Abiotic stress responses promote Potato virus A infection in Nicotiana benthamiana.
ABSTRACT: The effect of abiotic stress responses on Potato virus A (PVA; genus Potyvirus) infection was studied. Salt, osmotic and wounding stress all increased PVA gene expression in infected Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. According to the literature, an early response to these stresses is an elevation in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration. The infiltration of 0.1 m CaCl(2) into the infected leaf area enhanced the translation of PVA RNA, and this Ca(2+) -induced effect was more profound than that induced solely by osmotic stress. The inhibition of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels within the plasma membrane abolished the Ca(2+) effect, suggesting that Ca(2+) had to be transported into the cytosol to affect viral gene expression. This was also supported by a reduced wounding effect in the presence of the Ca(2+) -chelating agent ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA). In the absence of viral replication, the intense synthesis of viral proteins in response to Ca(2+) was transient. However, a Ca(2+) pulse administered at the onset of wild-type PVA infection enhanced the progress of infection within the locally infected leaf, and the virus appeared earlier in the systemic leaves than in the control plants. This suggests that the cellular environment was thoroughly modified by the Ca(2+) pulse to support viral infection. One message of this study is that the sensing of abiotic stress, which leads to cellular responses, probably via Ca(2+) signalling, associated with enhanced virus infection, may lead to higher field crop losses. Therefore, the effect of abiotic stress on plant viral infection warrants further analysis.
Project description:Here we provide a set of 16 comparable transcriptome measures to monitor early changes in gene expression upon NP exposure. We evaluated A. thaliana response to 8 different types of NPs (metallic, carbonaceous and ranging from 10 to 80 nm) in comparison to biotic and abiotic stress inducers that represent most common environmental challenges for plants. Biotic stress was induced by infection with a necrotizing fungus (Alternaria brassicicola) or a hemibiotrophic bacterium (Pseudomonas syringae). Abiotic stresses induced by hypersaline conditions, drought and mechanical wounding were assayed in our plant growth model. The effect of abscisic acid (ABA), the most studied stress-responsive phytohormone which mediates stomatal closure and other reponses to drought and osmotic stress (ref), was also tested in the gene expression and phenotypes of NP-exposed plants. PART 1: Alternaria brassicicola (Abr), Pseudomonas syringae (Pst), saline stress (NaC), drought (drou), wounding (wou), 10nm TiO2 NPs (TiO2 10), 10nm AgNPs (Ag 10), bulk TiO2 (TiO), bulk AgNO3 (NO), Carbon Nanotubes NPs plus ABA (CNTs+). firstname.lastname@example.org<a email@example.com>additional contact details for submitter</a>
Project description:Dehydrin is a type of late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) protein. The dehydrin genes, HbDHN1 and HbDHN2, in Hevea brasiliensis were previously found to be induced at the wounding site of epicormic shoots, with local tissue dehydration identified as the key signal for laticifer differentiation. However, the exact role of the HbDHNs remains unknown. In this study, HbDHN1 and HbDHN2 expression was examined under multiple abiotic stresses; namely, cold, salt, drought, wounding, abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene (ET), and jasmonic acid (JA) treatment. Although, both HbDHNs were defined as SK2-type dehydrin, they showed different cellular localizations. Overexpression of the HbDHNs in Arabidopsis thaliana further revealed a significant increase in tolerance to salt, drought and osmotic stresses. Increased accumulation of proline and a reduction in electrolyte leakage were also observed under salt and drought stress, and a higher water content was indicated under osmotic stress. The transgenic plants also showed higher activity levels of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, and accumulated less hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide ([Formula: see text]). Given that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are thought to be a key signal for laticifer differentiation, these findings suggest that HbDHNs act as ROS scavengers, directly or indirectly affecting laticifer differentiation. Both HbDHNs therefore influence physiological processes, improving plant tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses.
Project description:In this study, we investigated the significance of a conserved five-amino acid motif 'AELPR' in the C-terminal region of helper component-proteinase (HCPro) for potato virus A (PVA; genus Potyvirus) infection. This motif is a putative interaction site for WD40 domain-containing proteins, including VARICOSE (VCS). We abolished the interaction site in HCPro by replacing glutamic acid (E) and arginine (R) with alanines (A) to generate HCProWD. These mutations partially eliminated HCPro-VCS co-localization in cells. We have earlier described potyvirus-induced RNA granules (PGs) in which HCPro and VCS co-localize and proposed that they have a role in RNA silencing suppression. We now demonstrate that the ability of HCProWD to induce PGs, introduce VCS into PGs, and suppress RNA silencing was impaired. Accordingly, PVA carrying HCProWD (PVAWD) infected Nicotiana benthamiana less efficiently than wild-type PVA (PVAWT) and HCProWD complemented the lack of HCPro in PVA gene expression only partially. HCPro was purified from PVA-infected leaves as part of high molecular weight (HMW) ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes. These complexes were more stable when associated with wild-type HCPro than with HCProWD. Moreover, VCS and two viral components of the HMW-complexes, viral protein genome-linked and cylindrical inclusion protein were specifically decreased in HCProWD-containing HMW-complexes. A VPg-mediated boost in translation of replication-deficient PVA (PVA?GDD) was observed only if viral RNA expressed wild-type HCPro. The role of VCS-VPg-HCPro coordination in PVA translation was further supported by results from VCS silencing and overexpression experiments and by significantly elevated PVA-derived Renilla luciferase vs PVA RNA ratio upon VPg-VCS co-expression. Finally, we found that PVAWD was unable to form virus particles or to spread systemically in the infected plant. We highlight the role of HCPro-VCS containing multiprotein assemblies associated with PVA RNA in protecting it from degradation, ensuring efficient translation, formation of stable virions and establishment of systemic infection.
Project description:Asian pear (Pyrus bretschneideri) is one of the most important fruit crops in the world, and its growth and productivity are frequently affected by abiotic stresses. Calcineurin B-like interacting protein kinases (CIPKs) as caladium-sensor protein kinases interact with Ca(2+)-binding CBLs to extensively mediate abiotic stress responses in plants. Although the pear genome sequence has been released, little information is available about the CIPK genes in pear, especially in response to salt and osmotic stresses. In this study, we systematically identified 28 CIPK family members from the sequenced pear genome and analyzed their organization, phylogeny, gene structure, protein motif, and synteny duplication divergences. Most duplicated PbCIPKs underwent purifying selection, and their evolutionary divergences accompanied with the pear whole genome duplication. We also investigated stress -responsive expression patterns and co-expression networks of CIPK family under salt and osmotic stresses, and the distribution of stress-related cis-regulatory elements in promoter regions. Our results suggest that most PbCIPKs could play important roles in the abiotic stress responses. Some PbCIPKs, such as PbCIPK22, -19, -18, -15, -8, and -6 can serve as core regulators in response to salt and osmotic stresses based on co-expression networks of PbCIPKs. Some sets of genes that were involved in response to salt did not overlap with those in response to osmotic responses, suggesting the sub-functionalization of CIPK genes in stress responses. This study revealed some candidate genes that play roles in early responses to salt and osmotic stress for further characterization of abiotic stress responses medicated by CIPKs in pear.
Project description:Nicotiana benthamiana is an important model plant for plant-microbe interaction studies. Here, we compared ribosome profiles and riboproteomes of healthy and infected N. benthamiana plants. We affinity purified ribosomes from transgenic leaves expressing a FLAG-tagged ribosomal large subunit protein RPL18B of Arabidopsis thaliana. Purifications were prepared from healthy plants and plants that had been infiltrated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens carrying infectious cDNA of Potato virus A (PVA) or firefly luciferase gene, referred to here as PVA- or Agrobacterium-infected plants, respectively. Plants encode a number of paralogous ribosomal proteins (r-proteins). The N. benthamiana riboproteome revealed approximately 6600 r-protein hits representing 424 distinct r-proteins that were members of 71 of the expected 81 r-protein families. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD011602. The data indicated that N. benthamiana ribosomes are heterogeneous in their r-protein composition. In PVA-infected plants, the number of identified r-protein paralogues was lower than in Agrobacterium-infected or healthy plants. A. tumefaciens proteins did not associate with ribosomes, whereas ribosomes from PVA-infected plants co-purified with viral cylindrical inclusion protein and helper component proteinase, reinforcing their possible role in protein synthesis during virus infection. In addition, viral NIa protease-VPg, RNA polymerase NIb and coat protein were occasionally detected. Infection did not affect the proportions of ribosomal subunits or the monosome to polysome ratio, suggesting that no overall alteration in translational activity took place on infection with these pathogens. The riboproteomic data of healthy and pathogen-infected N. benthamiana will be useful for studies on the specific use of r-protein paralogues to control translation in infected plants.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The heat shock response of Arabidopsis thaliana is dependent upon a complex regulatory network involving twenty-one known transcription factors and four heat shock protein families. It is known that heat shock proteins (Hsps) and transcription factors (Hsfs) are involved in cellular response to various forms of stress besides heat. However, the role of Hsps and Hsfs under cold and non-thermal stress conditions is not well understood, and it is unclear which types of stress interact least and most strongly with Hsp and Hsf response pathways. To address this issue, we have analyzed transcriptional response profiles of Arabidopsis Hsfs and Hsps to a range of abiotic and biotic stress treatments (heat, cold, osmotic stress, salt, drought, genotoxic stress, ultraviolet light, oxidative stress, wounding, and pathogen infection) in both above and below-ground plant tissues. RESULTS: All stress treatments interact with Hsf and Hsp response pathways to varying extents, suggesting considerable cross-talk between heat and non-heat stress regulatory networks. In general, Hsf and Hsp expression was strongly induced by heat, cold, salt, and osmotic stress, while other types of stress exhibited family or tissue-specific response patterns. With respect to the Hsp20 protein family, for instance, large expression responses occurred under all types of stress, with striking similarity among expression response profiles. Several genes belonging to the Hsp20, Hsp70 and Hsp100 families were specifically upregulated twelve hours after wounding in root tissue, and exhibited a parallel expression response pattern during recovery from heat stress. Among all Hsf and Hsp families, large expression responses occurred under ultraviolet-B light stress in aerial tissue (shoots) but not subterranean tissue (roots). CONCLUSION: Our findings show that Hsf and Hsp family member genes represent an interaction point between multiple stress response pathways, and therefore warrant functional analysis under conditions apart from heat shock treatment. In addition, our analysis revealed several family and tissue-specific heat shock gene expression patterns that have not been previously described. These results have implications regarding the molecular basis of cross-tolerance in plant species, and raise new questions to be pursued in future experimental studies of the Arabidopsis heat shock response network.
Project description:Osmotic stress is a major form of abiotic stress that adversely affects growth and development of plants and subsequently reduces yield and quality of crops. In this study, the effect of nitric oxide (NO) and calcium (Ca2+) on the process of adventitious rooting in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) under simulated osmotic stress was investigated. The results revealed that the effect of exogenous NO and Ca2+ in promoting the development of adventitious roots in cucumber seedlings under simulated osmotic stress was dose-dependent, with a maximal biological response at 10 ?M NO donor nitroprusside (SNP) or 200 ?M Ca2+. The application of Ca2+ chelators or channel inhibitors and calmodulin (CaM) antagonists significantly reversed NO-induced adventitious rooting, implying that endogenous Ca2+/CaM might be involved in NO-induced adventitious rooting under osmotic stress. Moreover, intracellular Ca amount was also increased by NO in cucumber hypocotyls during the development of adventitious roots under osmotic stress. This increase of endogenous Ca2+ was inhibited by NO specific scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl) -4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide potassium salt (cPTIO), nitrate reductase inhibitors tungstate (Na2WO4) and sodium azide (NaN3). This gives an indication that Ca2+ might be a downstream signaling molecule in the adventitious root development by NO under osmotic condition. The results also show that NO or Ca2+ play a positive role in improving plant water status and photosynthetic system by increasing chlorophyll content and photochemical activity in leaves. Furthermore, NO and Ca2+ treatment might alleviate the negative effects of osmotic stress by decreasing membrane damage and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by enhancing the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). Therefore, Ca2+/CaM may act as a downstream signaling molecule in NO-induced development of adventitious root under simulated osmotic stress through improving the photosynthetic performance of leaves and activating antioxidative system in plants.
Project description:Abiotic factors inducing osmotic stress can affect plant immunity and resistance against pathogen attack. Although a number of studies have characterized grapevine responses to various forms of biotic and abiotic stresses, the relationships between osmotic stress response and susceptibility of mature berries to Botrytis cinerea still remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of osmotic stress and abscisic acid (ABA) on defense responses of mature grapevine berries before and after B. cinerea infection. We focused on the possible involvement of polyamines in the interaction between osmotic stress response and susceptibility to B. cinerea. We showed that osmotic stress induced by PEG or sucrose, and exogenous ABA induce transient but low defense responses, including weak expression of PR genes and phytoalexin synthesis in mature berries. This was accompanied by an upregulation of NCED2 involved in ABA biosynthesis and a large production of free polyamines. However, osmotic stress followed by B. cinerea infection primed berries for enhanced accumulation of polyamines, but slowed down the defense responses and increased susceptibility to the pathogen. A weak increase of diamine- and polyamine-oxidase activities was also recorded in stressed berries, but declined after pathogen infection. The pretreatment of stressed berries with appropriate inhibitors of diamine- and polyamine-oxidases further increased polyamine level and greatly lowered defense responses, leading to higher susceptibility to B. cinerea. These results suggest that increased polyamine titer through low activation of their oxidative degradation in grape berries may contribute at least in part to the weakening of defense responses and subsequent disease susceptibility.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Tobacco etch potyvirus (TEV) has been extensively used as model system for the study of positive-sense RNA virus infecting plants. TEV ability to infect Arabidopsis thaliana varies among ecotypes. In this study, changes in gene expression of A. thaliana ecotype Ler infected with TEV have been explored using long-oligonucleotide arrays. A. thaliana Ler is a susceptible host that allows systemic movement, although the viral load is low and syndrome induced ranges from asymptomatic to mild. Gene expression profiles were monitored in whole plants 21 days post-inoculation (dpi). Microarrays contained 26,173 protein-coding genes and 87 miRNAs. RESULTS: Expression analysis identified 1727 genes that displayed significant and consistent changes in expression levels either up or down, in infected plants. Identified TEV-responsive genes encode a diverse array of functional categories that include responses to biotic (such as the systemic acquired resistance pathway and hypersensitive responses) and abiotic stresses (droughtness, salinity, temperature, and wounding). The expression of many different transcription factors was also significantly affected, including members of the R2R3-MYB family and ABA-inducible TFs. In concordance with several other plant and animal viruses, the expression of heat-shock proteins (HSP) was also increased. Finally, we have associated functional GO categories with KEGG biochemical pathways, and found that many of the altered biological functions are controlled by changes in basal metabolism. CONCLUSION: TEV infection significantly impacts a wide array of cellular processes, in particular, stress-response pathways, including the systemic acquired resistance and hypersensitive responses. However, many of the observed alterations may represent a global response to viral infection rather than being specific of TEV.
Project description:The definition of the precise molecular composition of membranous replication compartments is a key to understanding the mechanisms of virus multiplication. Here, we set out to investigate the protein composition of the potyviral replication complexes. We purified the potyviral 6K2 protein-induced membranous structures from Potato virus A (PVA)-infected Nicotiana benthamiana plants. For this purpose, the 6K2 protein, which is the main inducer of potyviral membrane rearrangements, was expressed in fusion with an N-terminal Twin-Strep-tag and Cerulean fluorescent protein (SC6K) from the infectious PVA cDNA. A non-tagged Cerulean-6K2 (C6K) virus and the SC6K protein alone in the absence of infection were used as controls. A purification scheme exploiting discontinuous sucrose gradient centrifugation followed by Strep-tag-based affinity chromatography was developed. Both (+)- and (-)-strand PVA RNA and viral protein VPg were co-purified specifically with the affinity tagged PVA-SC6K. The purified samples, which contained individual vesicles and membrane clusters, were subjected to mass spectrometry analysis. Data analysis revealed that many of the detected viral and host proteins were either significantly enriched or fully specifically present in PVA-SC6K samples when compared with the controls. Eight of eleven potyviral proteins were identified with high confidence from the purified membrane structures formed during PVA infection. Ribosomal proteins were identified from the 6K2-induced membranes only in the presence of a replicating virus, reinforcing the tight coupling between replication and translation. A substantial number of proteins associating with chloroplasts and several host proteins previously linked with potyvirus replication complexes were co-purified with PVA-derived SC6K, supporting the conclusion that the host proteins identified in this study may have relevance in PVA replication.