Excessive exosome release is the pathogenic pathway linking a lysosomal deficiency to generalized fibrosis.
ABSTRACT: Lysosomal exocytosis is a ubiquitous process negatively regulated by neuraminidase 1 (NEU1), a sialidase mutated in the glycoprotein storage disease sialidosis. In Neu1-/- mice, excessive lysosomal exocytosis is at the basis of disease pathogenesis. Yet, the tissue-specific molecular consequences of this deregulated pathway are still unfolding. We now report that in muscle connective tissue, Neu1-/- fibroblasts have features of myofibroblasts and are proliferative, migratory, and exocytose large amounts of exosomes. These nanocarriers loaded with activated transforming growth factor-β and wingless-related integration site (WNT)/β-catenin signaling molecules propagate fibrotic signals to other cells, maintaining the tissue in a prolonged transitional status. Myofibroblast-derived exosomes fed to normal fibroblasts convert them into myofibroblasts, changing the recipient cells' proliferative and migratory properties. These findings reveal an unexpected exosome-mediated signaling pathway downstream of NEU1 deficiency that propagates a fibrotic disease and could be implicated in idiopathic forms of fibrosis in humans.
Project description:Understanding how tumor cells transition to an invasive and drug-resistant phenotype is central to cancer biology, but the mechanisms underlying this transition remain unclear. We show that sarcomas gain these malignant traits by inducing lysosomal exocytosis, a ubiquitous physiological process. During lysosomal exocytosis, the movement of exocytic lysosomes along the cytoskeleton and their docking at the plasma membrane involve LAMP1, a sialylated membrane glycoprotein and target of the sialidase NEU1. Cleavage of LAMP1 sialic acids by NEU1 limits the extent of lysosomal exocytosis. We found that by down-regulation of NEU1 and accumulation of oversialylated LAMP1, tumor cells exacerbate lysosomal exocytosis of soluble hydrolases and exosomes. This facilitates matrix invasion and propagation of invasive signals, and purging of lysosomotropic chemotherapeutics. In Arf (-?-) mice, Neu1 haploinsufficiency fostered the development of invasive, pleomorphic sarcomas, expressing epithelial and mesenchymal markers, and lysosomal exocytosis effectors, LAMP1 and Myosin-11. These features are analogous to those of metastatic, pleomorphic human sarcomas, where low NEU1 levels correlate with high expression of lysosomal exocytosis markers. In a therapeutic proof of principle, we demonstrate that inhibiting lysosomal exocytosis reversed invasiveness and chemoresistance in aggressive sarcoma cells. Thus, we reveal that this unconventional, lysosome-regulated pathway plays a primary role in tumor progression and chemoresistance.
Project description:Lysosomal exocytosis is a Ca2+-regulated mechanism that involves proteins responsible for cytoskeletal attachment and fusion of lysosomes with the plasma membrane. However, whether luminal lysosomal enzymes contribute to this process remains unknown. Here we show that neuraminidase NEU1 negatively regulates lysosomal exocytosis in hematopoietic cells by processing the sialic acids on the lysosomal membrane protein LAMP-1. In macrophages from NEU1-deficient mice, a model of the disease sialidosis, and in patients' fibroblasts, oversialylated LAMP-1 enhances lysosomal exocytosis. Silencing of LAMP-1 reverts this phenotype by interfering with the docking of lysosomes at the plasma membrane. In neu1-/- mice the excessive exocytosis of serine proteases in the bone niche leads to inactivation of extracellular serpins, premature degradation of VCAM-1, and loss of bone marrow retention. Our findings uncover an unexpected mechanism influencing lysosomal exocytosis and argue that exacerbations of this process form the basis for certain genetic diseases.
Project description:NEU1 sialidase hydrolyzes sialic acids from glycoconjugates in lysosomes. Deficiency of NEU1 causes sialidosis with symptoms including facial dysmorphism, bone dysplasia, and neurodegeneration. However, the effects of NEU1 deficiency on emotional activity have not been explored. Here, we conducted the behavioral analysis using Neu1-knockout zebrafish (Neu1-KO). Neu1-KO zebrafish showed normal swimming similar to wild-type zebrafish (WT), whereas shoaling was decreased and accompanied by greater inter-fish distance than WT zebrafish. The aggression test showed a reduced aggressive behavior in Neu1-KO zebrafish than in WT zebrafish. In the mirror and 3-chambers test, Neu1-KO zebrafish showed more interest toward the opponent in the mirror and multiple unfamiliar zebrafish, respectively, than WT zebrafish. Furthermore, Neu1-KO zebrafish also showed increased interaction with different fish species, whereas WT zebrafish avoided them. In the black-white preference test, Neu1-KO zebrafish showed an abnormal preference for the white region, whereas WT zebrafish preferred the black region. Neu1-KO zebrafish were characterized by a downregulation of the anxiety-related genes of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and upregulation of lamp1a, an activator of lysosomal exocytosis, with their brains accumulating several sphingoglycolipids. This study revealed that Neu1 deficiency caused abnormal emotional behavior in zebrafish, possibly due to neuronal dysfunction induced by lysosomal exocytosis.
Project description:Alzheimer's disease (AD) belongs to a category of adult neurodegenerative conditions, which are associated with intracellular and extracellular accumulation of neurotoxic protein aggregates. Understanding how these aggregates are formed, secreted and propagated by neurons has been the subject of intensive research, but so far no preventive or curative therapy for AD is available, and clinical trials have been largely unsuccessful. Here we show that deficiency of the lysosomal sialidase NEU1 leads to the spontaneous occurrence of an AD-like amyloidogenic process in mice. This involves two consecutive events linked to NEU1 loss-of-function--accumulation and amyloidogenic processing of an oversialylated amyloid precursor protein in lysosomes, and extracellular release of A? peptides by excessive lysosomal exocytosis. Furthermore, cerebral injection of NEU1 in an established AD mouse model substantially reduces ?-amyloid plaques. Our findings identify an additional pathway for the secretion of A? and define NEU1 as a potential therapeutic molecule for AD.
Project description:Sialidosis, caused by a genetic deficiency of the lysosomal sialidase gene (<i>NEU1</i>), is a systemic disease involving various tissues and organs, including the nervous system. Understanding the neurological dysfunction and pathology associated with sialidosis remains a challenge, partially due to the lack of a human model system. In this study, we have generated two types of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) with sialidosis-specific <i>NEU1<sup>G227R</sup></i> and <i>NEU1<sup>V275A/R347Q</sup></i> mutations (sialidosis-iPSCs), and further differentiated them into neural precursor cells (iNPCs). Characterization of <i>NEU1<sup>G227R</sup></i>- and <i>NEU1<sup>V275A/R347Q</sup></i>- mutated iNPCs derived from sialidosis-iPSCs (sialidosis-iNPCs) validated that sialidosis-iNPCs faithfully recapitulate key disease-specific phenotypes, including reduced NEU1 activity and impaired lysosomal and autophagic function. In particular, these cells showed defective differentiation into oligodendrocytes and astrocytes, while their neuronal differentiation was not notably affected. Importantly, we found that the phenotypic defects of sialidosis-iNPCs, such as impaired differentiation capacity, could be effectively rescued by the induction of autophagy with rapamycin. Our results demonstrate the first use of a sialidosis-iNPC model with <i>NEU1<sup>G227R</sup></i>- and <i>NEU1<sup>V275A/R347Q</sup></i>- mutation(s) to study the neurological defects of sialidosis, particularly those related to a defective autophagy-lysosome pathway, and may help accelerate the development of new drugs and therapeutics to combat sialidosis and other LSDs.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>Neuraminidase 1 (NEU1) cleaves terminal sialic acids of glycoconjugates during lysosomal catabolism. It also modulates the structure and activity of cellular surface receptors affecting diverse pathways. Previously we demonstrated that NEU1 activates the insulin receptor (IR) and that NEU1-deficient CathA<sup>S190A-Neo</sup> mice (hypomorph of the NEU1 activator protein, cathepsin A/CathA) on a high-fat diet (HFD) develop hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance faster than wild-type animals. The major objective of the current work was to reveal the molecular mechanism by which NEU1 desialylation activates the IR and to test if increase of NEU1 activity in insulin target tissues reverses insulin resistance and glucose intolerance.<h4>Methods</h4>To test if desialylation causes a conformational change in the IR dimer we measured interaction between the receptor subunits by Bioluminescence Resonance Energy Transfer in the HEK293T cells either overexpressing NEU1 or treated with the NEU1 inhibitor. The influence of NEU1 overexpression on insulin resistance was studied in vitro in palmitate-treated HepG2 cells transduced with NEU1-expressing lentivirus and in vivo in C57Bl6 mice treated with HFD and either pharmacological inducer of NEU1, Ambroxol or NEU1-expressing adenovirus. NEU1-deficient CathA<sup>S190A-Neo</sup> mice were used as a control.<h4>Results</h4>By desialylation of IR, NEU1 induced formation of its active dimer leading to insulin signaling. Overexpression of NEU1 in palmitate-treated HepG2 cells restored insulin signaling, suggesting that increased NEU1 levels may reverse insulin resistance. Five-day treatment of glycemic C57Bl6 mice receiving HFD with the activator of the lysosomal gene network, Ambroxol, increased NEU1 expression and activity in muscle tissue, normalized fasting glucose levels, and improved physiological and molecular responses to glucose and insulin. Ambroxol did not improve insulin sensitivity in obese insulin-resistant CathA<sup>S190A-Neo</sup> mice indicating that the Ambroxol effect is mediated through NEU1 induction. Sustained increase of liver NEU1 activity through adenovirus-based gene transfer failed to attenuate insulin resistance most probably due to negative feedback regulation of IR expression.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Together our results demonstrate that increase of NEU1 activity in insulin target tissues reverses insulin resistance and glucose intolerance suggesting that a pharmacological modulation of NEU1 activity may be potentially explored for restoring insulin sensitivity and resolving hyperglycemia associated with T2DM.
Project description:Neuraminidase-1 (NEU1) is the sialidase responsible for the catabolism of sialoglycoconjugates in lysosomes. Congenital NEU1 deficiency causes sialidosis, a severe lysosomal storage disease associated with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations, which also include skeletal deformities, skeletal muscle hypotonia and weakness. Neu1(-/-) mice, a model of sialidosis, develop an atypical form of muscle degeneration caused by progressive expansion of the connective tissue that infiltrates the muscle bed, leading to fiber degeneration and atrophy. Here we investigated the role of Neu1 in the myogenic process that ensues during muscle regeneration after cardiotoxin-induced injury of limb muscles. A comparative analysis of cardiotoxin-treated muscles from Neu1(-/-) mice and Neu1(+/+) mice showed increased inflammatory and proliferative responses in the absence of Neu1 during the early stages of muscle regeneration. This was accompanied by significant and sequential upregulation of Pax7, MyoD, and myogenin mRNAs. The levels of both MyoD and myogenin proteins decreased during the late stages of regeneration, which most likely reflected an increased rate of degradation of the myogenic factors in the Neu1(-/-) muscle. We also observed a delay in muscle cell differentiation, which was characterized by prolonged expression of embryonic myosin heavy chain, as well as reduced myofiber cross-sectional area. At the end of the regenerative process, collagen type III deposition was increased compared to wild-type muscles and internal controls, indicating the initiation of fibrosis. Overall, these results point to a role of Neu1 throughout muscle regeneration.
Project description:Cardiac fibrosis is a primary phenotype of cardiac remodeling that contributes to cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. The expansion and activation of CD4<sup>+</sup> T cells in the heart has been identified to facilitate pathological cardiac remodeling and dysfunction; however, the underlying mechanisms remained not well clarified. Herein, we found that exosomes derived from activated CD4<sup>+</sup> T cells (CD4-activated Exos) evoked pro-fibrotic effects of cardiac fibroblasts, and their delivery into the heart aggravated cardiac fibrosis and dysfunction post-infarction. Mechanistically, miR-142-3p that was enriched in CD4-activated Exos recapitulated the pro-fibrotic effects of CD4-activated Exos in cardiac fibroblasts, and vice versa. Furthermore, miR-142-3p directly targeted and inhibited the expression of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC), a negative WNT signaling pathway regulator, contributing to the activation of WNT signaling pathway and cardiac fibroblast activation. Thus, CD4-activated Exos promote post-ischemic cardiac fibrosis through exosomal miR-142-3p-WNT signaling cascade-mediated activation of myofibroblasts. Targeting miR-142-3p in CD4-activated Exos may hold promise for treating cardiac remodeling post-MI.
Project description:Lysosomal neuraminidase-1 (NEU1) forms a multienzyme complex with beta-galactosidase and protective protein/cathepsin A (PPCA). Because of its association with PPCA, which acts as a molecular chaperone, NEU1 is transported to the lysosomal compartment, catalytically activated, and stabilized. However, the mode(s) of association between these two proteins both en route to the lysosome and in the multienzyme complex has remained elusive. Here, we have analyzed the hydrodynamic properties of PPCA, NEU1, and a complex of the two proteins and identified multiple binding sites on both proteins. One of these sites on NEU1 that is involved in binding to PPCA can also bind to other NEU1 molecules, albeit with lower affinity. Therefore, in the absence of PPCA, as in the lysosomal storage disease galactosialidosis, NEU1 self-associates into chain-like oligomers. Binding of PPCA can reverse self-association of NEU1 by causing the disassembly of NEU1-oligomers and the formation of a PPCA-NEU1 heterodimeric complex. The identification of binding sites between the two proteins allowed us to create innovative structural models of the NEU1 oligomer and the PPCA-NEU1 heterodimeric complex. The proposed mechanism of interaction between NEU1 and its accessory protein PPCA provides a rationale for the secondary deficiency of NEU1 in galactosialidosis.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Aggregation and modification of LDLs (low-density lipoproteins) promote their retention and accumulation in the arteries. This is a critical initiating factor during atherosclerosis. Macrophage catabolism of agLDL (aggregated LDL) occurs using a specialized extracellular, hydrolytic compartment, the lysosomal synapse. Compartment formation by local actin polymerization and delivery of lysosomal contents by exocytosis promotes acidification of the compartment and degradation of agLDL. Internalization of metabolites, such as cholesterol, promotes foam cell formation, a process that drives atherogenesis. Furthermore, there is accumulating evidence for the involvement of TLR4 (Toll-like receptor 4) and its adaptor protein MyD88 (myeloid differentiation primary response 88) in atherosclerosis. Here, we investigated the role of TLR4 in catabolism of agLDL using the lysosomal synapse and foam cell formation. Approach and Results: Using bone marrow-derived macrophages from knockout mice, we find that TLR4 and MyD88 regulate compartment formation, lysosome exocytosis, acidification of the compartment, and foam cell formation. Using siRNA (small interfering RNA), pharmacological inhibition and knockout bone marrow-derived macrophages, we implicate SYK (spleen tyrosine kinase), PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase), and Akt in agLDL catabolism using the lysosomal synapse. Using bone marrow transplantation of LDL receptor knockout mice with TLR4 knockout bone marrow, we show that deficiency of TLR4 protects macrophages from lipid accumulation during atherosclerosis. Finally, we demonstrate that macrophages in vivo form an extracellular compartment and exocytose lysosome contents similar to that observed in vitro for degradation of agLDL.<h4>Conclusions</h4>We present a mechanism in which interaction of macrophages with agLDL initiates a TLR4 signaling pathway, resulting in formation of the lysosomal synapse, catabolism of agLDL, and lipid accumulation in vitro and in vivo.