Xanthoferrin, the ?-hydroxycarboxylate-type siderophore of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, is required for optimum virulence and growth inside cabbage.
ABSTRACT: Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris causes black rot, a serious disease of crucifers. Xanthomonads encode a siderophore biosynthesis and uptake gene cluster xss (Xanthomonas siderophore synthesis) involved in the production of a vibrioferrin-type siderophore. However, little is known about the role of the siderophore in the iron uptake and virulence of X. campestris pv. campestris. In this study, we show that X. campestris pv. campestris produces an ?-hydroxycarboxylate-type siderophore (named xanthoferrin), which is required for growth under low-iron conditions and for optimum virulence. A mutation in the siderophore synthesis xssA gene causes deficiency in siderophore production and growth under low-iron conditions. In contrast, the siderophore utilization ?xsuA mutant is able to produce siderophore, but exhibits a defect in the utilization of the siderophore-iron complex. Our radiolabelled iron uptake studies confirm that the ?xssA and ?xsuA mutants exhibit defects in ferric iron (Fe3+ ) uptake. The ?xssA mutant is able to utilize and transport the exogenous xanthoferrin-Fe3+ complex; in contrast, the siderophore utilization or uptake mutant ?xsuA exhibits defects in siderophore uptake. Expression analysis of the xss operon using a chromosomal gusA fusion indicates that the xss operon is expressed during in planta growth and under low-iron conditions. Furthermore, exogenous iron supplementation in cabbage leaves rescues the in planta growth deficiency of ?xssA and ?xsuA mutants. Our study reveals that the siderophore xanthoferrin is an important virulence factor of X. campestris pv. campestris which promotes in planta growth by the sequestration of Fe3+ .
Project description:Transcriptional profiling of low-iron stimulon and XibR influenced regulon using wild-type Xcc 8004 and xibR mutant grown under iron-replete and iron-deplete conditions. Trancriptional analysis under iron-deplete condition, mimicking in planta environment, provides greater insights into expression pattern of several virulence-associated functions under low-iron. A genetic screen sggested the involvement of XibR (Xanthomonas iron binding regulator) in iron-uptake and metabolism. Present transcriptional analysis suggested the co-regulation of virulence associated functions including siderophore biosynthesis, motility, chemotaxis and typeIII effectors by a novel transcriptional regulator of NtrC family protein XibR and iron avability. Overall design: Organism: Xanthomonas campestris, Agilent Custom Xanthomonas campestris 8x15K Array designed by Genotypic Technology Private Limited.
Project description:The nucleotide sequence of a 3.6-kb HindIII-SmaI DNA fragment of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris revealed four open reading frames which, based on sequence homologies, were designated tonB, exbB, exbD1, and exbD2. Analysis of translational fusions to alkaline phosphatase and beta-galactosidase confirmed that the TonB, ExbB, ExbD1, and ExbD2 proteins are anchored in the cytoplasmic membrane. The TonB protein of X. campestris pv. campestris lacks the conserved (Glu-Pro)n and (Lys-Pro)m repeats but harbors a 13-fold repeat of proline residues. By mutational analysis, the tonB, exbB, and exbD1 genes were shown to be essential for ferric iron import in X. campestris pv. campestris. In contrast, the exbD2 gene is not involved in the uptake of ferric iron.
Project description:<h4>Unlabelled</h4>N-Acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), the main component of chitin and a major constituent of bacterial peptidoglycan, is present only in trace amounts in plants, in contrast to the huge amount of various sugars that compose the polysaccharides of the plant cell wall. Thus, GlcNAc has not previously been considered a substrate exploited by phytopathogenic bacteria during plant infection. Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, the causal agent of black rot disease of Brassica plants, expresses a carbohydrate utilization system devoted to GlcNAc exploitation. In addition to genes involved in GlcNAc catabolism, this system codes for four TonB-dependent outer membrane transporters (TBDTs) and eight glycoside hydrolases. Expression of all these genes is under the control of GlcNAc. In vitro experiments showed that X. campestris pv. campestris exploits chitooligosaccharides, and there is indirect evidence that during the early stationary phase, X. campestris pv. campestris recycles bacterium-derived peptidoglycan/muropeptides. Results obtained also suggest that during plant infection and during growth in cabbage xylem sap, X. campestris pv. campestris encounters and metabolizes plant-derived GlcNAc-containing molecules. Specific TBDTs seem to be preferentially involved in the consumption of all these plant-, fungus- and bacterium-derived GlcNAc-containing molecules. This is the first evidence of GlcNAc consumption during infection by a phytopathogenic bacterium. Interestingly, N-glycans from plant N-glycosylated proteins are proposed to be substrates for glycoside hydrolases belonging to the X. campestris pv. campestris GlcNAc exploitation system. This observation extends the range of sources of GlcNAc metabolized by phytopathogenic bacteria during their life cycle.<h4>Importance</h4>Despite the central role of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) in nature, there is no evidence that phytopathogenic bacteria metabolize this compound during plant infection. Results obtained here suggest that Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, the causal agent of black rot disease on Brassica, encounters and metabolizes GlcNAc in planta and in vitro. Active and specific outer membrane transporters belonging to the TonB-dependent transporters family are proposed to import GlcNAc-containing complex molecules from the host, from the bacterium, and/or from the environment, and bacterial glycoside hydrolases induced by GlcNAc participate in their degradation. Our results extend the range of sources of GlcNAc metabolized by this phytopathogenic bacterium during its life cycle to include chitooligosaccharides that could originate from fungi or insects present in the plant environment, muropeptides leached during peptidoglycan recycling and bacterial lysis, and N-glycans from plant N-glycosylated proteins present in the plant cell wall as well as in xylem sap.
Project description:Many plant-pathogenic bacteria utilize type II secretion (T2S) systems to secrete degradative enzymes into the extracellular milieu. T2S substrates presumably mediate the degradation of plant cell wall components during the host-pathogen interaction and thus promote bacterial virulence. Previously, the Xps-T2S system from Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria was shown to contribute to extracellular protease activity and the secretion of a virulence-associated xylanase. The identities and functions of additional T2S substrates from X. campestris pv. vesicatoria, however, are still unknown. In the present study, the analysis of 25 candidate proteins from X. campestris pv. vesicatoria led to the identification of two type II secreted predicted xylanases, a putative protease and a lipase which was previously identified as a virulence factor of X. campestris pv. vesicatoria. Studies with mutant strains revealed that the identified xylanases and the protease contribute to virulence and in planta growth of X. campestris pv. vesicatoria. When analyzed in the related pathogen X. campestris pv. campestris, several T2S substrates from X. campestris pv. vesicatoria were secreted independently of the T2S systems, presumably because of differences in the T2S substrate specificities of the two pathogens. Furthermore, in X. campestris pv. vesicatoria T2S mutants, secretion of T2S substrates was not completely absent, suggesting the contribution of additional transport systems to protein secretion. In line with this hypothesis, T2S substrates were detected in outer membrane vesicles, which were frequently observed for X. campestris pv. vesicatoria. We, therefore, propose that extracellular virulence-associated enzymes from X. campestris pv. vesicatoria are targeted to the Xps-T2S system and to outer membrane vesicles.The virulence of plant-pathogenic bacteria often depends on TS2 systems, which secrete degradative enzymes into the extracellular milieu. T2S substrates are being studied in several plant-pathogenic bacteria, including Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria, which causes bacterial spot disease in tomato and pepper. Here, we show that the T2S system from X. campestris pv. vesicatoria secretes virulence-associated xylanases, a predicted protease, and a lipase. Secretion assays with the related pathogen X. campestris pv. campestris revealed important differences in the T2S substrate specificities of the two pathogens. Furthermore, electron microscopy showed that T2S substrates from X. campestris pv. vesicatoria are targeted to outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). Our results, therefore, suggest that OMVs provide an alternative transport route for type II secreted extracellular enzymes.
Project description:Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris is the causative agent of black rot disease in crucifer plants. This Gram-negative bacterium utilizes the type III secretion system (T3SS), encoded by the hrp gene cluster, to aid in its resistance to host defenses and the ability to cause disease. The T3SS injects a set of proteins known as effectors into host cells that come into contact with the bacterium. The T3SS is essential for the virulence and hypersensitive response (HR) of X. campestris pv. campestris, making it a potential target for disease control strategies. Using a unique and straightforward high-throughput screening method, we examined a large collection of diverse small molecules for their potential to modulate the T3SS without affecting the growth of X. campestris pv. campestris. Screening of 13,129 different compounds identified 10 small molecules that had a significant inhibitory influence on T3SS. Moreover, reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) assays demonstrated that all 10 compounds repress the expression of the hrp genes. Interestingly, the effect of these small molecules on hrp genes may be through the HpaS and ColS sensor kinase proteins that are key to the regulation of the T3SS in planta Five of the compounds were also capable of inhibiting X. campestris pv. campestris virulence in a Chinese radish leaf-clipping assay. Furthermore, seven of the small molecules significantly weakened the HR in nonhost pepper plants challenged with X. campestris pv. campestris. Taken together, these small molecules may provide potential tool compounds for the further development of antivirulence agents that could be used in disease control of the plant pathogen X. campestris pv. campestris.IMPORTANCE The bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris is known to cause black rot disease in many socioeconomically important vegetable crops worldwide. The management and control of black rot disease have been tackled with chemical and host resistance methods with variable success. This has motivated the development of alternative methods for preventing this disease. Here, we identify a set of novel small molecules capable of inhibiting X. campestris pv. campestris virulence, which may represent leading compounds for the further development of antivirulence agents that could be used in the control of black rot disease.
Project description:Xanthomonas is one of the most widespread phytobacteria, causing diseases on a variety of agricultural plants. To develop novel control techniques, knowledge of bacterial behavior inside plant cells is essential. Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, a vascular pathogen, is the causal agent of black rot on leaves of Brassicaceae, including Arabidopsis thaliana. Among the X. campestris pv. campestris stocks in the MAFF collection, we selected XccMAFF106712 as a model compatible pathogen for the A. thaliana reference ecotype Columbia (Col-0). Using modified green fluorescent protein (AcGFP) as a reporter, we observed real time XccMAFF106712 colonization in planta with confocal microscopy. AcGFP-expressing bacteria colonized the inside of epidermal cells and the apoplast, as well as the xylem vessels of the vasculature. In the case of the type III mutant, bacteria colonization was never detected in the xylem vessel or apoplast, though they freely enter the xylem vessel through the wound. After 9 days post inoculation with XccMAFF106712, the xylem vessel became filled with bacterial aggregates. This suggests that Xcc colonization can be divided into main four steps, (1) movement in the xylem vessel, (2) movement to the next cell, (3) adhesion to the host plant cells, and (4) formation of bacterial aggregates. The type III mutant abolished at least steps (1) and (2). Better understanding of Xcc colonization is essential for development of novel control techniques for black rot.
Project description:An annotated high-quality draft genome sequence for Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris race 1 strain Xca5 (originally described as X. campestris pv. armoraciae), the causal agent of black rot on Brassicaceae plants, has been determined. This genome sequence is a valuable resource for comparative genomics within the campestris pathovar.
Project description:The avirulence gene avrBs3 from Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria pepper race 1 is responsible for the induction of a race-specific hypersensitive reaction in resistant pepper cultivars. A DNA region of 3.7 kb, containing several open reading frames and an internal repetitive region, was shown previously to be necessary for avirulence activity (U. Bonas, R. E. Stall, and B. Staskawicz, Mol. Gen. Genet. 218:127-136, 1989). The promoter of avrBs3 was identified by using gene fusions to beta-glucuronidase. Also, we mapped the transcription start site and showed that the avrBs3 gene is expressed constitutively in cells grown in minimal or complex medium and in planta. Polyclonal antibodies raised against a fusion protein produced in Escherichia coli allowed the identification of a 122-kDa protein in X. campestris pv. vesicatoria cells expressing the avrBs3 gene. The antibody is specific for AvrBs3 in X. campestris pv. vesicatoria cells but also recognizes homologous proteins in other pathovars of X. campestris. We found that AvrBs3 is localized intracellularly in X. campestris pv. vesicatoria and is mainly in the soluble fraction. The effect of mutations in the hrp gene cluster on the function of AvrBs3 was examined. Expression of AvrBs3 in X. campestris pv. vesicatoria grown in minimal or complex medium is independent of the hrp gene cluster that determines pathogenicity and hypersensitivity to X. campestris pv. vesicatoria. In the plant, however, the hrp genes are required for elicitation of a race-specific resistance response.
Project description:Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris, the causal agent of black rot disease of brassicas, is known for its ability to catabolize a wide range of plant compounds. This ability is correlated with the presence of specific carbohydrate utilization loci containing TonB-dependent transporters (CUT loci) devoted to scavenging specific carbohydrates. In this study, we demonstrate that there is an X. campestris pv. campestris CUT system involved in the import and catabolism of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc). Expression of genes belonging to this GlcNAc CUT system is under the control of GlcNAc via the LacI family NagR and GntR family NagQ regulators. Analysis of the NagR and NagQ regulons confirmed that GlcNAc utilization involves NagA and NagB-II enzymes responsible for the conversion of GlcNAc-6-phosphate to fructose-6-phosphate. Mutants with mutations in the corresponding genes are sensitive to GlcNAc, as previously reported for Escherichia coli. This GlcNAc sensitivity and analysis of the NagQ and NagR regulons were used to dissect the X. campestris pv. campestris GlcNAc utilization pathway. This analysis revealed specific features, including the fact that uptake of GlcNAc through the inner membrane occurs via a major facilitator superfamily transporter and the fact that this amino sugar is phosphorylated by two proteins belonging to the glucokinase family, NagK-IIA and NagK-IIB. However, NagK-IIA seems to play a more important role in GlcNAc utilization than NagK-IIB under our experimental conditions. The X. campestris pv. campestris GlcNAc NagR regulon includes four genes encoding TonB-dependent active transporters (TBDTs). However, the results of transport experiments suggest that GlcNAc passively diffuses through the bacterial envelope, an observation that calls into question whether GlcNAc is a natural substrate for these TBDTs and consequently is the source of GlcNAc for this nonchitinolytic plant-associated bacterium.
Project description:High-affinity iron (Fe) scavenging compounds, or siderophores, are widely employed by soil bacteria to survive scarcity in bioavailable Fe. Siderophore biosynthesis relies on cellular carbon metabolism, despite reported decrease in both carbon uptake and Fe-containing metabolic proteins in Fe-deficient cells. Given this paradox, the metabolic network required to sustain the Fe-scavenging strategy is poorly understood. Here, through multiple <sup>13</sup>C-metabolomics experiments with Fe-replete and Fe-limited cells, we uncover how soil <i>Pseudomonas</i> species reprogram their metabolic pathways to prioritize siderophore biosynthesis. Across the three species investigated (<i>Pseudomonas putida</i> KT2440, <i>Pseudomonas protegens</i> Pf-5, and <i>Pseudomonas putida</i> S12), siderophore secretion is higher during growth on gluconeogenic substrates than during growth on glycolytic substrates. In response to Fe limitation, we capture decreased flux toward the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle during the metabolism of glycolytic substrates but, due to carbon recycling to the TCA cycle via enhanced anaplerosis, the metabolism of gluconeogenic substrates results in an increase in both siderophore secretion (up to threefold) and Fe extraction (up to sixfold) from soil minerals. During simultaneous feeding on the different substrate types, Fe deficiency triggers a hierarchy in substrate utilization, which is facilitated by changes in protein abundances for substrate uptake and initial catabolism. Rerouted metabolism further promotes favorable fluxes in the TCA cycle and the gluconeogenesis-anaplerosis nodes, despite decrease in several proteins in these pathways, to meet carbon and energy demands for siderophore precursors in accordance with increased proteins for siderophore biosynthesis. Hierarchical carbon metabolism thus serves as a critical survival strategy during the metal nutrient deficiency.