LFP-Based Gravure Printed Cathodes for Lithium-Ion Printed Batteries.
ABSTRACT: Printed batteries have undergone increased investigation in recent years because of the growing daily use of small electronic devices. With this in mind, industrial gravure printing has emerged as a suitable production technology due to its high speed and quality, and its capability to produce any shape of image. The technique is one of the most appealing for the production of functional layers for many different purposes, but it has not been highly investigated. In this study, we propose a LiFePO4 (LFP)-based gravure printed cathode for lithium-ion rechargeable printed batteries and investigate the possibility of employing this printing technique in battery manufacture.
Project description:Recent advances in perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have resulted in greater than 23% efficiency with superior advantages such as flexibility and solution-processability, allowing PSCs to be fabricated by a high-throughput and low-cost roll-to-roll (R2R) process. The development of scalable deposition processes is crucial to realize R2R production of flexible PSCs. Gravure printing is a promising candidate with the benefit of direct printing of the desired layer with arbitrary shape and size by using the R2R process. Here, flexible PSCs are fabricated by gravure printing. Printing inks and processing parameters are optimized to obtain smooth and uniform films. SnO2 nanoparticles are uniformly printed by reducing surface tension. Perovskite layers are successfully formed by optimizing the printing parameters and subsequent antisolvent bathing. 2,2',7,7'-Tetrakis-(N,N-di-4-methoxyphenylamino)-9,9'-spirobifluorene is also successfully printed. The all-gravure-printed device exhibits 17.2% champion efficiency, with 15.5% maximum power point tracking efficiency for 1000 s. Gravure-printed flexible PSCs based on a two-step deposition of perovskite layer are also demonstrated. Furthermore, a R2R process based on the gravure printing is demonstrated. The champion efficiency of 9.7% is achieved for partly R2R-processed PSCs based on a two-step fabrication of the perovskite layer.
Project description:Gravure printing is a promising technique for large-scale printed electronics. However, gravure printing of silver nanowires (AgNWs) so far has been limited in terms of resolution and electrical conductivity. In this study, gravure printing of water-based AgNW ink on a flexible substrate is demonstrated. By tailoring the ink properties, printing conditions and post-printing treatment, gravure printing enables printing of high-resolution, highly conductive AgNW patterns in large areas, with resolution as fine as 50?µm and conductivity as high as 5.34?×?104 S cm-1. The printed AgNW patterns on the flexible substrate show excellent flexibility under repeated bending. All these characteristics demonstrate the excellent potential of gravure printing of AgNWs for developing large-area flexible electronics.
Project description:Roll-to-roll (R2R) printing has been pursued as a commercially viable high-throughput technology to manufacture flexible, disposable, and inexpensive printed electronic devices. However, in recent years, pessimism has prevailed because of the barriers faced when attempting to fabricate and integrate thin film transistors (TFTs) using an R2R printing method. In this paper, we report 20 × 20 active matrices (AMs) based on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with a resolution of 9.3 points per inch (ppi) resolution, obtained using a fully R2R gravure printing process. By using SWCNTs as the semiconducting layer and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) as the substrate, we have obtained a device yield above 98%, and extracted the key scalability factors required for a feasible R2R gravure manufacturing process. Multi-touch sensor arrays were achieved by laminating a pressure sensitive rubber onto the SWCNT-TFT AM. This R2R gravure printing system overcomes the barriers associated with the registration accuracy of printing each layer and the variation of the threshold voltage (Vth). By overcoming these barriers, the R2R gravure printing method can be viable as an advanced manufacturing technology, thus enabling the high-throughput production of flexible, disposable, and human-interactive cutting-edge electronic devices based on SWCNT-TFT AMs.
Project description:Organic semiconductor-based thin-film transistors' (TFTs) charge-carrier mobility has been enhanced up to 25 cm2/V s through the improvement of fabrication methods and greater understanding of the microstructure charge-transport mechanism. To expand the practical feasibility of organic semiconductor-based TFTs, their electrical properties should be easily accessed from the fully printed devices through a scalable printing method, such as a roll-to-roll (R2R) gravure. In this study, four commercially available organic semiconductors were separately formulated into gravure inks. They were then employed in the R2R gravure system (silver ink for printing gate and drain-source electrodes and BaTiO3 ink for printing dielectric layers) for printing 20 × 20 TFT-active matrix with the resolution of 10 pixels per inch on poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) foils to attain electrical properties of organic semiconductors a practical printing method. Electrical characteristics (mobility, on-off current ratio, threshold voltage, and transconductance) of the R2R gravure-printed 20 × 20 TFT-active matrices fabricated with organic semiconducting ink were analyzed statistically, and the results showed more than 98% device yield and 50 % electrical variations in the R2R gravure TFT-active matrices along the PET web.
Project description:Driven by recent improvements in efficiency and stability of perovskite solar cells (PSCs), upscaling of PSCs has come to be regarded as the next step. Specifically, a high-throughput, low-cost roll-to-roll (R2R) processes would be a breakthrough to realize the commercialization of PSCs, with uniform formation of precursor wet film and complete conversion to perovskite phase via R2R-compatible processes necessary to accomplish this goal. Herein, we demonstrate the pilot-scale, fully R2R manufacturing of all the layers except for electrodes in PSCs. Tert-butyl alcohol (tBuOH) is introduced as an eco-friendly antisolvent with a wide processing window. Highly crystalline, uniform formamidinium (FA)-based perovskite formation via tBuOH:EA bathing was confirmed by achieving high power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of 23.5% for glass-based spin-coated PSCs, and 19.1% for gravure-printed flexible PSCs. As an extended work, R2R gravure-printing and tBuOH:EA bathing resulted in the highest PCE reported for R2R-processed PSCs, 16.7% for PSCs with R2R-processed SnO2/FA-perovskite, and 13.8% for fully R2R-produced PSCs.
Project description:To demonstrate that roll-to-roll (R2R) gravure printing is a suitable advanced manufacturing method for flexible thin film transistor (TFT)-based electronic circuits, three different nanomaterial-based inks (silver nanoparticles, BaTiO3 nanoparticles and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs)) were selected and optimized to enable the realization of fully printed SWNT-based TFTs (SWNT-TFTs) on 150-m-long rolls of 0.25-m-wide poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET). SWNT-TFTs with 5 different channel lengths, namely, 30, 80, 130, 180, and 230 ?m, were fabricated using a printing speed of 8 m/min. These SWNT-TFTs were characterized, and the obtained electrical parameters were related to major mechanical factors such as web tension, registration accuracy, impression roll pressure and printing speed to determine whether these mechanical factors were the sources of the observed device-to-device variations. By utilizing the electrical parameters from the SWNT-TFTs, a Monte Carlo simulation for a 1-bit adder circuit, as a reference, was conducted to demonstrate that functional circuits with reasonable complexity can indeed be manufactured using R2R gravure printing. The simulation results suggest that circuits with complexity, similar to the full adder circuit, can be printed with a 76% circuit yield if threshold voltage (Vth) variations of less than 30% can be maintained.
Project description:Scalable circuits of organic logic and memory are realized using all-additive printing processes. A 3-bit organic complementary decoder is fabricated and used to read and write non-volatile, rewritable ferroelectric memory. The decoder-memory array is patterned by inkjet and gravure printing on flexible plastics. Simulation models for the organic transistors are developed, enabling circuit designs tolerant of the variations in printed devices. We explain the key design rules in fabrication of complex printed circuits and elucidate the performance requirements of materials and devices for reliable organic digital logic.
Project description:We present fast sintering for silver (Ag) nanoparticle (NP) and flake layers printed using roll-to-roll (R2R) gravure printing. An infrared (IR) sintering module was applied to an R2R system to shorten the sintering duration of an R2R gravure-printed Ag layer. IR sintering of the conductive layer was improved by optimising the process condition. After printing of the Ag NP and Ag flake layers, additional IR sintering was performed in the R2R system. The lowest sheet resistance obtained in the Ag NP layer was 0.294??/?, the distance between the substrate and lamp was 50-mm long, the IR lamp power was 500?W, and the sintering time was 5.4?s. The fastest sintering of 0.34??/? was achieved with 50-mm distance, 1,000-W IR lamp power, and 1.08-s sintering time. In the Ag flake layer, the lowest sheet resistance obtained was 0.288??/? with a 20-mm distance, 1,000-W IR lamp power, and 10.8-s sintering time. Meanwhile, the fastest sintering was obtained with a 3.83??/? sheet resistance, 20-mm distance, 1000-W IR lamp, and 1.08-s sintering time. Thus, the IR sintering module can easily be employed in an R2R system to obtain excellent layer sheet resistance.
Project description:A disposable cyclic voltammetry (CV) tag is printed on a plastic film by integrating wireless power transmitter, polarized triangle wave generator, electrochemical cell and signage through a scalable gravure printing method. By proximity of 13.56?MHz RF reader, the printed CV tag generates 320?mHz of triangular sweep wave from +500?mV to -500?mV which enable to scan a printed electrochemical cell in the CV tag. By simply dropping any specimen solution on the electrochemical cell in the CV tag, the presence of solutes in the solution can be detected and shown on the signage of the CV tag in five sec. 10?mM of N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (TMPD) was used as a standard solute to prove the working concept of fully printed disposable wireless CV tag. Within five seconds, we can wirelessly diagnose the presence of TMPD in the solution using the CV tag in the proximity of the 13.56?MHz RF reader. This fully printed and wirelessly operated flexible CV tag is the first of its kind and marks the path for the utilization of inexpensive and disposable wireless electrochemical sensor systems for initial diagnose hazardous chemicals and biological molecules to improve public hygiene and health.
Project description:Integration of sensing capabilities with an interactive signage through wireless communication is enabling the development of smart packaging wherein wireless (13.56 MHz) power transmission is used to interlock the smart packaging with a wireless (13.56 MHz) reader or a smart phone. Assembly of the necessary componentry for smart packaging on plastic or paper foils is limited by the manufacturing costs involved with Si based technologies. Here, the issue of manufacturing cost for smart packaging has been obviated by materials that allow R2R (roll-to-roll) gravure in combination with R2R coating processes to be employed. R2R gravure was used to print the wireless power transmission device, called rectenna (antenna, diode and capacitor), and humidity sensor on poly(ethylene terephtalate) (PET) films while electrochromic signage units were fabricated by R2R coating. The signage units were laminated with the R2R gravure printed rectenna and sensor to complete the prototype smart packaging.