Activation of KEAP1/NRF2/P62 signaling alleviates high phosphate-induced calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells by suppressing reactive oxygen species production.
ABSTRACT: Vascular calcification is a complication of diseases and conditions such as chronic kidney disease, diabetes, and aging. Previous studies have demonstrated that high concentrations of inorganic phosphate (Pi) can induce oxidative stress and vascular smooth muscle cell calcification. KEAP1 (Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1)/NF-E2-related factor 2 (NRF2) signaling has been shown to play important roles in protecting cells from oxidative stress. The current study aims to investigate the possible involvement of the KEAP1/NRF2/P62 -mediated antioxidant pathway in vascular calcification induced by high Pi levels. Exposure of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) to high Pi concentrations promoted the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the nuclear translocation of NRF2, along with an increase in P62 levels and a decrease in KEAP1 levels. A classic NRF2 activator, tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ), significantly decreased ROS levels and calcium deposition in VSMCs by promoting the nuclear translocation of NRF2 and upregulating P62 and KEAP1 expression. In contrast, silencing NRF2 and P62 with siRNAs increased the levels of ROS and calcium deposition in VSMCs. In conclusion, VSMC calcification can be alleviated by the activation of the KEAP1/NRF2/P62 antioxidative pathway, which could have a protective role when it is exogenously activated by tBHQ.
Project description:Unraveling the complex regulatory pathways that mediate the effects of phosphate on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) may provide novel targets and therapies to limit the destructive effects of vascular calcification (VC) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Our previous studies have highlighted several signaling networks associated with VSMC autophagy, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Thereafter, the current study was performed to characterize the functional relevance of O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) transferase (OGT) in high phosphate-induced VC in CKD settings. We generated VC models in 5/6 nephrectomized rats in vivo and VSMC calcification models in vitro. Artificial modulation of OGT (knockdown and overexpression) was performed to explore the role of OGT in VSMC autophagy and VC in thoracic aorta, and in vivo experiments were used to substantiate in vitro findings. Mechanistically, co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) assay was performed to examine interaction between OGT and kelch like ECH associated protein 1 (KEAP1), and in vivo ubiquitination assay was performed to examine ubiquitination extent of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2). OGT was highly expressed in high phosphate-induced 5/6 nephrectomized rats and VSMCs. OGT silencing was shown to suppress high phosphate-induced calcification of VSMCs. OGT enhances KEAP1 glycosylation and thereby results in degradation and ubiquitination of NRF2, concurrently inhibiting VSMC autophagy to promote VSMC calcification in 5/6 nephrectomized rats. OGT inhibits VSMC autophagy through the KEAP1/NRF2 axis and thus accelerates high phosphate-induced VC in CKD.
Project description:Skeletal muscle wasting represents both a common phenotype of aging and a feature of pathological conditions such as chronic kidney disease (CKD). Although both clinical data and genetic experiments in mice suggest that hyperphosphatemia accelerates muscle wasting, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we showed that inorganic phosphate (Pi) dose-dependently decreases myotube size, fusion index, and myogenin expression in mouse C2C12 skeletal muscle cells. These changes were accompanied by increases in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and Nrf2 and p62 expression, and reductions in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and Keap1 expression. Inhibition of Pi entry, cytosolic ROS production, or Nrf2 activation reversed the effects of high Pi on Nrf2, p62, and myogenin expression. Overexpression of Nrf2 respectively increased and decreased the promoter activity of p62-Luc and myogenin-Luc reporters. Analysis of nuclear extracts from gastrocnemius muscles from mice fed a high-Pi (2% Pi) diet showed increased Nrf2 phosphorylation in sham-operated and 5/6 nephrectomized (CKD) mice, and both increased p62 phosphorylation and decreased myogenin expression in CKD mice. These data suggest that high Pi suppresses myogenic differentiation in vitro and promotes muscle atrophy in vivo through oxidative stress-mediated protein degradation and both canonical (ROS-mediated) and non-canonical (p62-mediated) activation of Nrf2 signaling.
Project description:Abnormal increases in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in the intimal region after a vascular injury is a key event in developing neointimal hyperplasia. To maintain vascular function, proliferation and apoptosis of VSMCs is tightly controlled during vascular remodeling. NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) system, a key component of the oxidative stress response that acts in maintaining homeostasis, plays an important role in neointimal hyperplasia after a vascular injury; however, the role of Nrf2/Keap1 in VSMC apoptosis has not been clarified. Here we report that 14 days after arterial injury in mice, TUNEL-positive VSMCs are detected in both the neointimal and medial layers. These layers contain cells expressing high levels of Nrf2 but low Keap1 expression. In VSMCs, Keap1 depletion induces features of apoptosis, such as positive TUNEL staining and annexin V binding. These changes are associated with an increased expression of nuclear Nrf2. Simultaneous Nrf2 depletion inhibits Keap1 depletion-induced apoptosis. At 14 days after the vascular injury, Nrf2-deficient mice demonstrated fewer TUNEL-positive cells and increased neointimal formation in the neointimal and medial areas. The results suggest that the Nrf2/Keap1 system regulates VSMC apoptosis during neointimal formation, thereby inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia after a vascular injury.
Project description:Increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one of the major retinal metabolic abnormalities associated with the development of diabetic retinopathy. NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a redox sensitive factor, provides cellular defenses against the cytotoxic ROS. In stress conditions, Nrf2 dissociates from its cytosolic inhibitor, Kelch like-ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1), and moves to the nucleus to regulate the transcription of antioxidant genes including the catalytic subunit of glutamylcysteine ligase (GCLC), a rate-limiting reduced glutathione (GSH) biosynthesis enzyme. Our aim is to understand the role of Nrf2-Keap1-GCLC in the development of diabetic retinopathy.Effect of diabetes on Nrf2-Keap1-GCLC pathway, and subcellular localization of Nrf2 and its binding with Keap1 was investigated in the retina of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The binding of Nrf2 at GCLC was quantified by chromatin immunoprecipitation technique. The results were confirmed in isolated retinal endothelial cells, and also in the retina from human donors with diabetic retinopathy.Diabetes increased retinal Nrf2 and its binding with Keap1, but decreased DNA-binding activity of Nrf2 and also its binding at the promoter region of GCLC. Similar impairments in Nrf2-Keap1-GCLC were observed in the endothelial cells exposed to high glucose and in the retina from donors with diabetic retinopathy. In retinal endothelial cells, glucose-induced impairments in Nrf2-GCLC were prevented by Nrf2 inducer tBHQ and also by Keap1-siRNA.Due to increased binding of Nrf2 with Keap1, its translocation to the nucleus is compromised contributing to the decreased GSH levels. Thus, regulation of Nrf2-Keap1 by pharmacological or molecular means could serve as a potential adjunct therapy to combat oxidative stress and inhibit the development of diabetic retinopathy.
Project description:Vascular calcification is a life-threatening clinical condition in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is associated with reduced zinc serum levels. Anemia is another frequent complication of CKD. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) stabilizers, also known as HIF prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors (PHI), are promising candidates to treat CKD-associated anemia by increasing erythropoietin synthesis. Recent evidence suggests that HIFs play a pivotal role in vascular calcification. Our study explored feasible impacts of HIF PHI on phosphate (Pi)-induced calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and tested whether zinc might inhibit this mineralization process. Treatment of VSMCs with PHI aggravated Pi-induced calcium deposition and Pi uptake. PHI promoted Pi-induced loss of smooth muscle cell markers (ACTA-2, MYH11, SM22?) and enhanced osteochondrogenic gene expression (Msx-2, BMP-2, Sp7) triggering osteochondrogenic phenotypic switch of VSMCs. These effects of PHI paralleled with increased pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) expression, decreased Runx2 Ser451 phosphorylation, and reduced cell viability. Zinc inhibited Pi-induced mineralization of VSMCs in a dose-dependent manner and also attenuated the pro-calcification effect of PHI in Pi-induced mineralization. Zinc inhibited osteochondrogenic phenotypic switch of VSMCs reflected by lowering Pi uptake, decreasing the expressions of Msx-2, BMP-2, and Sp7 as well as the loss of smooth muscle cell-specific markers. Zinc preserved phosphorylation state of Runx2 Ser451, decreased PDK4 level, and restored cell viability. PHI alone reduced the expression of smooth muscle markers without inducing mineralization, which was also inhibited by zinc. In addition, we observed a significantly lower serum zinc level in CKD as well as in patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy compared to healthy individuals. Conclusion - PHI promoted the loss of smooth muscle markers and augmented Pi-induced osteochondrogenic phenotypic switch leading to VSMCs calcification. This mineralization process was attenuated by zinc. Enhanced vascular calcification is a potential risk factor during PHI therapy in CKD which necessitates the strict follow up of vascular calcification and zinc supplementation.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>An elevated serum inorganic phosphate (Pi) level is a major risk factor for kidney disease and downstream vascular complications. We focused on the effect of Pi levels on human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), with an emphasis on the role of microRNAs (miRNAs).<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>Exposure of human primary VSMCs in vitro to pathological levels of Pi increased calcification, migration rate and concomitantly reduced cell proliferation and the amount of the actin cytoskeleton. These changes were evidenced by significant downregulation of miRNA-143 (miR-143) and miR-145 and concomitant upregulation of their targets and key markers in synthetic VSMCs, such as Krüppel-like factors-4 and -5 and versican. Interestingly, we also found that miR-223 (a marker of muscle damage and a key factor in osteoclast differentiation) is expressed in VSMCs and is significantly upregulated in Pi-treated cells. Over-expressing miR-223 in VSMCs increased proliferation and markedly enhanced VSMC migration. Additionally, we found that the expression of two of the known miR-223 targets, Mef2c and RhoB, was highly reduced in Pi treated as well as miR-223 over-expressing VSMCs. To complement these in vitro findings, we also observed significant downregulation of miR-143 and miR-145 and upregulation of miR-223 in aorta samples collected from ApoE knock-out mice, which display vascular calcification.<h4>Conclusions/significance</h4>Our results suggest that (i) high levels of Pi increase VSMC migration and calcification, (ii) altered expression levels of miR-223 could play a part in this process and (iii) miR-223 is a potential new biomarker of VSMC damage.
Project description:Autophagy is one of the induced mechanisms in metastatic cancer to escape death due to starvation, hypoxia, metabolic stresses, chemotherapy, and radiation. Some publications have revealed that chemotherapy combined with autophagy inhibitor will overcome drug resistance. We modified AS2 cells with PTEN overexpression, mTOR knockdown, or Keap1 knockdown, and made modification of A549 cells with PTEN knockdown, Atg5 knockdown, and Keap1 overexpression. Our study was aimed toward an exploration of how autophagy modulates Keap1, ROS generation, and vinorelbine-induced apoptosis in these cell lines. We found that lung cancer PC14PE6/AS2 (AS2) had higher mTOR and Akt and also lower PTEN expression than A549 cells. Descended autophagy was demonstrated with more decreased p62 accumulation and LC3 II conversion in AS2 cells as compared to A549 cells. The A549 cells had lower Keap1/Nrf2 and more active anti-oxidant response element (ARE) activity than the AS2 cells. We modified AS2 cells with PTEN overexpression, mTOR knockdown, Keap1 knockdown, and revealed amplified p62 and LC3 expression accompanied with decreased Akt, Keap1, ROS, and vinorelbine-induced apoptosis. Declined p62, LC3 expression were accompanied with increased Akt, Keap1, ROS, and vinorelbine-induced apoptosis after modification of A549 cells with PTEN knockdown, Atg5 knockdown, and Keap1 overexpression. Keap1 overexpression lowered ARE levels in A549 cells, and ARE level exhibited up-growth in Keap1 knockdown AS2 cells. The autophagy inhibitor caused more ROS generation and vinorelbine-induced apoptosis in the A549 and CL1-5 cells. According to these findings, autophagy regulates vinorelbine sensitivity by continuing Keap1-mediated ROS generation in lung adenocarcinoma cells.
Project description:Kahweol is a diterpene found in coffee beans and unfiltered coffee drinks. Several studies have demonstrated that kahweol induces the nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2/ hemeoxygenase-1 (Nrf2/HO-1) pathway; however, the mechanisms involved are currently unknown. Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) is a major regulator of Nrf2 expression and is degraded mostly by autophagy. The p62 protein enhances binding to Keap1 and contributes to the activation of Nrf2. Here, we examined the role of Keap1 regulation in the effect of kahweol on the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway in hepatocytes. In AML12 cells and primary mouse hepatocytes, kahweol increased the levels of Nrf2 and HO-1 protein without increasing expression of the Nrf2 mRNA. In addition, kahweol reduced Keap1 protein levels significantly without decreasing Keap1 mRNA levels. Although regulation of the Keap1-Nrf2-pathway by p62-dependent autophagy is well known, we confirmed here that the reduction of Keap1 protein levels by kahweol does not involve p62-dependent autophagy degradation or ubiquitination. In conclusion, kahweol increases the expression of Nrf2 in hepatocytes by inhibiting translation of the Keap1 mRNA.
2020-01-01 | S-EPMC7549774 | BioStudies
Project description:Nrf2 signaling is vital for protecting cells against oxidative stress. However, its hyperactivation is frequently found in liver cancer through excessive build-up of p62/SQSTM1 bodies that sequester Keap1, an adaptor of the E3-ubiquitin ligase complex for Nrf2. Here we report that the Bax-binding protein MOAP-1 regulates p62-Keap1-Nrf2 signaling through disruption of p62 bodies. Upon induction of cellular stresses that stimulate formation of p62 bodies, MOAP-1 is recruited to p62 bodies and reduces their levels independent of the autophagy pathway. MOAP-1 interacts with the PB1-ZZ domains of p62 and interferes with its self-oligomerization and liquid-liquid phase separation, thereby disassembling the p62 bodies. Loss of MOAP-1 can lead to marked upregulation of p62 bodies, enhanced sequestration of Keap1 by p62 and hyperactivation of Nrf2 antioxidant target genes. MOAP-1 deficient mice exhibit an elevated tumor burden with excessive levels of p62 bodies and Nrf2 signaling in a diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced hepatocarcinogenesis model. Together, our data define MOAP-1 as a negative regulator of Nrf2 signaling via dissociation of p62 bodies.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Phosphate (Pi) toxicity is a strong determinant of vascular calcification development in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Magnesium (Mg2+) may improve cardiovascular risk via vascular calcification. The mechanism by which Mg2+ counteracts vascular calcification remains incompletely described. Here we investigated the effects of Mg2+ on Pi and secondary crystalline calciprotein particles (CPP2)-induced calcification and crystal maturation. METHODS:Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) were treated with high Pi or CPP2 and supplemented with Mg2+ to study cellular calcification. The effect of Mg2+ on CPP maturation, morphology and composition was studied by medium absorbance, electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. To translate our findings to CKD patients, the effects of Mg2+ on calcification propensity (T50) were measured in sera from CKD patients and healthy controls. RESULTS:Mg2+ supplementation prevented Pi-induced calcification in VSMCs. Mg2+ dose-dependently delayed the maturation of primary CPP1 to CPP2 in vitro. Mg2+ did not prevent calcification and associated gene and protein expression when added to already formed CPP2. Confirmatory experiments in human serum demonstrated that the addition of 0.2?mmol/L Mg2+ increased T50 from healthy controls by 51?±?15?min (P?<?0.05) and CKD patients by 44?±?13?min (P?<?0.05). Each further 0.2?mmol/L addition of Mg2+ led to further increases in both groups. CONCLUSIONS:Our results demonstrate that crystalline CPP2 mediates Pi-induced calcification in VSMCs. In vitro, Mg2+ delays crystalline CPP2 formation and thereby prevents Pi-induced calcification.