Comparing the Microbial Community in Four Stomach of Dairy Cattle, Yellow Cattle and Three Yak Herds in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.
ABSTRACT: Yak (Bos grunniens) is an unique ruminant species in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). The ruminant gastrointestinal tract (GIT) microbiota is not only associated with the nutrients metabolism, but also contributes to the host's local adaptation. Examining the microbiota between cattle and yak in different geography could improve our understanding about the role of microbiota in metabolism and adaptation. To this end, we compared the microbiota in rumen, reticulum, omasum, and abomasum of dairy cattle, yellow cattle, and three yak herds (WQ yak, SZ yak, and ZB yak) lived in different altitude, based on sequencing the bacterial 16S rRNA gene on Illumina Miseq. The bacterial diversity was significantly different among five breeds, whereas the difference among four stomach regions is limited. The phyla Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were the dominated bacteria regardless of breeds and regions. The nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) results showed that the microbiota in dairy cattle, yellow cattle and WQ yak significantly differed from that in SZ yak and ZB yak for all four stomach compartments. Canonical correlation analysis revealed that Prevotella and Succiniclasticum spp. were abundant in dairy cattle, yellow cattle and WQ yak, whereas the Christensenellaceae R7 group and the Lachnospiraceae UCG 008 group were prevalent in SZ yak and ZB yak. Moreover, the microbiota in WQ yak was significantly different from that in SZ yak and ZB yak, which were characterized by the higher relative abundance Romboutsia spp., Eubacterium coprostanoligenes, Acetobacter spp., Mycoplasma spp., and Rikenellaceae RC9 group. Overall, these results improves our knowledge about the GIT microbiota composition of QTP ruminant.
Project description:BACKGROUND:On the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, known as the roof ridge of the world, the yak is a precious cattle species that has been indispensable to the human beings living in this high-altitude area. However, the origin of domestication, dispersal route, and the divergence of domestic yaks from different areas are poorly understood. RESULTS:Here, we resequenced the genome of 91 domestic yak individuals from 31 populations and 1 wild yaks throughout China. Using a population genomics approach, we observed considerable genetic variation. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the earliest domestications of yak occurred in the south-eastern QTP, followed by dispersal to the west QTP and northeast to SiChuang, Gansu, and Qinghai by two routes. Interestingly, we also found potential associations between the distribution of some breeds and historical trade routes such as the Silk Road and Tang-Tibet Ancient Road. Selective analysis identified 11 genes showing differentiation between domesticated and wild yaks and the potentially positively selected genes in each group were identified and compared among domesticated groups. We also detected an unbalanced pattern of introgression among domestic yak, wild yak, and Tibetan cattle. CONCLUSIONS:Our research revealed population genetic evidence for three groups of domestic yaks. In addition to providing genomic evidence for the domestication history of yaks, we identified potential selected genes and introgression, which provide a theoretical basis and resources for the selective breeding of superior characters and high-quality yak.
Project description:The rumen microbiota of ruminants plays a vital role in fiber digestion, and environmental factors affect its community structure. The yak (Bos grunniens) is the main livestock species that inhabits the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) at regions located at high-altitude of 3,000-5,000 m. This work investigated the rumen bacterial community of yak that grazed on the QTP during the whole year to evaluate the relationship between the rumen bacterial community and the nutrient composition of forage plant at three stages. In this study, the diversity of the rumen prokaryotic community composition was monitored in 10 full-grazing yak in an alpine meadow of the QTP. The nutrient composition of three forage growth stages was determined: re-green stage (REGY), grassy stage (GY), and withered stage (WGY). High-throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene was used. The results showed that the nutritive composition of the alpine meadow changed with the seasons: crude protein (CP) (13.22%) was high in forage during REGY (spring), while neutral detergent fiber (NDF) (59.00%) was high during WGY (winter). Microbial diversity and richness were highest during REGY and the average number of operational taxonomic units from 30 samples was 4,470. The microbial composition was dominated by members of Bacteroidetes (51.82%), followed by Firmicutes (34.08%), and the relative microbial abundance changed in the three forage growth stages. Unweighted UniFrac distance PcoA showed that the bacterial community structure differed between REGY, GY, and WGY. Furthermore, taxonomic groups did not present differences regarding gender in these three stages. The rumen microbiota was enriched with functional potentials that were related to ABC transporters, the two-component system, Aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, and metabolism of Purine, Pyrimidine, Starch and sucrose metabolism. Significant differences were found in the composition, diversity, and function of yak ruminal microorganisms during different forage growth stages. This indicates that microbial changes in the rumen depend on changes in the forage nutritional composition. These findings provide evidence on the rumen microbial diversity of yaks in the QTP.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Methane emissions by methanogen from livestock ruminants have significantly contributed to the agricultural greenhouse gas effect. It is worthwhile to compare methanogen from "energy-saving" animal (yak) and normal animal (cattle) in order to investigate the link between methanogen structure and low methane production. RESULTS:Diversity of methanogens from the yak and cattle rumen was investigated by analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences from rumen digesta samples from four yaks (209 clones) and four cattle (205 clones) from the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau area (QTP). Overall, a total of 414 clones (i.e. sequences) were examined and assigned to 95 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) using MOTHUR, based upon a 98% species-level identity criterion. Forty-six OTUs were unique to the yak clone library and 34 OTUs were unique to the cattle clone library, while 15 OTUs were found in both libraries. Of the 95 OTUs, 93 putative new species were identified. Sequences belonging to the Thermoplasmatales-affiliated Linage C (TALC) were found to dominate in both libraries, accounting for 80.9% and 62.9% of the sequences from the yak and cattle clone libraries, respectively. Sequences belonging to the Methanobacteriales represented the second largest clade in both libraries. However, Methanobrevibacter wolinii (QTPC 110) was only found in the cattle library. The number of clones from the order Methanomicrobiales was greater in cattle than in the yak clone library. Although the Shannon index value indicated similar diversity between the two libraries, the Libshuff analysis indicated that the methanogen community structure of the yak was significantly different than those from cattle. CONCLUSION:This study revealed for the first time the molecular diversity of methanogen community in yaks and cattle in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau area in China. From the analysis, we conclude that yaks have a unique rumen microbial ecosystem that is significantly different from that of cattle, this may also help to explain why yak produce less methane than cattle.
Project description:Globally methane (CH4) emissions from ruminant livestock account for 29% of total CH4 emissions. Inherited variation about CH4 emissions of different animal species might provide new opportunity for manipulating CH4 production. Six rumen-simulating fermenters (Rusitec) were set up for this study lasting for 16 d. The diet consisted of forage to concentrate ratio of 50:50 with barley straw as the forage. Treated vessels were supplied with rumen fluid from yak or cattle (3 vessels per animal species). Microbial growth was measured using 15N as a marker. The microbial community structure from liquid- and solid-fraction of each vessel was determined based on the 16S rRNA genes targeting both bacteria and archaea with MiSeq platform. CH4 yield was lower when the inoculum used from yak than that from cattle (0.26 and 0.33 mmol CH4/g dry matter intake, respectively). Lower H2 production was observed in Rusitec fermenters with rumen fluid from yak compare with that from cattle (0.28 and 0.86 mmol/d, respectively). The apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber, the isovalerate percentage with respect to the total amount of volatile fatty acids, the hydrogen recovery, and the proportion of liquid-associated microbial nitrogen derived from ammonia-nitrogen were higher in Rusitec fermenters incubated with rumen fluid from cattle than that from yak. The relative abundances of methanogens were no difference between two animal species. We hypothesize that more H2 production contributes to the higher methane emissions in cattle compare with yak.
Project description:Yak domestication represents an important episode in the early human occupation of the high-altitude Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP). The precise timing of domestication is debated and little is known about the underlying genetic changes that occurred during the process. Here we investigate genome variation of wild and domestic yaks. We detect signals of selection in 209 genes of domestic yaks, several of which relate to behaviour and tameness. We date yak domestication to 7,300 years before present (yr BP), most likely by nomadic people, and an estimated sixfold increase in yak population size by 3,600 yr BP. These dates coincide with two early human population expansions on the QTP during the early-Neolithic age and the late-Holocene, respectively. Our findings add to an understanding of yak domestication and its importance in the early human occupation of the QTP.
Project description:Bartonella spp. are worldwide-distributed facultative intracellular bacteria that exhibit an immense genomic diversity across mammal and arthropod hosts. The occurrence of cattle-associated Bartonella species was investigated in the cattle tail louse Haematopinus quadripertusus and in dairy cattle blood from Israel. Lice were collected from cattle from two dairy farms during summer 2011, and both lice and cow blood samples were collected from additional seven farms during the successive winter. The lice were identified morphologically and molecularly using 18S rRNA sequencing. Thereafter, they were screened for Bartonella DNA by conventional and real-time PCR assays using four partial genetic loci (gltA, rpoB, ssrA, and internal transcribed spacer [ITS]). A potentially novel Bartonella variant, closely related to other ruminant bartonellae, was identified in 11 of 13 louse pools collected in summer. In the cattle blood, the prevalence of Bartonella infection was 38%, identified as B. bovis and B. henselae (24 and 12%, respectively). A third genotype, closely related to Bartonella melophagi and Bartonella chomelii (based on the ssrA gene) and to B. bovis (based on the ITS sequence) was identified in a single cow. The relatively high prevalence of these Bartonella species in cattle and the occurrence of phylogenetically diverse Bartonella variants in both cattle and their lice suggest the potential role of this animal system in the generation of Bartonella species diversity.
Project description:Lactation provides the singular source of nourishment to the offspring of mammals. This nutrition source also contains a diverse microbiota affecting the development and health of the newborn. Here, we examined the milk microbiota in water deer (Hydropotes inermis, the most primitive member of the family Cervidae), reindeer (Rangifer tarandus, the oldest semi-domesticated cervid), and the dairy goat (Capra aegagrus, member of the family Bovidae), to determine if common milk microbiota species were present across all three ruminant species. The results showed that water deer had the highest bacterial diversity, followed by reindeer, and then goat. Unifrac distance and correspondence analyses revealed that water deer harbored an increased abundance of Pseudomonas spp. and Acinetobacter spp., while milk from reindeer and goat was dominated by unclassified bacteria from the family Hyphomicrobiaceae and Bacillus spp., respectively. These data indicate significant differences in the composition of milk-based bacterial communities. The presence of Halomonas spp. in three distinct co-occurrence networks of bacterial interactions revealed both common and unique features in milk niches. These results suggest that the milk of water deer and reindeer harbor unique bacterial communities compared with the goat, which might reflect host microbial adaptation caused by evolution.
Project description:In bovine species, mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms and their correlation to productive or reproductive performances have been widely reported across breeds and individuals. However, experimental evidence of this correlation has never been provided. In order to identify differences among bovine mtDNA haplotypes, transmitochondrial cybrids were generated, with the nucleus from MAC-T cell line, derived from a Holstein dairy cow (Bos taurus) and mitochondria from either primary cell line derived from a domestic Chinese native beef Luxi cattle breed or central Asian domestic yak (Bos grunniens). Yak primary cells illustrated a stronger metabolic capacity than that of Luxi. However, all yak cybrid parameters illustrated a drop in relative yak mtDNA compared to Luxi mtDNA, in line with a mitonuclear imbalance in yak interspecies cybrid. Luxi has 250 divergent variations relative to the mitogenome of Holsteins. In cybrids there were generally higher rates of oxygen consumption (OCR) and extracellular acidification (ECAR), and lower mRNA expression levels of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes, potentially reflecting active energy metabolism and cellular stress resistance. The results demonstrate that functional differences exist between bovine cybrid cells. While cybrid viability was similar between Holstein and Luxi breeds, the mitonuclear mismatch caused a marked metabolic dysfunction in cattle:yak cybrid species.
Project description:Quantitative trait loci (QTL) studies have indicated growth hormone receptor (GHR) as a candidate gene affecting cattle milk yield and composition. In order to characterize genetic variation at GHR in cattle, we studied European and East African breeds with different histories of selection, and Bos grunniens, Ovis aries, Sus scrofa, Bison bison and Rangifer tarandus as references. We sequenced most of the cytoplasmic domain (900 bp of exon 10), 89 bp of exon 8, including the putative causative mutation for the QTL effect, and 390 bp of intron 8 for comparison. In the cytoplasmic domain, seven synonymous and seven non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) were identified in cattle. Three non-synonymous SNPs were found in sheep and one synonymous SNP in yak, while other studied species were monomorphic. Three major haplotypes were observed, one unique to African breeds, one unique to European breeds and one shared. Bison and yak haplotypes are derivatives of the European haplotype lineage. Most of the exon 10 non-synonymous cattle SNPs appear at phylogenetically highly conserved sites. The polymorphisms in exon 10 cluster around a ruminant-specific tyrosine residue, suggesting that this site may act as an additional signalling domain of GHR in ruminants. Alternative explanations for the persistent polymorphism include balancing selection, hitch-hiking, pleiotropic or sexually antagonistic fitness effects or relaxed functional constraints.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The microbiota of an animal's intestinal tract plays important roles in the animal's overall health, productivity and well-being. There is still a scarcity of information on the microbial diversity in the gut of livestock species such as cattle. The primary reason for this lack of data relates to the expense of methods needed to generate such data. Here we have utilized a bacterial tag-encoded FLX 16s rDNA amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP) approach that is able to perform diversity analyses of gastrointestinal populations. bTEFAP is relatively inexpensive in terms of both time and labor due to the implementation of a novel tag priming method and an efficient bioinformatics pipeline. We have evaluated the microbiome from the feces of 20 commercial, lactating dairy cows. RESULTS: Ubiquitous bacteria detected from the cattle feces included Clostridium, Bacteroides, Porpyhyromonas, Ruminococcus, Alistipes, Lachnospiraceae, Prevotella, Lachnospira, Enterococcus, Oscillospira, Cytophage, Anaerotruncus, and Acidaminococcus spp. Foodborne pathogenic bacteria were detected in several of the cattle, a total of 4 cows were found to be positive for Salmonella spp (tentative enterica) and 6 cows were positive for Campylobacter spp. (tentative lanienae). CONCLUSION: Using bTEFAP we have examined the microbiota in the feces of cattle. As these methods continue to mature we will better understand the ecology of the major populations of bacteria the lower intestinal tract. This in turn will allow for a better understanding of ways in which the intestinal microbiome contributes to animal health, productivity and wellbeing.