toxicity. We conclude that EGFR-targeted RIT is a promising approach to treatment of PnCa.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Neuroendocrine tumours (NET) consist of a heterogeneous group of neoplasms with various organs of origin. At diagnosis 21% of the patients with a Grade 1 NET and 30% with a Grade 2 NET have distant metastases. Treatment with peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) shows a high objective response rate and long median survival after treatment. However, complete remission is almost never achieved. The liver is the most commonly affected organ in metastatic disease and is the most incriminating factor for patient survival. Additional treatment of liver disease after PRRT may improve outcome in NET patients. Radioembolization is an established therapy for liver metastasis. To investigate this hypothesis, a phase 2 study was initiated to assess effectiveness and toxicity of holmium-166 radioembolization (166Ho-RE) after PRRT with lutetium-177 (177Lu)-DOTATATE. METHODS:The HEPAR PLUS trial ("Holmium Embolization Particles for Arterial Radiotherapy Plus 177 Lu-DOTATATE in Salvage NET patients") is a single centre, interventional, non-randomized, non-comparative, open label study. In this phase 2 study 30-48 patients with > 3 measurable liver metastases according to RECIST 1.1 will receive additional 166Ho-RE within 20 weeks after the 4th and last cycle of PRRT with 7.4 GBq 177Lu-DOTATATE. Primary objectives are to assess tumour response, complete and partial response according to RECIST 1.1, and toxicity, based on CTCAE v4.03, 3 months after 166Ho-RE. Secondary endpoints include biochemical response, quality of life, biodistribution and dosimetry. DISCUSSION:This is the first prospective study to combine PRRT with 177Lu-DOTATATE and additional 166Ho-RE in metastatic NET. A radiation boost on intrahepatic disease using 166Ho-RE may lead to an improved response rate without significant additional side-effects. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02067988 , 13 February 2014. Protocol version: 6, 30 november 2016.
Project description:Recent years have played witness to the advent of nuclear theranostics: the synergistic use of "matched pair" radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic imaging and targeted radiotherapy. In this investigation, we report the extension of this concept to in vivo pretargeting based on the rapid and bioorthogonal inverse electron demand Diels-Alder reaction between tetrazine (Tz) and trans-cyclooctene (TCO). We demonstrate that a single injection of a TCO-modified immunoconjugate can be used as a platform for pretargeted PET imaging and radiotherapy via the sequential administration of a pair of Tz-bearing radioligands labeled with the positron-emitting radiometal copper-64 (t1/2 ? 12.7 h) and the beta-emitting radiometal lutetium-177 (t1/2 ? 6.7 days). More specifically, a mouse model of human colorectal carcinoma received a dose of the A33 antigen-targeting immunoconjugate huA33-TCO, followed 24 and 48 h later by injections of [64Cu]Cu-SarAr-Tz and [177Lu]Lu-DOTA-PEG7-Tz, respectively. This approach produces high activity concentrations of both radioligands in tumor tissue (16.4 ± 2.7 %ID/g for [64Cu]Cu-SarAr-Tz at 48 h post-injection and 18.1 ± 2.1 %ID/g for [177Lu]Lu-DOTA-PEG7-Tz at 120 h post-injection) as well as promising tumor-to-healthy organ activity concentration ratios. Ultimately, we believe that this work could not only have important implications in nuclear theranostics-most excitingly with isotopologue-based radioligand pairs such as [64Cu]Cu-SarAr-Tz and [67Cu]Cu-SarAr-Tz-but also in the delivery of fractionated doses during pretargeted radioimmunotherapy.
Project description:Targeted radiotherapy of metastatic neuroblastoma using the somatostatin receptor (SSTR)-targeted octreotide analogue DOTATATE radiolabelled with lutetium-177 (177Lu-DOTATATE) is a promising strategy. This study evaluates whether its effectiveness may be enhanced by combination with radiosensitising drugs. The growth rate of multicellular tumour spheroids, derived from the neuroblastoma cell lines SK-N-BE(2c), CHLA-15 and CHLA-20, was evaluated following treatment with 177Lu-DOTATATE, nutlin-3 and topotecan alone or in combination. Immunoblotting, immunostaining and flow cytometric analyses were used to determine activation of p53 signalling and cell death. Exposure to 177Lu-DOTATATE resulted in a significant growth delay in CHLA-15 and CHLA-20 spheroids, but not in SK-N-BE(2c) spheroids. Nutlin-3 enhanced the spheroid growth delay induced by topotecan in CHLA-15 and CHLA-20 spheroids, but not in SK-N-BE(2c) spheroids. Importantly, the combination of nutlin-3 with topotecan enhanced the spheroid growth delay induced by X-irradiation or by exposure to 177Lu-DOTATATE. The efficacy of the combination treatments was p53-dependent. These results indicate that targeted radiotherapy of high risk neuroblastoma with 177Lu-DOTATATE may be improved by combination with the radiosensitising drugs nutlin-3 and topotecan.
Project description:Introduction: 177Lutetium-[DOTA°,Tyr3]octreotate (177Lu-DOTATATE) is a type of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy that garnered FDA approval in January 2018 for the treatment of somatostatin receptor-positive gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine tumor (NET) patients. The therapy approval was based on findings from the randomized international phase III NETTER-1 trial as well as outcome data from a large European registry. The mechanism of the drug stems directly from its structure: a somatostatin analog (octreotate) selectively binding to somatostatin receptor expressing cells and being internalized, along with a chelated beta-emitting isotope 177Lu.Areas Covered: Herein we describe the pharmacology, clinical efficacy and adverse event data from prospective and retrospective studies with 177Lu-DOTATATE. We discuss the role of 177Lu-DOTATATE within the current treatment landscape for GEP NET patients.Expert Opinion: 177Lu-DOTATATE represents a unique addition to the treatment armamentarium for GEP NETs because of its potential to elicit tumor cytoreduction, which is rare among other existing treatment options, and prolonged disease control. Where 177Lu-DOTATATE fits into the treatment sequence for GEP NET patients remains an area of active investigation.
Project description:Targeted radionuclide therapy of somatostatin receptor (SST)-expressing tumors is only partially addressed by the established somatostatin analogs having an affinity for the SST subtype 2 (SST2). Aiming to target a broader spectrum of tumors, we evaluated the bis-iodo-substituted somatostatin analog ST8950 ((4-amino-3-iodo)-d-Phe-c[Cys-(3-iodo)-Tyr-d-Trp-Lys-Val-Cys]-Thr-NH2), having subnanomolar affinity for SST2 and SST5, labeled with [177Lu]Lu3+ via the chelator DOTA (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid). Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK) cells stably transfected with the human SST2 (HEK-SST2) and SST5 (HEK-SST5) were used for in vitro and in vivo evaluation on a dual SST2- and SST5-expressing xenografted mouse model. natLu-DOTA-ST8950 showed nanomolar affinity for both subtypes (IC50 (95% confidence interval): 0.37 (0.22-0.65) nM for SST2 and 3.4 (2.3-5.2) for SST5). The biodistribution of [177Lu]Lu-DOTA-ST8950 was influenced by the injected mass, with 100 pmol demonstrating lower background activity than 10 pmol. [177Lu]Lu-DOTA-ST8950 reached its maximal uptake on SST2- and SST5-tumors at 1 h p.i. (14.17 ± 1.78 and 1.78 ± 0.35%IA/g, respectively), remaining unchanged 4 h p.i., with a mean residence time of 8.6 and 0.79 h, respectively. Overall, [177Lu]Lu-DOTA-ST8950 targets SST2-, SST5-expressing tumors in vivo to a lower extent, and has an effective dose similar to clinically used radiolabeled somatostatin analogs. Its main drawbacks are the low uptake in SST5-tumors and the persistent kidney uptake.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Patients with advanced midgut neuroendocrine tumors who have had disease progression during first-line somatostatin analogue therapy have limited therapeutic options. This randomized, controlled trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of lutetium-177 (177Lu)-Dotatate in patients with advanced, progressive, somatostatin-receptor-positive midgut neuroendocrine tumors. METHODS:We randomly assigned 229 patients who had well-differentiated, metastatic midgut neuroendocrine tumors to receive either 177Lu-Dotatate (116 patients) at a dose of 7.4 GBq every 8 weeks (four intravenous infusions, plus best supportive care including octreotide long-acting repeatable [LAR] administered intramuscularly at a dose of 30 mg) (177Lu-Dotatate group) or octreotide LAR alone (113 patients) administered intramuscularly at a dose of 60 mg every 4 weeks (control group). The primary end point was progression-free survival. Secondary end points included the objective response rate, overall survival, safety, and the side-effect profile. The final analysis of overall survival will be conducted in the future as specified in the protocol; a prespecified interim analysis of overall survival was conducted and is reported here. RESULTS:At the data-cutoff date for the primary analysis, the estimated rate of progression-free survival at month 20 was 65.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 50.0 to 76.8) in the 177Lu-Dotatate group and 10.8% (95% CI, 3.5 to 23.0) in the control group. The response rate was 18% in the 177Lu-Dotatate group versus 3% in the control group (P<0.001). In the planned interim analysis of overall survival, 14 deaths occurred in the 177Lu-Dotatate group and 26 in the control group (P=0.004). Grade 3 or 4 neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and lymphopenia occurred in 1%, 2%, and 9%, respectively, of patients in the 177Lu-Dotatate group as compared with no patients in the control group, with no evidence of renal toxic effects during the observed time frame. CONCLUSIONS:Treatment with 177Lu-Dotatate resulted in markedly longer progression-free survival and a significantly higher response rate than high-dose octreotide LAR among patients with advanced midgut neuroendocrine tumors. Preliminary evidence of an overall survival benefit was seen in an interim analysis; confirmation will be required in the planned final analysis. Clinically significant myelosuppression occurred in less than 10% of patients in the 177Lu-Dotatate group. (Funded by Advanced Accelerator Applications; NETTER-1 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01578239 ; EudraCT number 2011-005049-11 .).