Investigating colistin drug resistance: The role of high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics.
ABSTRACT: Bacterial infections involving antibiotic-resistant gram-negative bacteria continue to increase and represent a major global public health concern. Resistance to antibiotics in these bacteria is mediated by chromosomal and/or acquired resistance mechanisms, these give rise to multi-drug resistant (MDR), extensive-drug resistant (XDR) or pan-drug resistant (PDR) bacterial strains. Most recently, plasmid-mediated resistance to colistin, an antibiotic that had been set apart as the last resort antibiotic in the treatment of infections involving MDR, XDR and PDR gram-negative bacteria has been reported. Plasmid-mediated colistin resistant gram-negative bacteria have been described to be PDR, implying a state devoid of alternative antibiotic therapeutic options. This review concisely describes the evolution of antibiotic resistance to plasmid-mediated colistin resistance and discusses the potential role of high-throughput sequencing technologies, genomics, and bioinformatics towards improving antibiotic resistance surveillance, the search for novel drug targets and precision antibiotic therapy focused at combating colistin resistance, and antibiotic resistance as a whole.
Project description:Background and Objective. Antimicrobial resistance is now a major challenge to clinicians for treating patients. Hence, this short term study was undertaken to detect the incidence of multidrug-resistant (MDR), extensively drug-resistant (XDR), and pandrug-resistant (PDR) bacterial isolates in a tertiary care hospital. Material and Methods. The clinical samples were cultured and bacterial strains were identified in the department of microbiology. The antibiotic susceptibility profile of different bacterial isolates was studied to detect MDR, XDR, and PDR bacteria. Results. The antibiotic susceptibility profile of 1060 bacterial strains was studied. 393 (37.1%) bacterial strains were MDR, 146 (13.8%) strains were XDR, and no PDR was isolated. All (100%) Gram negative bacterial strains were sensitive to colistin whereas all (100%) Gram positive bacterial strains were sensitive to vancomycin. Conclusion. Close monitoring of MDR, XDR, or even PDR must be done by all clinical microbiology laboratories to implement effective measures to reduce the menace of antimicrobial resistance.
Project description:The last three decades have seen a dwindling number of novel antibiotic classes approved for clinical use and a concurrent increase in levels of antibiotic resistance, necessitating alternative methods to combat the rise of multi-drug resistant bacteria. A promising strategy employs antibiotic adjuvants, non-toxic molecules that disarm antibiotic resistance. When co-dosed with antibiotics, these compounds restore antibiotic efficacy in drug-resistant strains. Herein we identify derivatives of tryptamine, a ubiquitous biochemical scaffold containing an indole ring system, capable of disarming colistin resistance in the Gram-negative bacterial pathogens Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Escherichia coli while having no inherent bacterial toxicity. Resistance was overcome in strains carrying endogenous chromosomally-encoded colistin resistance machinery, as well as resistance conferred by the mobile colistin resistance-1 (mcr-1) plasmid-borne gene. These compounds restore a colistin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) below the Clinical & Laboratory Sciences Institute (CLSI) breakpoint in all resistant strains.
Project description:Antibiotic resistance is a major problem in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, the causative agent of typhoid. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates are prevalent in parts of Asia and Africa and are often associated with the dominant H58 haplotype. Reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones is also widespread, and sporadic cases of resistance to third-generation cephalosporins or azithromycin have also been reported. Here, we report the first large-scale emergence and spread of a novel S Typhi clone harboring resistance to three first-line drugs (chloramphenicol, ampicillin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole) as well as fluoroquinolones and third-generation cephalosporins in Sindh, Pakistan, which we classify as extensively drug resistant (XDR). Over 300 XDR typhoid cases have emerged in Sindh, Pakistan, since November 2016. Additionally, a single case of travel-associated XDR typhoid has recently been identified in the United Kingdom. Whole-genome sequencing of over 80 of the XDR isolates revealed remarkable genetic clonality and sequence conservation, identified a large number of resistance determinants, and showed that these isolates were of haplotype H58. The XDR S Typhi clone encodes a chromosomally located resistance region and harbors a plasmid encoding additional resistance elements, including the blaCTX-M-15 extended-spectrum ?-lactamase, and carrying the qnrS fluoroquinolone resistance gene. This antibiotic resistance-associated IncY plasmid exhibited high sequence identity to plasmids found in other enteric bacteria isolated from widely distributed geographic locations. This study highlights three concerning problems: the receding antibiotic arsenal for typhoid treatment, the ability of S Typhi to transform from MDR to XDR in a single step by acquisition of a plasmid, and the ability of XDR clones to spread globally.IMPORTANCE Typhoid fever is a severe disease caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. Antibiotic-resistant S Typhi strains have become increasingly common. Here, we report the first large-scale emergence and spread of a novel extensively drug-resistant (XDR) S Typhi clone in Sindh, Pakistan. The XDR S Typhi is resistant to the majority of drugs available for the treatment of typhoid fever. This study highlights the evolving threat of antibiotic resistance in S Typhi and the value of antibiotic susceptibility testing and whole-genome sequencing in understanding emerging infectious diseases. We genetically characterized the XDR S Typhi to investigate the phylogenetic relationship between these isolates and a global collection of S Typhi isolates and to identify multiple genes linked to antibiotic resistance. This S Typhi clone harbored a promiscuous antibiotic resistance plasmid previously identified in other enteric bacteria. The increasing antibiotic resistance in S Typhi observed here adds urgency to the need for typhoid prevention measures.
Project description:Nosocomial infections caused by extensively drug-resistant (XDR) or Pan-Drug resistant (PDR) Acinetobacter (A.) baumannii have recently increased dramatically creating a medical challenge as therapeutic options became very limited. The aim of our study was to investigate the antibiotic-resistance profiles and evaluate the various combinations of ciprofloxacin (CIP) or levofloxacin (LEV) with antimicrobial agents and non-antimicrobial agents to combat antimicrobial resistance of XDR A. baumannii. A total of 100 (6.25%) A. baumannii clinical isolates were recovered from 1600 clinical specimens collected from hospitalized patients of two major university hospitals in Upper Egypt. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were carried out according to CLSI guidelines. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the respective isolates showed a high percentage of bacterial resistance to 19 antimicrobial agents ranging from 76 to99%. However, a lower percentage of resistance was observed for only colistin (5%) and doxycycline (57%). The isolates were categorized as PDR (2; 2%), XDR (68; 68%), and multi-drug resistant (MDR) (30; 30%). Genotypic analysis using ERIC-PCR on 2 PDR and 32 selected XDR isolates showed that they were not clonal. Combinations of CIP or LEV with antibiotics (including, ampicillin, ceftriaxone, amikacin, or doxycycline) were tested on these A. baumannii non-clonal isolates using standard protocols where fractional inhibitory concentrations (-FICs) were calculated. Results of the respective combinations showed synergism in 23.5%, 17.65%, 32.35%, 17.65% and 26.47%, 8.28%, 14.71%, 26.47%, of the tested isolates, respectively. CIP or LEV combinations with either chlorpromazine (CPZ) 200 ?g/ml, propranolol (PR) in two concentrations, 0.5 mg/ml and 1.0 mg/ml or diclofenac (DIC) 4 mg/ml were carried out and the MIC decrease factor (MDF) of each isolate was calculated and results showed synergism in 44%, 50%, 100%, 100% and 94%, 85%, 100%, 100%, of the tested isolates, respectively. In conclusion, combinations of CIP or LEV with CPZ, PR, or DIC showed synergism in most of the selected PDR and XDR A. baumannii clinical isolates. However, these combinations have to be re-evaluated in vivo using appropriate animal models infected by XDR- or PDR- A. baumannii.
Project description:Resistance to colistin, a polypeptide drug used as an agent of last resort for the treatment of infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Gram-negative bacteria, including carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), severely limits treatment options and may even transform an XDR organism into one that is pan-resistant. We investigated the synergistic activity of colistin in combination with 19 antibiotics against a collection of 20 colistin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolates, 15 of which were also CRE. All combinations were tested against all strains using an inkjet printer-assisted digital dispensing checkerboard array, and the activities of those that demonstrated synergy by this method were evaluated against a single isolate in a time-kill synergy study. Eighteen of 19 combinations demonstrated synergy against two or more isolates, and the 4 most highly synergistic combinations (colistin combined with linezolid, rifampin, azithromycin, and fusidic acid) were synergistic against ≥90% of strains. Sixteen of 18 combinations (88.9%) that were synergistic in the checkerboard array were also synergistic in a time-kill study. Our findings demonstrate that colistin in combination with a range of antibiotics, particularly protein and RNA synthesis inhibitors, exhibits synergy against colistin-resistant strains, suggesting that colistin may exert a subinhibitory permeabilizing effect on the Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane even in isolates that are resistant to it. These findings suggest that colistin combination therapy may have promise as a treatment approach for patients infected with colistin-resistant XDR Gram-negative pathogens.
Project description:Antibiotic resistance has significantly increased since the beginning of the 21st century. Currently, the polymyxin colistin is typically viewed as the antibiotic of last resort for the treatment of multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacterial infections. However, increased colistin usage has resulted in colistin-resistant bacterial isolates becoming more common. The recent dissemination of plasmid-borne colistin resistance genes (<i>mcr 1-8</i>) into the human pathogen pool is further threatening to render colistin therapy ineffective. New methods to combat antibiotic resistant pathogens are needed. Herein, the utilization of a colistin-adjuvant combination that is effective against colistin-resistant bacteria is described. At 5 ?M, the lead adjuvant, which is nontoxic to the bacteria alone, increases colistin efficacy 32-fold against bacteria containing the <i>mcr-1</i> gene and effects a 1024-fold increase in colistin efficacy against bacteria harboring chromosomally encoded colistin resistance determinants; these combinations lower the colistin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) to or below clinical breakpoint levels (?2 ?g/mL).
Project description:The spread of multi-resistant infections represents a continuously growing problem in cirrhosis, particularly in patients in contact with the healthcare environment.Our prospective study aimed to analyze epidemiology, prevalence and risk factors of multi-resistant infections, as well as the rate of failure of empirical antibiotic therapy in cirrhotic patients.All consecutive cirrhotic patients hospitalized between 2008 and 2013 with a microbiologically-documented infection (MDI) were enrolled. Infections were classified as Community-Acquired (CA), Hospital-Acquired (HA) and Healthcare-Associated (HCA). Bacteria were classified as Multidrug-Resistant (MDR) if resistant to at least three antimicrobial classes, Extensively-Drug-Resistant (XDR) if only sensitive to one/two classes and Pandrug-Resistant (PDR) if resistant to all classes.One-hundred-twenty-four infections (15% CA, 52% HA, 33% HCA) were observed in 111 patients. Urinary tract infections, pneumonia and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis were the more frequent. Forty-seven percent of infections were caused by Gram-negative bacteria. Fifty-one percent of the isolates were multi-resistant to antibiotic therapy (76% MDR, 21% XDR, 3% PDR): the use of antibiotic prophylaxis (OR = 8.4; 95%CI = 1.03-76; P = 0,05) and current/recent contact with the healthcare-system (OR = 3.7; 95%CI = 1.05-13; P = 0.04) were selected as independent predictors. The failure of the empirical antibiotic therapy was progressively more frequent according to the degree of resistance. The therapy was inappropriate in the majority of HA and HCA infections.Multi-resistant infections are increasing in hospitalized cirrhotic patients. A better knowledge of the epidemiological characteristics is important to improve the efficacy of empirical antibiotic therapy. The use of preventive measures aimed at reducing the spread of multi-resistant bacteria is also essential.
Project description:A major increase of bacterial resistance to colistin, a last-resort treatment for severe infections, was observed globally. Using colistin in livestock rearing is believed to be the ground of mobilized colistin resistance (<i>mcr</i>) gene circulation and is of crucial concern to public health. This study aimed to determine the frequency and virulence characteristics of colistin-resistant Gram-negative bacteria from the milk of mastitic cows and raw unpasteurized milk in Egypt. One hundred and seventeen strains belonging to <i>Enterobacteriaceae</i> (<i>n</i> = 90), <i>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</i> (<i>n</i> = 10), and <i>Aeromonas hydrophila</i> (<i>n</i> = 17) were screened for colistin resistance by antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The genetic characteristics of colistin-resistant strains were investigated for <i>mcr</i>-<i>1-9</i> genes, phylogenetic groups, and virulence genes. Moreover, we evaluated four commonly used biocides in dairy farms for teat disinfection toward colistin-resistant strains. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensive drug-resistant (XDR) phenotypes were detected in 82.91% (97/117) and 3.42% (4/117) of the isolates, respectively. Of the 117 tested isolates, 61 (52.14%) were colistin resistant (MIC >2 mg/L), distributed as 24/70 (34.29%) from clinical mastitis, 10/11 (90.91%) from subclinical mastitis, and 27/36 (75%) from raw milk. Of these 61 colistin-resistant isolates, 47 (19 from clinical mastitis, 8 from subclinical mastitis, and 20 from raw milk) harbored plasmid-borne <i>mcr</i> genes. The <i>mcr-1</i> gene was identified in 31.91%, <i>mcr-2</i> in 29.79%, <i>mcr-3</i> in 34.04%, and each of <i>mcr-4</i> and <i>mcr-7</i> in 2.13% of the colistin-resistant isolates. Among these isolates, 42.55% (20/47) were <i>E. coli</i>, 21.28% (10/47) <i>A. hydrophila</i>, 19.12% (9/47) <i>K. pneumoniae</i>, and 17.02% (8/47) <i>P. aeruginosa</i>. This is the first report of <i>mcr</i>-3 and <i>mcr</i>-7 in <i>P. aeruginosa</i>. Conjugation experiments using the broth-mating technique showed successful transfer of colistin resistance to <i>E. coli</i> J53-recipient strain. Different combinations of virulence genes were observed among colistin-resistant isolates with almost all isolates harboring genes. Hydrogen peroxide has the best efficiency against all bacterial isolates even at a low concentration (10%). In conclusion, the dissemination of mobile colistin resistance <i>mcr</i> gene and its variants between MDR- and XDR-virulent Gram-negative isolates from dairy cattle confirms the spread of <i>mcr</i> genes at all levels; animals, humans, and environmental, and heralds the penetration of the last-resort antimicrobial against MDR bacteria. Consequently, a decision to ban colistin in food animals is urgently required to fight XDR and MDR bacteria.
Project description:Resistance to the last-resort antibiotic colistin is now widespread and new therapeutics are urgently required. We report the first in toto chemical synthesis and pre-clinical evaluation of octapeptins, a class of lipopeptides structurally related to colistin. The octapeptin biosynthetic cluster consisted of three non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (OctA, OctB, and OctC) that produced an amphiphilic antibiotic, octapeptin C4, which was shown to bind to and depolarize membranes. While active against multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains in vitro, octapeptin C4 displayed poor in vivo efficacy, most likely due to high plasma protein binding. Nuclear magnetic resonance solution structures, empirical structure-activity and structure-toxicity models were used to design synthetic octapeptins active against MDR and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) bacteria. The scaffold was then subtly altered to reduce plasma protein binding, while maintaining activity against MDR and XDR bacteria. In vivo efficacy was demonstrated in a murine bacteremia model with a colistin-resistant P. aeruginosa clinical isolate.
Project description:Plasmid-borne colistin resistance mediated by mcr-1 may contribute to the dissemination of pan-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Here, we show that mcr-1 confers resistance to colistin-induced lysis and bacterial cell death, but provides minimal protection from the ability of colistin to disrupt the Gram-negative outer membrane. Indeed, for colistin-resistant strains of Enterobacteriaceae expressing plasmid-borne mcr-1, clinically relevant concentrations of colistin potentiate the action of antibiotics that, by themselves, are not active against Gram-negative bacteria. The result is that several antibiotics, in combination with colistin, display growth-inhibition at levels below their corresponding clinical breakpoints. Furthermore, colistin and clarithromycin combination therapy displays efficacy against mcr-1-positive Klebsiella pneumoniae in murine thigh and bacteremia infection models at clinically relevant doses. Altogether, these data suggest that the use of colistin in combination with antibiotics that are typically active against Gram-positive bacteria poses a viable therapeutic alternative for highly drug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens expressing mcr-1.