Quaternary Ammonium Leucine-Based Surfactants: The Effect of a Benzyl Group on Physicochemical Properties and Antimicrobial Activity.
ABSTRACT: Quaternary ammonium amphiphiles are a class of compounds with a wide range of commercial and industrial uses. In the pharmaceutical field, the most common quaternary ammonium surfactant is benzalkonium chloride (BAC), which is employed as a preservative in several topical formulations for ocular, skin, or nasal application. Despite the broad antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as fungi and small enveloped viruses, safety concerns regarding its irritant and cytotoxic effect on epithelial cells still remain. In this work, quaternary ammonium derivatives of leucine esters (C10, C12 and C14) were synthesised as BAC analogues. These cationic surfactants were characterised in terms of critical micelle concentration (CMC, by tensiometry), cytotoxicity (MTS and LDH assays on the Caco-2 and Calu-3 cell lines) and antimicrobial activity on the bacterial species Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis among the Gram-positives, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa among the Gram-negatives and the yeast Candida albicans. They showed satisfactory surface-active properties, and a cytotoxic effect that was dependent on the length of the hydrophobic chain. Lower minimum inhibiting concentration (MIC) values were calculated for C14-derivatives, which were comparable to those calculated for BAC toward Gram-positive bacteria and slightly higher for Gram-negative bacteria and C. albicans. Thus, the synthesised leucine-based quaternary ammonium cationic surfactants can potentially find application as promising surface-active compounds with antimicrobial activity.
Project description:Quaternary ammonium surfactants (QACs) are microbicides, whereas poly (acrylates) are biocompatible polymers. Here, the physical and antimicrobial properties of two QACs, cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) or dioctadecyl dimethyl ammonium bromide (DODAB) in poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanoparticles (NPs) are compared to those of QACs alone. Methyl methacrylate (MMA) polymerization using DODAB or CTAB as emulsifiers and initiator azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) yielded cationic, nanometric, homodisperse, and stable NPs. NPs' physical and antimicrobial properties were assessed from dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscopy, and viability curves of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, or Candida albicans determined as log(colony-forming unities counting) over a range of [QACs]. NPs were spherical and homodisperse but activity for free QACs was higher than those for QACs in NPs. Inhibition halos against bacteria and yeast were observed only for free or incorporated CTAB in NPs because PMMA/CTAB NPs controlled the CTAB release. DODAB displayed fungicidal activity against C. albicans since DODAB bilayer disks could penetrate the outer glycoproteins fungus layer. The physical properties and stability of the cationic NPs highlighted their potential to combine with other bioactive molecules for further applications in drug and vaccine delivery.
Project description:New dimeric, trimeric and tetrameric quaternary ammonium salts were accomplished by reaction of tertiary alkyldimethyl amines with appropriate bromomethylbenzene derivatives. A series of new cationic surfactants contain different alkyl chain lengths (C4-C18), aromatic spacers and different numbers of quaternary nitrogen atoms. The structure of the products was confirmed by spectral analysis (FT-IR, ¹H-NMR, 13C-NMR and 2D-NMR), mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS), elemental analysis, as well as PM5 semiempirical methods. Compound (21) was also analyzed using X-ray crystallography. Critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 1,4-bis-[N-(1-alkyl)-N,N-dimethylammoniummethyl]benzene dibromides (3-9) was determined to characterize the aggregation behavior. The antimicrobial properties of novel QACs (Quaternary Ammonium Salts) were examined to set their minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values against fungi Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Penicillium chrysogenum and bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Project description:Dimeric quaternary alkylammonium salts possess a favourable surface and antimicrobial activity. In this paper we describe synthesis, spectroscopic analysis, surface and antimicrobial activity as well as biodegradability of polymethylene-?,?-bis(N,N-dialkyl-N-deoxy-D-glucitolammonium iodides), a new group of dimeric quaternary ammonium salts. This new group of gemini surfactants can be produced from chemicals which come from renewable sources. The structure of products has been determined by the FTIR and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. The biodegradability, surface activity and antimicrobial efficacy against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium chrysogenum were determined. The influence of the number of alkyl chains and their lengths on surface and antimicrobial properties has been shown. In general, dimeric quaternary alkyldeoxy-D-glucitolammonium salts with long alkyl substituents show favourable surface properties and an excellent antimicrobial activity.
Project description:To improve the antimicrobial property of chitosan, water-soluble chitosan modified in their quaternary ammonium groups were synthesized. The antimicrobial properties were evaluated against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida tropicalis. The activities increased with increasing cationic charges and the length of the alkyl chain as follows amino-chitosan, dimethylaminoethyl-chitosan, dimethylpropyl amino-chitosan, dimethylamino-1-propyl-chitosan, diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-chitosan, and quaternized DEAE-chitosan. The modified cationic chitosans showed high antimicrobial property against B. subtilis-Gram-positive bacteria, but were less active towards yeast (C. tropicalis and S. cerevisiae) and E. coli-Gram-negative bacteria. The simple structure of the Gram-positive bacteria may explain why the cationic chitosan derivatives are more active towards B. subtilis than yeast and E. coli. The target sites of the chitosan derivatives are assumed to be the cytoplasmic membranes of microorganisms. The antimicrobial activities were strongly dependent on the cationic charge and the molecular weight. It can be suggested that these cationic chitosan derivatives have potential as antimicrobial agents.
Project description:There has been an increasing interest in the development of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and their synthetic mimics as a novel class of antibiotics to overcome the rapid emergence of antibiotic resistance. Recently, phenylglyoxamide-based small molecular AMP mimics have been identified as potential leads to treat bacterial infections. In this study, a new series of biphenylglyoxamide-based small molecular AMP mimics were synthesised from the ring-opening reaction of N-sulfonylisatin bearing a biphenyl backbone with a diamine, followed by the conversion into tertiary ammonium chloride, quaternary ammonium iodide and guanidinium hydrochloride salts. Structure-activity relationship studies of the analogues identified the octanesulfonyl group as being essential for both Gram-positive and Gram-negative antibacterial activity, while the biphenyl backbone was important for Gram-negative antibacterial activity. The most potent analogue was identified to be chloro-substituted quaternary ammonium iodide salt 15c, which possesses antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive (MIC against Staphylococcus aureus = 8 ?M) and Gram-negative bacteria (MIC against Escherichia coli = 16 ?M, Pseudomonas aeruginosa = 63 ?M) and disrupted 35% of pre-established S. aureus biofilms at 32 ?M. Cytoplasmic membrane permeability and tethered bilayer lipid membranes (tBLMs) studies suggested that 15c acts as a bacterial membrane disruptor. In addition, in vitro toxicity studies showed that the potent compounds are non-toxic against human cells at therapeutic dosages.
Project description:Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are classified as cationic surfactants, and are known for their biocidal activity. However, their modes of action are thus far not completely understood. In this study, we synthesized a gemini QAC, PMT12-BF4 and found that it exerted unsurpassed broad-spectrum antifungal activity against drug susceptible and resistant Candida albicans, and other pathogenic fungi, with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) at 1 or 2??g/mL. These results indicated that PMT12-BF4 used a mode of action distinct from current antifungal drugs. In addition, fungal pathogens treated with PMT12-BF4 were not able to grow on fresh YPD agar plates, indicating that the effect of PMT12-BF4 was fungicidal, and the minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) against C. albicans isolates was 1 or 2??g/mL. The ability of yeast-to-hyphal transition and biofilm formation of C. albicans was disrupted by PMT12-BF4. To investigate the modes of action of PMT12-BF4 in C. albicans, we used an RNA sequencing approach and screened a C. albicans deletion mutant library to identify potential pathways affected by PMT12-BF4. Combining these two approaches with a spotting assay, we showed that the ability of PMT12-BF4 to inhibit C. albicans is potentially linked to iron ion homeostasis.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Quaternary ammonium (QA) methacrylate monomers have been extensively investigated and demonstrate excellent antibacterial properties. However, the presence of ester bonds makes them prone to degradation in the oral cavity. In this study, ester-free QA monomers based on meth-acrylamides were synthesized and screened for polymerization kinetics, mechanical properties and antibacterial effects. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Tertiary quaternary ammonium acrylamides (AM) and methacrylamides (MAM) with alkyl side chain lengths of 9 and 14 carbons (C9 and C14) were synthesized and incorporated at 10 wt% into experimental composites based on BisGMA:TEGDMA (1:1), camphorquinone/ethyl-4-dimethylaminobenzoate (0.2/0.8 wt%) and 70 wt% barium glass fillers. Analogous methacrylate versions (MA) were used as controls. Degree of conversion (DC) and rate of polymerization (RP) during photoactivation (800 mW/cm<sup>2</sup>) were followed in real-time with near-IR. Flexural Strength (FS) and Modulus (E) were measured on 2 × 2 × 25 mm bars in 3-point bending after 24 h dry storage and 7-day storage in water at 37 °C. Antimicrobial properties and biofilm adhesion (fouling) were evaluated by bioluminescence (Luciferase Assay) and biofilm removal by water spray microjet impingement test, respectively. Cytotoxicity was assessed by MTT assay on dental pulp stem cells (DPSC). Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA/Tukey's test (? = 0.05). RESULTS:DC was similar for all groups tested (?70%). Both MAMs and C14-AM presented significantly lower RP. Under dry conditions, FS (110-120 MPa) and E (8-9 GPa) were similar for all groups. After water storage, all materials presented FS/E similar to the control, except for C14-AM (for FS) and C14-MAM (for E), which were lower. All C14 versions were strongly antibacterial, decreasing the titer counts of biofilm by more than two orders of magnitude in comparison to the control. C9 monomers did not present significant antibacterial nor antifouling properties. And biofilms had approximately equivalent adhesion on the C9 composites as on the control. Cytotoxicity did not show significant differences between the MA and AM versions and the control group. CONCLUSIONS:C14-QA monomers based on methacrylates and meth-acrylamides present strong antibacterial properties, and in general, similar conversion/mechanical properties compared to the methacrylate control. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE:This work demonstrates the viability of methacrylamides and acrylamides as potential components in dental restorative materials with antimicrobial properties. The use of ester-free polymerizable functionalities has the potential of improving the degradation resistance of these materials long-term. The use of (meth)acrylamides did not interfere with the antimicrobial potential of quaternary ammonium-based materials.
Project description:Benzalkonium chloride (BAC) is currently the most commonly used antimicrobial preservative in ophthalmic solutions, nasal sprays, and cosmetics. However, a large number of clinical and experimental investigations showed that the topical administration of BAC-containing eye drops could cause a variety of ocular surface changes, from ocular discomfort to potential risk for future glaucoma surgery. BAC-containing albuterol may increase the risk of albuterol-related systemic adverse effects. BAC, commonly present in personal care products, in cosmetic products can induce irritation and dose-dependent changes in the cell morphology. The cationic nature of BAC (it is a quaternary ammonium) suggests that one of the major targets of BAC in the cell may be mitochondria, the only intracellular compartment charged negatively. However, the influence of BAC on mitochondria has not been clearly understood. Here, the effects of BAC on energy parameters of rat liver mitochondria as well as on yeast cells were examined. BAC, being a "weaker" uncoupler, potently inhibited respiration in state 3, diminished the mitochondrial membrane potential, caused opening of the Ca2+/Pi-dependent pore, blocked ATP synthesis, and promoted H2O2 production by mitochondria. BAC triggered oxidative stress and mitochondrial fragmentation in yeast cells. BAC-induced oxidative stress in mitochondria and yeast cells was almost totally prevented by the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1; the protective effect of SkQ1 on mitochondrial fragmentation was only partial. Collectively, these data showed that BAC acts adversely on cell bioenergetics (especially on ATP synthesis) and mitochondrial dynamics and that its prooxidant effect can be partially prevented by the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1.
Project description:Their stability and low cost make catanionic vesicles suitable for application as drug delivery systems. In this work we prepared catanionic vesicles using biocompatible surfactants: two cationic arginine-based surfactants (the monocatenary N?-lauroyl-arginine methyl ester-LAM and the gemini N?,N?-bis(N?-lauroylarginine) ?, ?-propylendiamide-C3(CA)2) and three anionic amphiphiles (the single chain sodium dodecanoate, sodium myristate, and the double chain 8-SH). The critical aggregation concentration, colloidal stability, size, and charge density of these systems were comprehensively studied for the first time. These catanionic vesicles, which form spontaneously after mixing two aqueous solutions of oppositely charged surfactants, exhibited a monodisperse population of medium-size aggregates and good stability. The antimicrobial and hemolytic activity of the vesicles can be modulated by changing the cationic/anionic surfactant ratio. Vesicles with a positive charge efficiently killed Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria as well as yeasts; the antibacterial activity declined with the decrease of the cationic charge density. The catanionic systems also effectively eradicated MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. Interestingly, the incorporation of cholesterol in the catanionic mixtures improved the stability of these colloidal systems and considerably reduced their cytotoxicity without affecting their antimicrobial activity. Additionally, these catanionic vesicles showed good DNA affinity. Their antimicrobial efficiency and low hemolytic activity render these catanionic vesicles very promising candidates for biomedical applications.
Project description:Photodynamic inactivation is a rapidly developing antimicrobial treatment that employs a nontoxic photoactivatable dye or photosensitizer in combination with harmless visible light to generate reactive oxygen species that are toxic to cells. Tetrapyrroles (e.g., porphyrins, chlorins, bacteriochlorins) are a class of photosensitizers that exhibit promising characteristics to serve as broad-spectrum antimicrobials. In order to bind to and efficiently penetrate into all classes of microbial cells, tetrapyrroles should have structures that contain (i) one or more cationic charge(s) or (ii) a basic group. In this report, we investigate the use of new stable synthetic bacteriochlorins that have a strong absorption band in the range 720 to 740 nm, which is in the near-infrared spectral region. Four bacteriochlorins with 2, 4, or 6 quaternized ammonium groups or 2 basic amine groups were compared for light-mediated killing against a gram-positive bacterium (Staphylococcus aureus), a gram-negative bacterium (Escherichia coli), and a dimorphic fungal yeast (Candida albicans). Selectivity was assessed by determining phototoxicity against human HeLa cancer cells under the same conditions. All four compounds were highly active (6 logs of killing at 1 microM or less) against S. aureus and showed selectivity for bacteria over human cells. Increasing the cationic charge increased activity against E. coli. Only the compound with basic groups was highly active against C. albicans. Supporting photochemical and theoretical characterization studies indicate that (i) the four bacteriochlorins have comparable photophysical features in homogeneous solution and (ii) the anticipated redox characteristics do not correlate with cell-killing ability. These results support the interpretation that the disparate biological activities observed stem from cellular binding and localization effects rather than intrinsic electronic properties. These findings further establish cationic bacteriochlorins as extremely active and selective near-infrared activated antimicrobial photosensitizers, and the results provide fundamental information on structure-activity relationships for antimicrobial photosensitizers.