Priming of the Arabidopsis pattern-triggered immunity response upon infection by necrotrophic Pectobacterium carotovorum bacteria.
ABSTRACT: Boosted responsiveness of plant cells to stress at the onset of pathogen- or chemically induced resistance is called priming. The chemical β-aminobutyric acid (BABA) enhances Arabidopsis thaliana resistance to hemibiotrophic bacteria through the priming of the salicylic acid (SA) defence response. Whether BABA increases Arabidopsis resistance to the necrotrophic bacterium Pectobacterium carotovorum ssp. carotovorum (Pcc) is not clear. In this work, we show that treatment with BABA protects Arabidopsis against the soft-rot pathogen Pcc. BABA did not prime the expression of the jasmonate/ethylene-responsive gene PLANT DEFENSIN 1.2 (PDF1.2), the up-regulation of which is usually associated with resistance to necrotrophic pathogens. Expression of the SA marker gene PATHOGENESIS RELATED 1 (PR1) on Pcc infection was primed by BABA treatment, but SA-defective mutants demonstrated a wild-type level of BABA-induced resistance against Pcc. BABA primed the expression of the pattern-triggered immunity (PTI)-responsive genes FLG22-INDUCED RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASE 1 (FRK1), ARABIDOPSIS NON-RACE SPECIFIC DISEASE RESISTANCE GENE (NDR1)/HAIRPIN-INDUCED GENE (HIN1)-LIKE 10 (NHL10) and CYTOCHROME P450, FAMILY 81 (CYP81F2) after inoculation with Pcc or after treatment with purified bacterial microbe-associated molecular patterns, such as flg22 or elf26. PTI-mediated callose deposition was also potentiated in BABA-treated Arabidopsis, and BABA boosted Arabidopsis stomatal immunity to Pcc. BABA treatment primed the PTI response in the SA-defective mutants SA induction deficient 2-1 (sid2-1) and phytoalexin deficient 4-1 (pad4-1). In addition, BABA priming was associated with open chromatin configurations in the promoter region of PTI marker genes. Our data indicate that BABA primes the PTI response upon necrotrophic bacterial infection and suggest a role for the PTI response in BABA-induced resistance.
Project description:Pectobacterium carotovorum ssp. carotovorum (Pcc) is a necrotrophic bacterial species that causes soft rot disease in Chinese cabbage. In this study, plants harboring the resistant mutant sr gene, which confers resistance against Pcc, were screened from an 800 M2 population mutated by ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) and scored in vitro and in vivo for lesion size. The transcript profiles showed ~512 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between sr and WT plants occurring between 6 and 12 h postinoculation (hpi), which corresponded to the important defense regulation period (resistance) to Pcc in Chinese cabbage. The downstream defense genes (CPK, CML, RBOH MPK3, and MPK4) of pathogen pattern-triggered immunity (PTI) were strongly activated during infection at 12 hpi in resistant mutant sr; PTI appears to be central to plant defense against Pcc via recognition by three putative pattern recognition receptors (PRRs; BrLYM1-BrCERK1, BrBKK1/SERK4-PEPR1, BrWAKs). Pcc triggered the upregulation of the jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET) biosynthesis genes in mutant sr, but auxins and other hormones may have affected some negative signals. Endogenous hormones (auxins, JAs, and SA), as well as exogenous auxins (MEJA and BTH), were also verified as functioning in the immune system. Concurrently, the expression of glucosinolate and lignin biosynthesis genes was increased at 12 hpi in resistant mutant sr, and the accumulation of glucosinolate and lignin also indicated that these genes have a functional defensive role against Pcc. Our study provides valuable information and elucidates the resistance mechanism of Chinese cabbage against Pcc infection.
Project description:In this paper we analyzed ?-aminobutyric acid (BABA)-primed epigenetic adjustment of potato cv. "Sarpo Mira" to Phytophthora infestans. The first stress-free generation of the potato genotype obtained from BABA-primed parent plants via tubers and seeds showed pronounced resistance to the pathogen, which was tuned with the transcriptional memory of SA-responsive genes. During the early priming phase before the triggering stress, we found robust bistable deposition of histone marks (H3K4me2 and H3K27me3) on the NPR1 (Non-expressor of PR genes) and the SNI1 gene (Suppressor of NPR1, Inducible), in which transcription antagonized silencing. Switchable chromatin states of these adverse systemic acquired resistance (SAR) regulators probably reprogrammed responsiveness of the PR1 and PR2 genes and contributed to stress imprinting. The elevated levels of heritable H3K4me2 tag in the absence of transcription on SA-dependent genes in BABA-primed (F0) and its vegetative and generative progeny (F1) before pathogen challenge provided evidence for the epigenetic mark for intergenerational memory in potato. Moreover, our study revealed that histone acetylation was not critical for maintaining BABA-primed defense information until the plants were triggered with the virulent pathogen when rapid and boosted PRs gene expression probably required histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity both in F0 and F1 progeny.
Project description:β-aminobutyric acid (BABA) is a new environmentally friendly agent to induce disease resistance by priming of defense in plants. However, molecular mechanisms underlying BABA-induced priming defense are not fully understood. Here, comprehensive analysis of priming mechanism of BABA-induced resistance was investigated based on mango-Colletotrichum gloeosporioides interaction system using iTRAQ-based proteome approach. Results showed that BABA treatments effectively inhibited the expansion of anthracnose caused by C. gleosporioides in mango fruit. Proteomic results revealed that stronger response to pathogen in BABA-primed mango fruit after C. gleosporioides inoculation might be attributed to differentially accumulated proteins involved in secondary metabolism, defense signaling and response, transcriptional regulation, protein post-translational modification, etc. Additionally, we testified the involvement of non-specific lipid-transfer protein (nsLTP) in the priming acquisition at early priming stage and memory in BABA-primed mango fruit. Meanwhile, spring effect was found in the primed mango fruit, indicated by inhibition of defense-related proteins at priming phase but stronger activation of defense response when exposure to pathogen compared with non-primed fruit. As an energy-saving strategy, BABA-induced priming might also alter sugar metabolism to provide more backbone for secondary metabolites biosynthesis. In sum, this study provided new clues to elucidate the mechanism of BABA-induced priming defense in harvested fruit.
Project description:To survive in adverse conditions, plants have evolved complex mechanisms that "prime" their defense system to respond and adapt to stresses. Their competence to respond to such stresses fundamentally depends on its capacity to modulate the transcriptome rapidly and specifically. Thus, chromatin dynamics is a mechanism linked to transcriptional regulation and enhanced defense in plants. For example, in Arabidopsis, priming of the SA-dependent defense pathway is linked to histone lysine methylation. Such modifications could create a memory of the primary infection that is associated with an amplified gene response upon exposure to a second stress-stimulus. In addition, the priming status of a plant for induced resistance can be inherited to its offspring. However, analyses on the molecular mechanisms of generational and transgenerational priming in the common bean (Phaseolus vulagris L.), an economically important crop, are absent. Here, we provide evidence that resistance to P. syringae pv. phaseolicola infection was induced in the common bean with the synthetic priming activators BABA and INA. Resistance was assessed by evaluating symptom appearance, pathogen accumulation, changes in gene expression of defense genes, as well as changes in the H3K4me3 and H3K36me3 marks at the promoter-exon regions of defense-associated genes. We conclude that defense priming in the common bean occurred in response to BABA and INA and that these synthetic activators primed distinct genes for enhanced disease resistance. We hope that an understanding of the molecular changes leading to defense priming and pathogen resistance will provide valuable knowledge for producing disease-resistant crop varieties by exposing parental plants to priming activators, as well as to the development of novel plant protection chemicals that stimulate the plant's inherent disease resistance mechanisms.
Project description:Plant defensins (PDFs) are cysteine-rich peptides that have a range of biological functions, including defence against fungal pathogens. However, little is known about their role in defence against bacteria. In this study, we showed that the protein encoded by ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA PLANT DEFENSIN TYPE 1.1 (AtPDF1.1) is a secreted protein that can chelate apoplastic iron. Transcripts of AtPDF1.1 were induced in both systemic non-infected leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana plants and those infected with the necrotrophic bacterium Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc). The expression levels of AtPDF1.1 with correct subcellular localization in transgenic A. thaliana plants were positively correlated with tolerance to Pcc, suggesting its involvement in the defence against this bacterium. Expression analysis of genes associated with iron homeostasis/deficiency and hormone signalling indicated that the increased sequestration of iron by apoplastic AtPDF1.1 overexpression perturbs iron homeostasis in leaves and consequently activates an iron-deficiency-mediated response in roots via the ethylene signalling pathway. This in turn triggers ethylene-mediated signalling in systemic leaves, which is involved in suppressing the infection of necrotrophic pathogens. These findings provide new insight into the key functions of plant defensins in limiting the infection by the necrotrophic bacterium Pcc via an iron-deficiency-mediated defence response.
Project description:Specific chemicals can prime the plant immune system for augmented defense. ?-aminobutyric acid (BABA) is a priming agent that provides broad-spectrum disease protection. However, BABA also suppresses plant growth when applied in high doses, which has hampered its application as a crop defense activator. Here we describe a mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana that is impaired in BABA-induced disease immunity (ibi1) but is hypersensitive to BABA-induced growth repression. IBI1 encodes an aspartyl-tRNA synthetase. Enantiomer-specific binding of the R enantiomer of BABA to IBI1 primed the protein for noncanonical defense signaling in the cytoplasm after pathogen attack. This priming was associated with aspartic acid accumulation and tRNA-induced phosphorylation of translation initiation factor eIF2?. However, mutation of eIF2?-phosphorylating GCN2 kinase did not affect BABA-induced immunity but relieved BABA-induced growth repression. Hence, BABA-activated IBI1 controls plant immunity and growth via separate pathways. Our results open new opportunities to separate broad-spectrum disease resistance from the associated costs on plant growth.
Project description:The non-protein amino acid ?-aminobutyric acid (BABA) is known to be a priming agent for a more efficient activation of cellular defence responses and a potent inducer of resistance against biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. Nevertheless, most of the studies on priming have been carried out in Arabidopsis. In potato, the effect of BABA was demonstrated only on biotic stress tolerance. We investigated the effect of BABA on the drought tolerance of potato and found that soil drenched with BABA at a final concentration of 0.3 mM improves the drought tolerance of potato. Water loss from the leaves of the primed plants is attenuated and the yield is increased compared to the unprimed drought-stressed plants. The metabolite composition of the tubers of the BABA-treated plants is less affected by drought than the tuber composition of the non-treated plants. Nitric oxide and ROS (reactive oxygen species) production is increased in the BABA-treated roots but not in the leaves. In the leaves of the BABA-treated plants, the expression of the drought-inducible gene StDS2 is delayed, but the expression of ETR1, encoding an ethylene receptor, is maintained for a longer period under the drought conditions than in the leaves of the non-treated, drought-stressed control plants. This result suggests that the ethylene-inducible gene expression remains suppressed in primed plants leading to a longer leaf life and increased tuber yield compared to the non-treated, drought-stressed plants. The priming effect of BABA in potato, however, is transient and reverts to an unprimed state within a few weeks.
Project description:Two modes of plant immunity against biotrophic pathogens, Effector Triggered Immunity (ETI) and Pattern-Triggered Immunity (PTI), are triggered by recognition of pathogen effectors and Microbe-Associated Molecular Patterns (MAMPs), respectively. Although the jasmonic acid (JA)/ethylene (ET) and salicylic acid (SA) signaling sectors are generally antagonistic and important for immunity against necrotrophic and biotrophic pathogens, respectively, their precise roles and interactions in ETI and PTI have not been clear. We constructed an Arabidopsis dde2/ein2/pad4/sid2-quadruple mutant. DDE2, EIN2, and SID2 are essential components of the JA, ET, and SA sectors, respectively. The pad4 mutation affects the SA sector and a poorly characterized sector. Although the ETI triggered by the bacterial effector AvrRpt2 (AvrRpt2-ETI) and the PTI triggered by the bacterial MAMP flg22 (flg22-PTI) were largely intact in plants with mutations in any one of these genes, they were mostly abolished in the quadruple mutant. For the purposes of this study, AvrRpt2-ETI and flg22-PTI were measured as relative growth of Pseudomonas syringae bacteria within leaves. Immunity to the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Alternaria brassicicola was also severely compromised in the quadruple mutant. Quantitative measurements of the immunity levels in all combinatorial mutants and wild type allowed us to estimate the effects of the wild-type genes and their interactions on the immunity by fitting a mixed general linear model. This signaling allocation analysis showed that, contrary to current ideas, each of the JA, ET, and SA signaling sectors can positively contribute to immunity against both biotrophic and necrotrophic pathogens. The analysis also revealed that while flg22-PTI and AvrRpt2-ETI use a highly overlapping signaling network, the way they use the common network is very different: synergistic relationships among the signaling sectors are evident in PTI, which may amplify the signal; compensatory relationships among the sectors dominate in ETI, explaining the robustness of ETI against genetic and pathogenic perturbations.
Project description:Previous studies have identified the Arabidopsis thaliana transcription factor WRKY70 as a node of convergence for salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA)-mediated defense signal pathways and, together with its closest homolog WRKY54, as a negative regulator of SA biosynthesis. Here, we demonstrate that WRKY70 together with WRKY54 negatively affect the response of Arabidopsis to the necrotrophic pathogens Pectobacterium carotovorum and Botrytis cinerea, but not to the hemibiotroph Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato (Pst) DC3000, as revealed by mutants studies. Unstressed wrky54wrky70 double mutants exhibited increased levels of SA, accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and up-regulated expression of both SA and JA/ethylene (ET) responsive defense related genes. Additionally, protein cross-linking in cell wall was promoted by endogenous SA, suggesting involvement of wall-associated defenses against necrotrophs. This response to necrotrophs was compromised by introducing the sid2-1 allele impairing SA biosynthesis and leading to reduction of H2O2 content and of defense gene expression. The data suggest that the elevated SA level in the wrky54wrky70 double mutant results in moderate accumulation of H2O2, in promoting cell wall fortification and consequently enhanced resistance to necrotrophs but is not sufficient to trigger hypersensitive reaction (HR)-like cell death and resistance to biotrophs/hemibiotrophs like Pst DC3000.
Project description:We provide evidence that alterations in DNA methylation patterns contribute to the regulation of stress-responsive gene expression for an intergenerational resistance of ?-aminobutyric acid (BABA)-primed potato to Phytophthora infestans. Plants exposed to BABA rapidly modified their methylation capacity toward genome-wide DNA hypermethylation. De novo induced DNA methylation (5-mC) correlated with the up-regulation of Chromomethylase 3 (CMT3), Domains rearranged methyltransferase 2 (DRM2), and Repressor of silencing 1 (ROS1) genes in potato. BABA transiently activated DNA hypermethylation in the promoter region of the R3a resistance gene triggering its downregulation in the absence of the oomycete pathogen. However, in the successive stages of priming, an excessive DNA methylation state changed into demethylation with the active involvement of potato DNA glycosylases. Interestingly, the 5-mC-mediated changes were transmitted into the next generation in the form of intergenerational stress memory. Descendants of the primed potato, which derived from tubers or seeds carrying the less methylated R3a promoter, showed a higher transcription of R3a that associated with an augmented intergenerational resistance to virulent P. infestans when compared to the inoculated progeny of unprimed plants. Furthermore, our study revealed that enhanced transcription of some SA-dependent genes (NPR1, StWRKY1, and PR1) was not directly linked with DNA methylation changes in the promoter region of these genes, but was a consequence of methylation-dependent alterations in the transcriptional network.