Project description:Morphogenesis requires the proper migration and positioning of different cell types in the embryo. Much more is known about how cells start and guide their migrations than about how they stop when they reach their destinations. Here we provide evidence that Rbx2, a subunit of the Cullin 5-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase (CRL5) complex, stops neocortical projection neurons at their target layers. Rbx2 mutation causes neocortical and cerebellar ectopias dependent on Dab1, a key signaling protein in the Reelin pathway. SOCS7, a CRL5 substrate adaptor protein, is also required for neocortical layering. SOCS7-CRL5 complexes stimulate the ubiquitylation and turnover of Dab1. SOCS7 is upregulated during projection neuron migration, and unscheduled SOCS7 expression stops migration prematurely. Cerebellar development requires Rbx2 but not SOCS7, pointing to the importance of other CRL5 adaptors. Our results suggest that CRL5 adaptor expression is spatiotemporally regulated to modulate Reelin signaling and ensure normal neuron positioning in the developing brain.
Project description:The ECS (Elongin B/C-Cul2/Cul5-SOCS-box protein) complex is a member of a family of ubiquitin ligases that share a Cullin-Rbx module. SOCS-box proteins recruit substrates to the ECS complex and are linked to Cullin-Rbx via Elongin B/C. VHL has been implicated as a SOCS-box protein, but lacks a C-terminal sequence (downstream of the BC box) of the SOCS box. We now show that VHL specifically interacts with endogenous Cul2-Rbx1 in mammalian cells, whereas SOCS-box proteins associate with Cul5-Rbx2. We also identify LRR-1 and FEM1B as proteins that share a region of homology with VHL (the VHL box, including the BC box and downstream residues) and associate with Cul2-Rbx1. ECS complexes can thus be classified into two distinct protein assemblies, that is, those that contain a subunit with a VHL box (composed of the BC box and a downstream Cul2 box) that interacts with Cul2-Rbx1, and those that contain a subunit with a SOCS box (BC box and downstream Cul5 box) that interacts with Cul5-Rbx2. Domain-swapping analyses showed that the specificity of interaction of VHL-box and SOCS-box proteins with Cullin-Rbx modules is determined by the Cul2 and Cul5 boxes, respectively. Finally, RNAi-mediated knockdown of the Cul2-Rbx1 inhibited the VHL-mediated degradation of HIF-2alpha, whereas knockdown of Cul5-Rbx2 did not affect it. These data suggest that the functions of the Cul2-Rbx1 and Cul5-Rbx2 modules are distinct.
Project description:The multisubunit cullin RING E3 ubiquitin ligases (CRLs) target post-translationally modified substrates for ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. The suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins play important roles in inflammatory processes, diabetes, and cancer and therefore represent attractive targets for therapeutic intervention. The SOCS proteins, among their other functions, serve as substrate receptors of CRL5 complexes. A member of the CRL family, SOCS2-EloBC-Cul5-Rbx2 (CRL5(SOCS2)), binds phosphorylated growth hormone receptor as its main substrate. Here, we demonstrate that the components of CRL5(SOCS2) can be specifically pulled from K562 human cell lysates using beads decorated with phosphorylated growth hormone receptor peptides. Subsequently, SOCS2-EloBC and full-length Cul5-Rbx2, recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli and in Sf21 insect cells, respectively, were used to reconstitute neddylated and unneddylated CRL5(SOCS2) complexes in vitro. Finally, diverse biophysical methods were employed to study the assembly and interactions within the complexes. Unlike other E3 ligases, CRL5(SOCS2) was found to exist in a monomeric state as confirmed by size exclusion chromatography with inline multiangle static light scattering and native MS. Affinities of the protein-protein interactions within the multisubunit complex were measured by isothermal titration calorimetry. A structural model for full-size neddylated and unneddylated CRL5(SOCS2) complexes is supported by traveling wave ion mobility mass spectrometry data.
Project description:SAG/RBX2 and RBX1 are two family members of RING components of Cullin-RING ligases (CRLs), required for their enzymatic activity. Previous studies showed that SAG prefers to bind with CUL5, as well as CUL1, whereas RBX1 binds exclusively to CULs1-4. Detailed biochemical difference between SAG and RBX1, and whether SAG mediates cross-talk between CRL5 and CRL1 are previously unknown. Here we report that the levels of SAG and ?-TrCP1 are inversely correlated, and SAG-CUL5-?TrCP1 forms a complex under physiological condition. SAG-CUL5, but not RBX1-CUL1, negatively modulates ?-TrCP1 levels by shortening its protein half-life through promoting its ubiquitylation via atypical K11-linkage. Consistently, chemical inducers of SAG reduced ?-TrCP1 level. Furthermore, SAG mainly binds to E2s UBCH10 and UBE2S known to mediate K11 linkage of ubiquitin, whereas RBX1 exclusively binds to E2s CDC34 and UBCH5C, known to mediate K48 linkage of ubiquitin. Finally, silencing of either UBCH10 or UBE2S, but not UBCH5C, caused accumulation of endogenous ?-TrCP1, suggesting that ?-TrCP1 is a physiological substrate of SAG-UBCH10C/UBE2S. Our study, for the first time, differentiates SAG and RBX1 biochemically via their respective binding to different E2s; and shows a negative cross-talk between CRL5 and CRL1 through SAG mediated ubiquitylation of ?-TrCP1.
Project description:An emerging mechanism of ubiquitylation involves partnering of two distinct E3 ligases. In the best-characterized E3-E3 pathways, ARIH-family RING-between-RING (RBR) E3s ligate ubiquitin to substrates of neddylated cullin-RING E3s. The E3 ARIH2 has been implicated in ubiquitylation of substrates of neddylated CUL5-RBX2-based E3s, including APOBEC3-family substrates of the host E3 hijacked by HIV-1 virion infectivity factor (Vif). However, the structural mechanisms remained elusive. Here structural and biochemical analyses reveal distinctive ARIH2 autoinhibition, and activation on assembly with neddylated CUL5-RBX2. Comparison to structures of E3-E3 assemblies comprising ARIH1 and neddylated CUL1-RBX1-based E3s shows cullin-specific regulation by NEDD8. Whereas CUL1-linked NEDD8 directly recruits ARIH1, CUL5-linked NEDD8 does not bind ARIH2. Instead, the data reveal an allosteric mechanism. NEDD8 uniquely contacts covalently linked CUL5, and elicits structural rearrangements that unveil cryptic ARIH2-binding sites. The data reveal how a ubiquitin-like protein induces protein-protein interactions indirectly, through allostery. Allosteric specificity of ubiquitin-like protein modifications may offer opportunities for therapeutic targeting.
Project description:The laminated structure of the retina is fundamental for the organization of the synaptic circuitry that translates light input into patterns of action potentials. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying cell migration and layering of the retina are poorly understood. Here, we show that RBX2, a core component of the E3 ubiquitin ligase CRL5, is essential for retinal layering and function. RBX2 regulates the final cell position of rod bipolar cells, cone photoreceptors and Muller glia. Our data indicate that sustained RELN/DAB1 signaling, triggered by depletion of RBX2 or SOCS7 - a CRL5 substrate adaptor known to recruit DAB1 - causes rod bipolar cell misposition. Moreover, whereas SOCS7 also controls Muller glia cell lamination, it is not responsible for cone photoreceptor positioning, suggesting that RBX2, most likely through CRL5 activity, controls other signaling pathways required for proper cone localization. Furthermore, RBX2 depletion reduces the number of ribbon synapses and disrupts cone photoreceptor function. Together, these results uncover RBX2 as a crucial molecular regulator of retina morphogenesis and cone photoreceptor function.
Project description:Cullin RING E3 ligases (CRLs) ubiquitylate hundreds of important cellular substrates. Here we have assembled and purified the Ankyrin repeat and SOCS Box protein 9 CUL5 RBX2 ligase (ASB9-CRL) in vitro and show how it ubiquitylates one of its substrates, CKB. CRLs occasionally collaborate with RING between RING E3 ligases (RBRLs), and indeed, mass spectrometry analysis showed that CKB is specifically ubiquitylated by the ASB9-CRL-ARIH2-UBE2L3 complex. Addition of other E2s such as UBE2R1 or UBE2D2 contributes to polyubiquitylation but does not alter the sites of CKB ubiquitylation. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) analysis revealed that CUL5 neddylation allosterically exposes its ARIH2 binding site, promoting high-affinity binding, and it also sequesters the NEDD8 E2 (UBE2F) binding site on RBX2. Once bound, ARIH2 helices near the Ariadne domain active site are exposed, presumably relieving its autoinhibition. These results allow us to propose a model of how neddylation activates ASB-CRLs to ubiquitylate their substrates.
Project description:Overexpression of anti-apoptotic proteins MCL1 and Bcl-xL are frequently observed in many cancers. Inhibitors targeting MCL1 are in clinical development, however numerous cancer models are intrinsically resistant to this approach. To discover mechanisms underlying resistance to MCL1 inhibition, we performed multiple flow-cytometry based genome-wide CRISPR screens interrogating two drugs that directly (MCL1i) or indirectly (CDK9i) target MCL1. Remarkably, both screens identified three components (CUL5, RNF7 and UBE2F) of a cullin-RING ubiquitin ligase complex (CRL5) that resensitized cells to MCL1 inhibition. We find that levels of the BH3-only pro-apoptotic proteins Bim and Noxa are proteasomally regulated by the CRL5 complex. Accumulation of Noxa caused by depletion of CRL5 components was responsible for re-sensitization to CDK9 inhibitor, but not MCL1 inhibitor. Discovery of a novel role of CRL5 in apoptosis and resistance to multiple types of anticancer agents suggests the potential to improve combination treatments.
Project description:The small GTPase ARL4C participates in the regulation of cell migration, cytoskeletal rearrangements, and vesicular trafficking in epithelial cells. The ARL4C signaling cascade starts by the recruitment of the ARF-GEF cytohesins to the plasma membrane, which, in turn, bind and activate the small GTPase ARF6. However, the role of ARL4C-cytohesin-ARF6 signaling during hippocampal development remains elusive. Here, we report that the E3 ubiquitin ligase Cullin 5/RBX2 (CRL5) controls the stability of ARL4C and its signaling effectors to regulate hippocampal morphogenesis. Both RBX2 knockout and Cullin 5 knockdown cause hippocampal pyramidal neuron mislocalization and development of multiple apical dendrites. We used quantitative mass spectrometry to show that ARL4C, Cytohesin-1/3, and ARF6 accumulate in the RBX2 mutant telencephalon. Furthermore, we show that depletion of ARL4C rescues the phenotypes caused by Cullin 5 knockdown, whereas depletion of CYTH1 or ARF6 exacerbates overmigration. Finally, we show that ARL4C, CYTH1, and ARF6 are necessary for the dendritic outgrowth of pyramidal neurons to the superficial strata of the hippocampus. Overall, we identified CRL5 as a key regulator of hippocampal development and uncovered ARL4C, CYTH1, and ARF6 as CRL5-regulated signaling effectors that control pyramidal neuron migration and dendritogenesis.
Project description:Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) viral infectivity factor (Vif) form a CRL5 E3 ubiquitin ligase complex to suppress virus restriction by host APOBEC3 (A3) proteins. The primate lentiviral Vif complex is composed of the unique cofactor core binding factor ? (CBF-?) and canonical ligase components Cullin 5 (CUL5), Elongin B/C (ELOB/C), and RBX2. However, the mechanism by which the Vif protein of the related lentivirus bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) overcomes its host A3 proteins is less clear. In this study, we show that BIV Vif interacts with Cullin 2 (CUL2), ELOB/C, and RBX1, but not with CBF-? or CUL5, to form a CRL2 E3 ubiquitin ligase and degrade the restrictive bovine A3 proteins (A3Z2Z3 and A3Z3). RNA interference-mediated knockdown of ELOB or CUL2 inhibited BIV Vif-mediated degradation of these A3 proteins, whereas knockdown of CUL5 or CBF-? did not. BIV Vif with mutations in the BC box (Vif SLQ-AAA) or putative VHL box (Vif YI-AA), which cannot interact with ELOB/C or CUL2, respectively, lost the ability to counteract bovine A3 proteins. Moreover, CUL2 and UBE2M dominant negative mutants competitively inhibited the BIV Vif-mediated degradation mechanism. Thus, although the general strategy for inhibiting A3 proteins is conserved between HIV-1/SIV and BIV, the precise mechanisms can differ substantially, with only the HIV-1/SIV Vif proteins requiring CBF-? as a cofactor, HIV-1/SIV Vif using CUL5-RBX2, and BIV Vif using CUL2-RBX1.Primate lentivirus HIV-1 and SIV Vif proteins form a ubiquitin ligase complex to target host antiviral APOBEC3 proteins for degradation. However, the mechanism by which the nonprimate lentivirus BIV Vif inhibits bovine APOBEC3 proteins is unclear. In the present study, we determined the mechanism for BIV Vif-mediated degradation of bovine APOBEC3 proteins and found that it differs from the mechanism of HIV-1/SIV Vif by being CBF-? independent and requiring different ubiquitin ligase scaffolding proteins (CUL2-RBX1 instead of CUL5-RBX2). BIV Vif is the only known retroviral protein that can interact with CUL2. This information broadens our understanding of the distinct mechanisms by which the Vif proteins of different lentiviruses facilitate viral infection. This novel mechanism for assembly of the BIV Vif-APOBEC3 ubiquitin ligase complex advances our understanding of viral hijacking of host E3 ubiquitin ligases and illustrates the evolutionary flexibility of lentiviruses.