Pooled library screening with multiplexed Cpf1 library.
ABSTRACT: Capitalizing on the inherent multiplexing capability of AsCpf1, we developed a multiplexed, high-throughput screening strategy that minimizes library size without sacrificing gene targeting efficiency. We demonstrated that AsCpf1 can be used for functional genomics screenings and that an AsCpf1-based multiplexed library performs similarly as compared to currently available monocistronic CRISPR/Cas9 libraries, with only one vector required for each gene. We construct the smallest whole-genome CRISPR knock-out library, Mini-human, for the human genome (n?=?17,032 constructs targeting 16,977 protein-coding genes), which performs favorably compared to conventional Cas9 libraries.
Project description:Cpf1 is an RNA-guided endonuclease of a type V CRISPR-Cas system that has been recently harnessed for genome editing. Here, we report the crystal structure of Acidaminococcus sp. Cpf1 (AsCpf1) in complex with the guide RNA and its target DNA at 2.8 Å resolution. AsCpf1 adopts a bilobed architecture, with the RNA-DNA heteroduplex bound inside the central channel. The structural comparison of AsCpf1 with Cas9, a type II CRISPR-Cas nuclease, reveals both striking similarity and major differences, thereby explaining their distinct functionalities. AsCpf1 contains the RuvC domain and a putative novel nuclease domain, which are responsible for cleaving the non-target and target strands, respectively, and for jointly generating staggered DNA double-strand breaks. AsCpf1 recognizes the 5'-TTTN-3' protospacer adjacent motif by base and shape readout mechanisms. Our findings provide mechanistic insights into RNA-guided DNA cleavage by Cpf1 and establish a framework for rational engineering of the CRISPR-Cpf1 toolbox.
Project description:CRISPR-Cas9 and CRISPR-Cpf1 systems have been successfully harnessed for genome editing. In the CRISPR-Cas9 system, the preordered A-form RNA seed sequence and preformed protein PAM-interacting cleft are essential for Cas9 to form a DNA recognition-competent structure. Whether the CRISPR-Cpf1 system employs a similar mechanism for target DNA recognition remains unclear. Here, we have determined the crystal structure of Acidaminococcus sp. Cpf1 (AsCpf1) in complex with crRNA and target DNA. Structural comparison between the AsCpf1-crRNA-DNA ternary complex and the recently reported Lachnospiraceae bacterium Cpf1 (LbCpf1)-crRNA binary complex identifies a unique mechanism employed by Cpf1 for target recognition. The seed sequence required for initial DNA interrogation is disordered in the Cpf1-cRNA binary complex, but becomes ordered upon ternary complex formation. Further, the PAM interacting cleft of Cpf1 undergoes an "open-to-closed" conformational change upon target DNA binding, which in turn induces structural changes within Cpf1 to accommodate the ordered A-form seed RNA segment. This unique mechanism of target recognition by Cpf1 is distinct from that reported previously for Cas9.
Project description:The activities and genome-wide specificities of CRISPR-Cas Cpf1 nucleases are not well defined. We show that two Cpf1 nucleases from Acidaminococcus sp. BV3L6 and Lachnospiraceae bacterium ND2006 (AsCpf1 and LbCpf1, respectively) have on-target efficiencies in human cells comparable with those of the widely used Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 (SpCas9). We also report that four to six bases at the 3' end of the short CRISPR RNA (crRNA) used to program Cpf1 nucleases are insensitive to single base mismatches, but that many of the other bases in this region of the crRNA are highly sensitive to single or double substitutions. Using GUIDE-seq and targeted deep sequencing analyses performed with both Cpf1 nucleases, we were unable to detect off-target cleavage for more than half of 20 different crRNAs. Our results suggest that AsCpf1 and LbCpf1 are highly specific in human cells.
Project description:CRISPR guide RNA libraries have been iteratively improved to provide increasingly efficient reagents, although their large size is a barrier for many applications. We design an optimised minimal genome-wide human CRISPR-Cas9 library (MinLibCas9) by mining existing large-scale gene loss-of-function datasets, resulting in a greater than 42% reduction in size compared to other CRISPR-Cas9 libraries while preserving assay sensitivity and specificity. MinLibCas9 provides backward compatibility with existing datasets, increases the dynamic range of CRISPR-Cas9 screens and extends their application to complex models and assays.
Project description:Cpf1, a type-V CRISPR-Cas effector endonuclease, exhibits gene-editing activity in human cells through a single RNA-guided approach. Here, we report the design and assessment of an array of 42 types of engineered Acidaminococcus sp. Cpf1 (AsCpf1) CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) and 5 types of AsCpf1 mRNAs, and show that the top-performing modified crRNA (cr3'5F, containing five 2'-fluoro ribose at the 3' termini) and AsCpf1 mRNA (full ?-modification) improved gene-cutting efficiency by, respectively, 127% and 177%, with respect to unmodified crRNA and plasmid-encoding AsCpf1. We also show that the combination of cr3'5F and ?-modified AsCpf1 or Lachnospiraceae bacterium Cpf1 (LbCpf1) mRNAs augmented gene-cutting efficiency by over 300% with respect to the same control, and discovered that 11 out of 16 crRNAs from Cpf1 orthologs enabled genome editing in the presence of AsCpf1. Engineered CRISPR-Cpf1 systems should facilitate a broad range of genome editing applications.
Project description:Previously, researchers discovered a series of anti-CRISPR proteins that inhibit CRISPR-Cas activity, such as Cas9 and Cpf1 (Cas12a). Herein, we constructed crRNA variants consisting of chemically modified DNA-crRNA and RNA-crRNA duplexes and identified that phosphorothioate (PS)-modified DNA-crRNA duplex completely blocked the function of Cpf1. More important, without prehybridization, these PS-modified DNA oligonucleotides showed the ability to suppress DNA double-strand breaks induced by two Cpf1 orthologs, AsCpf1 and LbCpf1. Time-dependent inhibitory effects were validated in multiple loci of different human cells. Further studies demonstrated that PS-modified DNA oligonucleotides were able to serve as Cpf1 inhibitors in a sequence-independent manner. Mechanistic studies indicate that PS-modified DNA oligonucleotides hinder target DNA binding and recognition by Cpf1. Consequently, these synthetic DNA molecules expand the sources of CRISPR inhibitors, providing a platform to inactivate Cpf1-mediated genome editing.
Project description:Genome editing has been harnessed through the development of CRISPR system, and the CRISPR from Prevotella and Francisella 1 (Cpf1) system has emerged as a promising alternative to CRISPR-Cas9 for use in various circumstances. Despite the inherent multiple advantages of Cpf1 over Cas9, the adoption of Cpf1 has been unsatisfactory because of target-dependent insufficient indel efficiencies. Here, we report an engineered CRISPR RNA (crRNA) for highly efficient genome editing by Cpf1, which includes a 20-base target-complementary sequence and a uridinylate-rich 3'-overhang. When the crRNA is transcriptionally produced, crRNA with a 20-base target-complementary sequence plus a U4AU4 3'-overhang is the optimal configuration. U-rich crRNA also maximizes the utility of the AsCpf1 mutants and multiplexing genome editing using mRNA as the source of multiple crRNAs. Furthermore, U-rich crRNA enables a highly safe and specific genome editing using Cpf1 in human cells, contributing to the enhancement of a genome-editing toolbox.
Project description:CRISPR/Cas9 is becoming an increasingly important tool to functionally annotate genomes. However, because genome-wide CRISPR libraries are mostly constructed in lentiviral vectors, in vivo applications are severely limited as a result of difficulties in delivery. Here, we examined the piggyBac (PB) transposon as an alternative vehicle to deliver a guide RNA (gRNA) library for in vivo screening. Although tumor induction has previously been achieved in mice by targeting cancer genes with the CRISPR/Cas9 system, in vivo genome-scale screening has not been reported. With our PB-CRISPR libraries, we conducted an in vivo genome-wide screen in mice and identified genes mediating liver tumorigenesis, including known and unknown tumor suppressor genes (TSGs). Our results demonstrate that PB can be a simple and nonviral choice for efficient in vivo delivery of CRISPR libraries.
Project description:Genetic screens using CRISPR/Cas9 are a powerful method for the functional analysis of genomes.Here we describe CRISPR library designer (CLD), an integrated bioinformatics application for the design of custom single guide RNA (sgRNA) libraries for all organisms with annotated genomes. CLD is suitable for the design of libraries using modified CRISPR enzymes and targeting non-coding regions. To demonstrate its utility, we perform a pooled screen for modulators of the TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) pathway using a custom library of 12,471 sgRNAs.CLD predicts a high fraction of functional sgRNAs and is publicly available at https://github.com/boutroslab/cld.