A role for myosin Va in cerebellar plasticity and motor learning: a possible mechanism underlying neurological disorder in myosin Va disease.
ABSTRACT: Mutations of the myosin Va gene cause the neurological diseases Griscelli syndrome type 1 and Elejalde syndrome in humans and dilute phenotypes in rodents. To understand the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the neurological disorders in myosin Va diseases, we conducted an integrated analysis at the molecular, cellular, electrophysiological, and behavioral levels using the dilute-neurological (d-n) mouse mutant. These mice manifest an ataxic gait and clonic seizures during postnatal development, but the neurological disorders are ameliorated in adulthood. We found that smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER) rarely extended into the dendritic spines of Purkinje cells (PCs) of young d-n mice, and there were few, if any, IP(3) receptors. Moreover, long-term depression (LTD) at parallel fiber-PC synapses was abolished, consistent with our previous observations in juvenile lethal dilute mutants. Young d-n mice exhibited severe impairment of cerebellum-dependent motor learning. In contrast, adult d-n mice showed restoration of motor learning and LTD, and these neurological changes were associated with accumulation of SER and IP(3) receptors in some PC spines and the expression of myosin Va proteins in the PCs. RNA interference-mediated repression of myosin Va caused a reduction in the number of IP(3) receptor-positive spines in cultured PCs. These findings indicate that myosin Va function is critical for subsequent processes in localization of SER and IP(3) receptors in PC spines, LTD, and motor learning. Interestingly, d-n mice had defects of motor coordination from young to adult ages, suggesting that the role of myosin Va in PC spines is not sufficient for motor coordination.
Project description:The metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 1 (mGluR1, Grm1) in cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs) is essential for motor coordination and motor learning. At the synaptic level, mGluR1 has a critical role in long-term synaptic depression (LTD) at parallel fiber (PF)-PC synapses, and in developmental elimination of climbing fiber (CF)-PC synapses. mGluR1a, a predominant splice variant in PCs, has a long carboxyl (C)-terminal domain that interacts with Homer scaffolding proteins. Cerebellar roles of the C-terminal domain at both synaptic and behavior levels remain poorly understood. To address this question, we introduced a short variant, mGluR1b, which lacks this domain into PCs of mGluR1-knock-out (KO) mice (mGluR1b-rescue mice). In mGluR1b-rescue mice, mGluR1b showed dispersed perisynaptic distribution in PC spines. Importantly, mGluR1b-rescue mice exhibited impairments in inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R)-mediated Ca(2+) release, CF synapse elimination, LTD induction, and delay eyeblink conditioning: they showed normal transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) currents and normal motor coordination. In contrast, PC-specific rescue of mGluR1a restored all cerebellar defects of mGluR1-KO mice. We conclude that the long C-terminal domain of mGluR1a is required for the proper perisynaptic targeting of mGluR1, IP3R-mediated Ca(2+) release, CF synapse elimination, LTD, and motor learning, but not for TRPC currents and motor coordination.
Project description:The actin cytoskeleton is crucial for function and morphology of neuronal synapses. Moreover, altered regulation of the neuronal actin cytoskeleton has been implicated in neuropsychiatric diseases such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Myosin XVI is a neuronally expressed unconventional myosin known to bind the WAVE regulatory complex (WRC), a regulator of filamentous actin (F-actin) polymerization. Notably, the gene encoding the myosin's heavy chain (MYO16) shows genetic association with neuropsychiatric disorders including ASD. Here, we investigated whether myosin XVI plays a role for actin cytoskeleton regulation in the dendritic spines of cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs), a neuronal cell type crucial for motor learning, social cognition and vocalization. We provide evidence that both myosin XVI and the WRC component WAVE1 localize to PC spines. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) analysis of GFP-actin in cultured PCs shows that Myo16 knockout as well as PC-specific Myo16 knockdown, lead to faster F-actin turnover in the dendritic spines of PCs. We also detect accelerated F-actin turnover upon interference with the WRC, and upon inhibition of Arp2/3 that drives formation of branched F-actin downstream of the WRC. In contrast, inhibition of formins that are responsible for polymerization of linear actin filaments does not cause faster F-actin turnover. Together, our data establish myosin XVI as a regulator of the postsynaptic actin cytoskeleton and suggest that it is an upstream activator of the WRC-Arp2/3 pathway in PC spines. Furthermore, ultra-structural and electrophysiological analyses of Myo16 knockout cerebellum reveals the presence of reduced numbers of synaptic vesicles at presynaptic terminals in the absence of the myosin. Therefore, we here define myosin XVI as an F-actin regulator important for presynaptic organization in the cerebellum.
Project description:Extension of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) into dendritic spines of Purkinje neurons is required for cerebellar synaptic plasticity and is disrupted in animals with null mutations in Myo5a, the gene encoding myosin-Va. We show here that myosin-Va acts as a point-to-point organelle transporter to pull ER as cargo into Purkinje neuron spines. Specifically, myosin-Va accumulates at the ER tip as the organelle moves into spines, and hydrolysis of ATP by myosin-Va is required for spine ER targeting. Moreover, myosin-Va is responsible for almost all of the spine ER insertion events. Finally, attenuation of the ability of myosin-Va to move along actin filaments reduces the maximum velocity of ER movement into spines, providing direct evidence that myosin-Va drives ER motility. Thus, we have established that an actin-based motor moves ER within animal cells, and have uncovered the mechanism for ER localization to Purkinje neuron spines, a prerequisite for synaptic plasticity.
Project description:Our understanding of the organization of postsynaptic signaling systems at excitatory synapses has been aided by the identification of proteins in the postsynaptic density (PSD) fraction, a subcellular fraction enriched in structures with the morphology of PSDs. In this study, we have completed the identification of most major proteins in the PSD fraction with the use of an analytical method based on mass spectrometry coupled with searching of the protein sequence databases