The Optimized Workflow for Sample Preparation in LC-MS/MS-Based Urine Proteomics
ABSTRACT: The sample condition is an important factor in urine proteomics with stability and accuracy. However, a general protocol of urine protein preparation in mass spectrometry analysis has not yet been established. Here, we proposed a workflow for optimized sample preparation based on methanol/chloroform (M/C) precipitation and in-solution trypsin digestion in LC-MS/MS-based urine proteomics. The urine proteins prepared by M/C precipitation showed around 80% of the protein recovery rate. The samples showed the largest number of identified proteins, which were over 1000 on average compared with other precipitation methods in LC-MS/MS-based urine proteomics. For further improvement of the workflow, the essences were arranged in protein dissolving and trypsin digestion step for the extraction of urine proteins. Addition of Ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) dramatically enhanced the dissolution of protein and promoted the trypsin activity in the digestion step because the treatment increased the number of identified proteins with less missed cleavage sites. Eventually, an optimized workflow was established by a well-organized strategy for daily use in the LC-MS/MS-based urine proteomics. The workflow will be of great help for several aims based on urine proteomics approaches, such as diagnosis and biomarker discovery.
Project description:To design a robust quantitative proteomics study, an understanding of both the inherent heterogeneity of the biological samples being studied as well as the technical variability of the proteomics methods and platform is needed. Additionally, accurately identifying the technical steps associated with the largest variability would provide valuable information for the improvement and design of future processing pipelines. We present an experimental strategy that allows for a detailed examination of the variability of the quantitative LC-MS proteomics measurements. By replicating analyses at different stages of processing, various technical components can be estimated and their individual contribution to technical variability can be dissected. This design can be easily adapted to other quantitative proteomics pipelines. Herein, we applied this methodology to our label-free workflow for the processing of human brain tissue. For this application, the pipeline was divided into four critical components: Tissue dissection and homogenization (extraction), protein denaturation followed by trypsin digestion and SPE cleanup (digestion), short-term run-to-run instrumental response fluctuation (instrumental variance), and long-term drift of the quantitative response of the LC-MS/MS platform over the 2 week period of continuous analysis (instrumental stability). From this analysis, we found the following contributions to variability: extraction (72%) >> instrumental variance (16%) > instrumental stability (8.4%) > digestion (3.1%). Furthermore, the stability of the platform and its suitability for discovery proteomics studies is demonstrated.
Project description:Proper sample preparation protocols represent a critical step for liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based proteomic study designs and influence the speed, performance and automation of high-throughput data acquisition. The main objective of this study was to compare two commercial solid-phase extraction (SPE)-based sample preparation protocols (comprising SOLAµTM HRP SPE spin plates from Thermo Fisher Scientific and ZIPTIP® C18 pipette tips from Merck Millipore) for analytical performance, reproducibility, and analysis speed. The house swine represents a promising animal model for studying human eye diseases including glaucoma and provides excellent requirements for the qualitative and quantitative MS-based comparison in terms of ocular proteomics. In total six technical replicates of two protein fractions [extracted with 0.1% dodecyl-ß-maltoside (DDM) or 1% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA)] of porcine retinal tissues were subjected to in-gel trypsin digestion and purified with both SPE-based workflows (N = 3) prior to LC-MS analysis. On average, 550 ± 70 proteins (1512 ± 199 peptides) and 305 ± 48 proteins (806 ± 144 peptides) were identified from DDM and TFA protein fractions, respectively, after ZIPTIP® C18 purification, and SOLAµTM workflow resulted in the detection of 513 ± 55 proteins (1347 ± 180 peptides) and 300 ± 33 proteins (722 ± 87 peptides), respectively (FDR < 1%). Venn diagram analysis revealed an average overlap of 65 ± 2% (DDM fraction) and 69 ± 4% (TFA fraction) in protein identifications between both SPE-based methods. Quantitative analysis of 25 glaucoma-related protein markers also showed no significant differences (P > 0.05) regarding protein recovery between both SPE methods. However, only glaucoma-associated marker MECP2 showed a significant (P = 0.02) higher abundance in ZIPTIP®-purified replicates in comparison to SOLAµTM-treated study samples. Nevertheless, this result was not confirmed in the verification experiment using in-gel trypsin digestion of recombinant MECP2 (P = 0.24). In conclusion, both SPE-based purification methods worked equally well in terms of analytical performance and reproducibility, whereas the analysis speed and the semi-automation of the SOLAµTM spin plates workflow is much more convenient in comparison to the ZIPTIP® C18 method.
Project description:The in-depth analysis of complex proteome samples requires fractionation of the sample into subsamples prior to LC-MS/MS in shotgun proteomics experiments. We have established a 3D workflow for shotgun proteomics that relies on protein separation by 1D PAGE, gel fractionation, trypsin digestion, and peptide separation by in-gel IEF, prior to RP-HPLC-MS/MS. Our results show that applying peptide IEF can significantly increase the number of proteins identified from PAGE subfractionation. This method delivers deeper proteome coverage and provides a large degree of flexibility in experimentally approaching highly complex mixtures by still relying on protein separation according to molecular weight in the first dimension.
Project description:BACKGROUND: SDS-PAGE followed by in-gel digestion (IGD) is a popular workflow in mass spectrometry-based proteomics. In GeLC-MS/MS, a protein lysate of a biological sample is separated by SDS-PAGE and each gel lane is sliced in 5-20 slices which, after IGD, are analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The database search results for all slices of a biological sample are combined yielding global protein identification and quantification for each sample. In large scale GeLC-MS/MS experiments the manual processing steps including washing, reduction and alkylation become a bottleneck. Here we introduce the whole gel (WG) procedure where, prior to gel slice cutting, the processing steps are carried out on the whole gel. RESULTS: In two independent experiments human HCT116 cell lysate and mouse tumor tissue lysate were separated by 1D SDS PAGE. In a back to back comparison of the IGD procedure and the WG procedure, both protein identification (>80% overlap) and label-free protein quantitation (R2=0.94) are highly similar between procedures. Triplicate analysis of the WG procedure of both HCT116 cell lysate and formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tumor tissue showed identification reproducibility of >88% with a CV<20% on protein quantitation. CONCLUSIONS: The whole gel procedure allows for reproducible large-scale differential GeLC-MS/MS experiments, without a prohibitive amount of manual processing and with similar performance as conventional in-gel digestion. This procedure will especially enable clinical proteomics for which GeLC-MS/MS is a popular workflow and sample numbers are relatively high.
Project description:Despite its growing popularity and use, bottom-up proteomics remains a complex analytical methodology. Its general workflow consists of three main steps: sample preparation, liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and computational data analysis. Quality assessment of the different steps and components of this workflow is instrumental to identify technical flaws and avoid loss of precious measurement time and sample material. However, assessment of the extent of sample losses along with the sample preparation protocol, in particular, after proteolytic digestion, is not yet routinely implemented because of the lack of an accurate and straightforward method to quantify peptides. Here, we report on the use of a microfluidic UV/visible spectrophotometer to quantify MS-ready peptides directly in the MS-loading solvent, consuming only 2 ?L of sample. We compared the performance of the microfluidic spectrophotometer with a standard device and determined the optimal sample amount for LC-MS/MS analysis on a Q Exactive HF mass spectrometer using a dilution series of a commercial K562 cell digest. A careful evaluation of selected LC and MS parameters allowed us to define 3 ?g as an optimal peptide amount to be injected into this particular LC-MS/MS system. Finally, using tryptic digests from human HEK293T cells and showing that injecting equal peptide amounts, rather than approximate ones, result in less variable LC-MS/MS and protein quantification data. The obtained quality improvement together with easy implementation of the approach makes it possible to routinely quantify MS-ready peptides as a next step in daily proteomics quality control.
Project description:This study presents on-tissue proteolytic digestion using a microwave irradiation and peptide extraction method for in situ analysis of proteins from spatially defined regions of a tissue section. The methodology utilizes hydrogel discs (1 mm diameter) embedded with trypsin solution. The enzyme-laced hydrogel discs are applied to a tissue section, directing enzymatic digestion to a spatially confined area of the tissue. By applying microwave radiation, protein digestion is performed in 2 min on-tissue, and the extracted peptides are then analyzed by matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS) and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The reliability and reproducibility of the microwave assisted hydrogel mediated on-tissue digestion is demonstrated by the comparison with other on-tissue digestion strategies, including comparisons with conventional heating and in-solution digestion. LC-MS/MS data were evaluated considering the number of identified proteins as well as the number of protein groups and distinct peptides. The results of this study demonstrate that rapid and reliable protein digestion can be performed on a single thin tissue section while preserving the relationship between the molecular information obtained and the tissue architecture, and the resulting peptides can be extracted in sufficient abundance to permit analysis using LC-MS/MS. This approach will be most useful for samples that have limited availability but are needed for multiple analyses, especially for the correlation of proteomics data with histology and immunohistochemistry.
Project description:Sample preparation is a critical process for proteomic studies. Many efficient and reproducible sample preparation methods have been developed for mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis of human and animal tissues or cells, but no attempt has been made to evaluate these protocols for plants. We here present an LC-MS/MS-based proteomics study of barley leaf aimed at optimization of methods to achieve efficient and unbiased trypsin digestion of proteins prior to LC-MS/MS based sequencing and quantification of peptides. We evaluated two spin filter-aided sample preparation protocols using either sodium dodecyl-sulphate or sodium deoxycholate (SDC), and three in-solution digestion (ISD) protocols using SDC or trichloroacetic acid/acetone precipitation.The proteomics workflow identified and quantified up to 1800 barley proteins based on sequencing of up to 6900 peptides per sample. The two spin filter-based protocols provided a 12-38% higher efficiency than the ISD protocols, including more proteins of low abundance. Among the ISD protocols, a simple one-step reduction and S-alkylation method (OP-ISD) was the most efficient for barley leaf sample preparation; it identified and quantified 1500 proteins and displayed higher peptide-to-protein inference ratio and higher average amino acid sequence coverage of proteins. The two spin filter-aided sample preparation protocols are compatible with TMT labelling for quantitative proteomics studies. They exhibited complementary performance as about 30% of the proteins were identified by either one or the other protocol, but also demonstrated a positive bias for membrane proteins when using SDC as detergent.We provide detailed protocols for efficient plant protein sample preparation for LC-MS/MS-based proteomics studies. Spin filter-based protocols are the most efficient for the preparation of leaf samples for MS-based proteomics. However, a simple protocol provides comparable results although with different peptide digestion profile.
Project description:The ?-amylase/trypsin inhibitors (ATIs) are discussed as being responsible for non-celiac wheat sensitivity (NCWS), besides being known as allergenic components for baker's asthma. Different approaches for characterization and quantification including proteomics-based methods for wheat ATIs have been documented. In these studies generally the major ATIs have been addressed. The challenge of current study was then to develop a more comprehensive workflow encompassing all reviewed wheat-ATI entries in UniProt database. To substantially test proof of concept, 46 German and Turkish wheat samples were used. Two extractions systems based on chloroform/methanol mixture (CM) and under buffered denaturing conditions were evaluated. Three aspects were optimized, tryptic digestion, chromatographic separation, and targeted tandem mass spectrometric analysis (HPLC-MS/MS). Preliminary characterization with sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) documented the purity of the extracted ATIs with CM mixture and the amylase (60-80%)/trypsin (10-20%) inhibition demonstrated the bifunctional activity of ATIs. Thirteen (individual/common) biomarkers were established. Major ATIs (7-34%) were differently represented in samples. Finally, to our knowledge, the proposed HPLC-MS/MS method allowed for the first time so far the analysis of all 14 reviewed wheat ATI entries reported.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a vital role in regulating gene expression and are associated with a variety of cancers, including breast cancer. Their distorted and unique expression is a potential marker in clinical diagnoses and prognoses. Thus, accurate determination of miRNA expression levels is a prerequisite for their applications. However, the assays currently available for miRNA detection typically require pre-enrichment, amplification and labeling steps, and most of the assays are only semi-quantitative. Therefore, we developed a quasi-direct liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based targeted proteomics approach to quantify target miRNA by innovatively converting the miRNA signal into the mass response of a reporter peptide via a covalently immobilized DNA-peptide probe. Specifically, the probe containing the targeted proteomics-selected substrate/reporter peptide, GDRAVQLGVDPFR/AVQLGVDPFR, and the DNA sequence complementary to the target miRNA (i.e., miR-21) was first immobilized on APMTS modified silica nanoparticles using PDITC. After the immobilized probe was recognized and hybridized with the target miRNA, the excess probe was degraded using MBN and followed by a trypsin digestion of the hybrids. The reporter peptide was released and quantified using LC-MS/MS. The obtained LOQ was 5 pM. Finally, the developed assay was used for the quantitative analysis of miR-21 in breast cells and tissue samples.