SOBIR1 requires the GxxxG dimerization motif in its transmembrane domain to form constitutive complexes with receptor-like proteins.
ABSTRACT: Receptor-like proteins (RLPs), forming an important group of transmembrane receptors in plants, play roles in development and immunity. RLPs contain extracellular leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) and, in contrast with receptor-like kinases (RLKs), lack a cytoplasmic kinase required for the initiation of downstream signalling. Recent studies have revealed that the RLK SOBIR1/EVR (SUPPRESSOR OF BIR1-1/EVERSHED) specifically interacts with RLPs. SOBIR1 stabilizes RLPs and is required for their function. However, the mechanism by which SOBIR1 associates with RLPs and regulates RLP function remains unknown. The Cf immune receptors of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), mediating resistance to the fungus Cladosporium fulvum, are RLPs that also interact with SOBIR1. Here, we show that both the LRR and kinase domain of SOBIR1 are dispensable for association with the RLP Cf-4, whereas the highly conserved GxxxGxxxG motif present in the transmembrane domain of SOBIR1 is essential for its interaction with Cf-4 and additional RLPs. Complementation assays in Nicotiana benthamiana, in which endogenous SOBIR1 levels were knocked down by virus-induced gene silencing, showed that the LRR domain as well as the kinase activity of SOBIR1 are required for the Cf-4/Avr4-triggered hypersensitive response (HR). In contrast, the LRRs and kinase activity of SOBIR1 are not required for facilitation of Cf-4 accumulation. Together, these results suggest that, in addition to being a stabilizing scaffold for RLPs, SOBIR1 is also required for the initiation of downstream signalling through its kinase domain.
Project description:Leucine-rich repeat-receptor-like proteins (LRR-RLPs) and LRR-receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs) trigger immune signalling to promote plant resistance against pathogens. LRR-RLPs lack an intracellular kinase domain, and several of these receptors have been shown to constitutively interact with the LRR-RLK Suppressor of BIR1-1/EVERSHED (SOBIR1/EVR) to form signalling-competent receptor complexes. Ligand perception by LRR-RLPs initiates recruitment of the co-receptor BRI1-Associated Kinase 1/Somatic Embryogenesis Receptor Kinase 3 (BAK1/SERK3) to the LRR-RLP/SOBIR1 complex, thereby activating LRR-RLP-mediated immunity. We employed phosphorylation analysis of in planta-produced proteins, live cell imaging, gene silencing and co-immunoprecipitation to investigate the roles of SOBIR1 and BAK1 in immune signalling. We show that Arabidopsis thaliana (At) SOBIR1, which constitutively activates immune responses when overexpressed in planta, is highly phosphorylated. Moreover, in addition to the kinase activity of SOBIR1 itself, kinase-active BAK1 is essential for AtSOBIR1-induced constitutive immunity and for the phosphorylation of AtSOBIR1. Furthermore, the defence response triggered by the tomato LRR-RLP Cf-4 on perception of Avr4 from the extracellular pathogenic fungus Cladosporium fulvum is dependent on kinase-active BAK1. We argue that, in addition to the trans-autophosphorylation of SOBIR1, it is likely that SOBIR1 and BAK1 transphosphorylate, and thereby activate the receptor complex. The signalling-competent cell surface receptor complex subsequently activates downstream cytoplasmic signalling partners to initiate RLP-mediated immunity.
Project description:The plant immune system is activated by microbial patterns that are detected as nonself molecules. Such patterns are recognized by immune receptors that are cytoplasmic or localized at the plasma membrane. Cell surface receptors are represented by receptor-like kinases (RLKs) that frequently contain extracellular leucine-rich repeats and an intracellular kinase domain for activation of downstream signaling, as well as receptor-like proteins (RLPs) that lack this signaling domain. It is therefore hypothesized that RLKs are required for RLPs to activate downstream signaling. The RLPs Cf-4 and Ve1 of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) mediate resistance to the fungal pathogens Cladosporium fulvum and Verticillium dahliae, respectively. Despite their importance, the mechanism by which these immune receptors mediate downstream signaling upon recognition of their matching ligand, Avr4 and Ave1, remained enigmatic. Here we show that the tomato ortholog of the Arabidopsis thaliana RLK Suppressor Of BIR1-1/Evershed (SOBIR1/EVR) and its close homolog S. lycopersicum (Sl)SOBIR1-like interact in planta with both Cf-4 and Ve1 and are required for the Cf-4- and Ve1-mediated hypersensitive response and immunity. Tomato SOBIR1/EVR interacts with most of the tested RLPs, but not with the RLKs FLS2, SERK1, SERK3a, BAK1, and CLV1. SOBIR1/EVR is required for stability of the Cf-4 and Ve1 receptors, supporting our observation that these RLPs are present in a complex with SOBIR1/EVR in planta. We show that SOBIR1/EVR is essential for RLP-mediated immunity and propose that the protein functions as a regulatory RLK of this type of cell-surface receptors.
Project description:Plants employ a large number of receptors localizing to the cell surface to sense extracellular signals. Receptor-like proteins (RLPs) form an important group of such trans-membrane receptors, containing an extracellular domain which is involved in signal perception and a short cytoplasmic domain. In contrast to receptor-like kinases (RLKs), RLPs lack a cytoplasmic kinase domain. How intracellular signaling is triggered downstream of RLPs upon perception of an extracellular signal, is therefore still poorly understood. Recently, the RLK SOBIR1 (Suppressor Of BIR1-1) was identified as an essential regulatory RLK of various RLPs involved in plant immunity against fungal pathogens. (1) Given that SOBIR1 appears to be a crucial component of RLP-containing complexes, we aimed to identify additional proteins interacting with SOBIR1. Here, we report on the immunopurification of a functional Arabidopsis thaliana (At)SOBIR1-yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) fusion protein stably expressed in Arabidopsis, followed by mass-spectrometry to identify co-purifying proteins. Interestingly, and in line with various studies showing interaction between RLPs and SOBIR1, we discovered that AtSOBIR1 interacts with AtRLP23, an RLP of which the function is currently unknown.
Project description:Plant-unique membrane receptor kinases with leucine-rich repeat (LRR) extracellular domains are key regulators of development and immune responses. Here, the 1.55?Å resolution crystal structure of the immune receptor kinase SOBIR1 from Arabidopsis is presented. The ectodomain structure reveals the presence of five LRRs sandwiched between noncanonical capping domains. The disulfide-bond-stabilized N-terminal cap harbours an unusual ?-hairpin structure. The C-terminal cap features a highly positively charged linear motif which was found to be largely disordered in this structure. Size-exclusion chromatography and right-angle light-scattering experiments suggest that SOBIR1 is a monomer in solution. The protruding ?-hairpin, a set of highly conserved basic residues at the inner surface of the SOBIR LRR domain and the presence of a genetic missense allele in LRR2 together suggest that the SOBIR1 ectodomain may mediate protein-protein interaction in plant immune signalling.
Project description:LRRs (leucine rich repeats) are present in over 14,000 proteins. Non-LRR, island regions (IRs) interrupting LRRs are widely distributed. The present article reviews 19 families of LRR proteins having non-LRR IRs (LRR@IR proteins) from various plant species. The LRR@IR proteins are LRR-containing receptor-like kinases (LRR-RLKs), LRR-containing receptor-like proteins (LRR-RLPs), TONSOKU/BRUSHY1, and MJK13.7; the LRR-RLKs are homologs of TMK1/Rhg4, BRI1, PSKR, PSYR1, Arabidopsis At1g74360, and RPK2, while the LRR-RLPs are those of Cf-9/Cf-4, Cf-2/Cf-5, Ve, HcrVf, RPP27, EIX1, clavata 2, fascinated ear2, RLP2, rice Os10g0479700, and putative soybean disease resistance protein. The LRRs are intersected by single, non-LRR IRs; only the RPK2 homologs have two IRs. In most of the LRR-RLKs and LRR-RLPs, the number of repeat units in the preceding LRR block (N1) is greater than the number of the following block (N2); N1 » N2 in which N1 is variable in the homologs of individual families, while N2 is highly conserved. The five families of the LRR-RLKs except for the RPK2 family show N1 = 8 - 18 and N2 = 3 - 5. The nine families of the LRR-RLPs show N1 = 12 - 33 and N2 = 4; while N1 = 6 and N2 = 4 for the rice Os10g0479700 family and the N1 = 4 - 28 and N2 = 4 for the soybean protein family. The rule of N1 » N2 might play a common, significant role in ligand interaction, dimerization, and/or signal transduction of the LRR-RLKs and the LRR-RLPs. The structure and evolution of the LRR domains with non-LRR IRs and their proteins are also discussed.
Project description:Plants use receptor kinases (RKs) and receptor-like proteins (RLPs) as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to sense pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) that are typical of whole classes of microbes. After ligand perception, many leucine-rich repeat (LRR)-containing PRRs interact with the LRR-RK BRI1-ASSOCIATED KINASE 1 (BAK1). BAK1 is thus expected to interact with unknown PRRs. Here, we used BAK1 as molecular bait to identify a previously unknown LRR-RLP required for the recognition of the csp22 peptide derived from bacterial cold shock protein. We established a method to identify proteins that interact with BAK1 only after csp22 treatment. BAK1 was expressed transiently in Nicotiana benthamiana and immunopurified after treatment with csp22. BAK1-associated proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. We identified several proteins including known BAK1 interactors and a previously uncharacterized LRR-RLP that we termed RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN REQUIRED FOR CSP22 RESPONSIVENESS (NbCSPR). This RLP associates with BAK1 upon csp22 treatment, and NbCSPR-silenced plants are impaired in csp22-induced defense responses. NbCSPR confers resistance to bacteria in an age-dependent and flagellin-induced manner. As such, it limits bacterial growth and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of flowering N. benthamiana plants. Transgenic expression of NbCSPR into Arabidopsis thaliana conferred responsiveness to csp22 and antibacterial resistance. Our method may be used to identify LRR-type RKs and RLPs required for PAMP perception/responsiveness, even when the active purified PAMP has not been defined.
Project description:In plants, cell-surface receptors control immunity and development through the recognition of extracellular ligands. Leucine-rich repeat receptor-like proteins (LRR-RLPs) constitute a large multigene family of cell-surface receptors. Although this family has been intensively studied, a limited number of ligands has been identified so far, mostly because methods used for their identification and characterization are complex and fastidious. In this study, we combined genome and transcriptome analyses to describe the LRR-RLP gene family in the model tree poplar (Populus trichocarpa). In total, 82 LRR-RLP genes have been identified in P. trichocarpa genome, among which 66 are organized in clusters of up to seven members. In these clusters, LRR-RLP genes are interspersed by orphan, poplar-specific genes encoding small proteins of unknown function (SPUFs). In particular, the nine largest clusters of LRR-RLP genes (47 LRR-RLPs) include 71 SPUF genes that account for 59% of the non-LRR-RLP gene content within these clusters. Forty-four LRR-RLP and 55 SPUF genes are expressed in poplar leaves, mostly at low levels, except for members of some clusters that show higher and sometimes coordinated expression levels. Notably, wounding of poplar leaves strongly induced the expression of a defense SPUF gene named Rust-Induced Secreted protein (RISP) that has been previously reported as a marker of poplar defense responses. Interestingly, we show that the RISP-associated LRR-RLP gene is highly expressed in poplar leaves and slightly induced by wounding. Both gene promoters share a highly conserved region of ~300 nucleotides. This led us to hypothesize that the corresponding pair of proteins could be involved in poplar immunity, possibly as a ligand/receptor couple. In conclusion, we speculate that some poplar SPUFs, such as RISP, represent candidate endogenous peptide ligands of the associated LRR-RLPs and we discuss how to investigate further this hypothesis.
Project description:Genes coding for nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (LRR) receptors (NLRs) control resistance against intracellular (cell-penetrating) pathogens. However, evidence for a role of genes coding for proteins with LRR domains in resistance against extracellular (apoplastic) fungal pathogens is limited. Here, the distribution of genes coding for proteins with eLRR domains but lacking kinase domains was determined for the Brassica napus genome. Predictions of signal peptide and transmembrane regions divided these genes into 184 coding for receptor-like proteins (RLPs) and 121 coding for secreted proteins (SPs). Together with previously annotated NLRs, a total of 720 LRR genes were found. Leptosphaeria maculans-induced expression during a compatible interaction with cultivar Topas differed between RLP, SP and NLR gene families; NLR genes were induced relatively late, during the necrotrophic phase of pathogen colonization. Seven RLP, one SP and two NLR genes were found in Rlm1 and Rlm3/Rlm4/Rlm7/Rlm9 loci for resistance against L. maculans on chromosome A07 of B. napus. One NLR gene at the Rlm9 locus was positively selected, as was the RLP gene on chromosome A10 with LepR3 and Rlm2 alleles conferring resistance against L. maculans races with corresponding effectors AvrLm1 and AvrLm2, respectively. Known loci for resistance against L. maculans (extracellular hemi-biotrophic fungus), Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (necrotrophic fungus) and Plasmodiophora brassicae (intracellular, obligate biotrophic protist) were examined for presence of RLPs, SPs and NLRs in these regions. Whereas loci for resistance against P. brassicae were enriched for NLRs, no such signature was observed for the other pathogens. These findings demonstrate involvement of (i) NLR genes in resistance against the intracellular pathogen P. brassicae and a putative NLR gene in Rlm9-mediated resistance against the extracellular pathogen L. maculans.
Project description:The transfer of well-studied native and chimeric pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to susceptible plants is a proven strategy to improve host resistance. In most cases, the ectodomain determines PRR recognition specificity, while the endodomain determines the intensity of the immune response. Here we report the generation and characterization of the chimeric receptor EFR-Cf-9, which carries the ectodomain of the Arabidopsis thaliana EF-Tu receptor (EFR) and the endodomain of the tomato Cf-9 resistance protein. Both transient and stable expression of EFR-Cf-9 triggered a robust hypersensitive response (HR) upon elf18 treatment in tobacco. Co-immunoprecipitation and virus-induced gene silencing studies showed that EFR-Cf-9 constitutively interacts with SUPPRESSOR OF BIR1-1 (SOBIR1) co-receptor, and requires both SOBIR1 and kinase-active BRI1-ASSOCIATED KINASE1 (BAK1) for its function. Transgenic plants expressing EFR-Cf-9 were more resistant to the (hemi)biotrophic bacterial pathogens Pseudomonas amygdali pv. tabaci (Pta) 11528 and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000, and mounted an HR in response to high doses of Pta 11528 and P. carotovorum. Taken together, these data indicate that the EFR-Cf-9 chimera is a valuable tool for both investigating the molecular mechanisms responsible for the activation of defence responses by PRRs, and for potential biotechnological use to improve crop disease resistance.
Project description:Resistance in tomato against race 1 strains of the fungal vascular wilt pathogens Verticillium dahliae and V. albo-atrum is mediated by the Ve locus. This locus comprises two closely linked inversely oriented genes, Ve1 and Ve2, which encode cell surface receptors of the extracellular leucine-rich repeat receptor-like protein (eLRR-RLP) type. While Ve1 mediates Verticillium resistance through monitoring the presence of the recently identified V. dahliae Ave1 effector, no functionality for Ve2 has been demonstrated in tomato. Ve1 and Ve2 contain 37 eLRRs and share 84% amino acid identity, facilitating investigation of Ve protein functionality through domain swapping. In this study it is shown that Ve chimeras in which the first thirty eLRRs of Ve1 were replaced by those of Ve2 remain able to induce HR and activate Verticillium resistance, and that deletion of these thirty eLRRs from Ve1 resulted in loss of functionality. Also the region between eLRR30 and eLRR35 is required for Ve1-mediated resistance, and cannot be replaced by the region between eLRR30 and eLRR35 of Ve2. We furthermore show that the cytoplasmic tail of Ve1 is required for functionality, as truncation of this tail results in loss of functionality. Moreover, the C-terminus of Ve2 fails to activate immune signaling as chimeras containing the C-terminus of Ve2 do not provide Verticillium resistance. Furthermore, Ve1 was found to interact through its C-terminus with the eLRR-containing receptor-like kinase (eLRR-RLK) interactor SOBIR1 that was recently identified as an interactor of eLRR-RLP (immune) receptors. Intriguingly, also Ve2 was found to interact with SOBIR1.