Dose-Dense Rituximab-CHOP versus Standard Rituximab-CHOP in Newly Diagnosed Chinese Patients with Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma: A Randomized, Multicenter, Open-Label Phase 3 Trial.
ABSTRACT: PURPOSE:Rituximab with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone administered every 3 weeks (R-CHOP-21) is the standard care for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). It is unknown whether the dose-dense R-CHOP (R-CHOP-14) could improve the outcome of the disease in Asian population. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Newly diagnosed DLBCL patients were centrally, randomly assigned (1:1) to receive R-CHOP- 14 or R-CHOP-21. R-CHOP-14 was administered every 2 weeks, and R-CHOP-21 was administered every 3 weeks. Primary end point was disease-free survival (DFS). Secondary end points included overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), response rate and toxicities. RESULTS:Seven hundred and two patients were randomly assigned to receive R-CHOP-14 (n=349) or R-CHOP-21 (n=353). With a median follow-up of 45.6 months, the two groups did not differ significantly in 3-year DFS (79.6% for R-CHOP-14 vs. 83.2% for R-CHOP-21, p=0.311), 3-year OS (77.5% for R-CHOP-14 vs. 77.6% for R-CHOP-21, p=0.903), or 3-year PFS (63.2% for R-CHOP-14 vs. 66.1% for R-CHOP-21, p=0.447). Patients with an International Prognostic Index (IPI) score ? 2 had a poorer prognosis compared to those with an IPI score < 2. Grade 3/4 hematologic and non-hematologic toxicities were manageable and similar between R-CHOP-14 and R-CHOP-21. CONCLUSION:R-CHOP-14 did not improve the outcome of DLBCL compared to R-CHOP-21 in Asian population. With manageable and similar toxicities, both of the two regimens were suitable for Asian DLBCL patients. For high-risk patients with IPI ? 2, new combination regimens based on R-CHOP deserve further investigation to improve efficacy.
Project description:Background:Central nervous system (CNS) relapse of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is associated with a dismal prognosis. Here, we report an analysis of CNS relapse for patients treated within the UK NCRI phase III R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone) 14 versus 21 randomised trial. Patients and methods:The R-CHOP 14 versus 21 trial compared R-CHOP administered two- versus three weekly in previously untreated patients aged??18?years with bulky stage I-IV DLBCL (n?=?1080). Details of CNS prophylaxis were retrospectively collected from participating sites. The incidence and risk factors for CNS relapse including application of the CNS-IPI were evaluated. Results:177/984 patients (18.0%) received prophylaxis (intrathecal (IT) methotrexate (MTX) n?=?163, intravenous (IV) MTX n?=?2, prophylaxis type unknown n?=?11 and IT MTX and cytarabine n?=?1). At a median follow-up of 6.5?years, 21 cases of CNS relapse (isolated n?=?11, with systemic relapse n?=?10) were observed, with a cumulative incidence of 1.9%. For patients selected to receive prophylaxis, the incidence was 2.8%. Relapses predominantly involved the brain parenchyma (81.0%) and isolated leptomeningeal involvement was rare (14.3%). Univariable analysis demonstrated the following risk factors for CNS relapse: performance status 2, elevated lactate dehydrogenase, IPI,?>1 extranodal site of disease and presence of a 'high-risk' extranodal site. Due to the low number of events no factor remained significant in multivariate analysis. Application of the CNS-IPI revealed a high-risk group (4-6 risk factors) with a 2- and 5-year incidence of CNS relapse of 5.2% and 6.8%, respectively. Conclusion:Despite very limited use of IV MTX as prophylaxis, the incidence of CNS relapse following R-CHOP was very low (1.9%) confirming the reduced incidence in the rituximab era. The CNS-IPI identified patients at highest risk for CNS recurrence. ClinicalTrials.gov:ISCRTN number 16017947 (R-CHOP14v21); EudraCT number 2004-002197-34.
Project description:Survival of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients has improved by inclusion of rituximab. Refractory/recurrent disease caused by treatment resistance is, however, a major problem. Determinants of rituximab sensitivity are not fully understood, but effect of rituximab are enhanced by antagonizing cell surface receptor CXCR4. In a two-step strategy, we tested the hypothesis that prognostic value of CXCR4 in DLBCL relates to rituximab treatment, due to a hampering effect of CXCR4 on the response of DLBCL cells to rituximab. First, by investigating the prognostic impact of CXCR4 mRNA expression separately for CHOP (n=181) and R-CHOP (n=233) cohorts and, second, by assessing the interaction between CXCR4 and rituximab in DLBCL cell lines. High CXCR4 expression level was significantly associated with poor outcome only for R-CHOP-treated patients, independent of IPI score, CD20 expression, ABC/GCB and B-cell-associated gene signature (BAGS) classifications. s. For responsive cell lines, inverse correlation was observed between rituximab sensitivity and CXCR4 surface expression, rituximab induced upregulation of surface-expressed CXCR4, and growth-inhibitory effect of rituximab increased by plerixafor, supporting negative impact of CXCR4 on rituximab function. In conclusion, CXCR4 is a promising independent prognostic marker for R-CHOP-treated DLBCL patients, possibly due to inverse correlation between CXCR4 expression and rituximab sensitivity.
Project description:Background:There is an on-going debate whether 2- or 3-weekly administration of R-CHOP is the preferred first-line treatment for elderly patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The UK NCRI R-CHOP14v21 randomized phase 3 trial did not demonstrate a difference in outcomes between R-CHOP-14 and R-CHOP-21 in newly diagnosed DLBCL patients aged 19-88 years, but data on elderly patients have not been reported in detail so far. Here, we provide a subgroup analysis of patients??60 years treated on the R-CHOP14v21 trial with extended follow-up. Patients and methods:Six hundred and four R-CHOP14v21 patients??60 years were included in this subgroup analysis, with a median follow-up of 77.7?months. To assess the impact of MYC rearrangements (MYC-R) and double-hit-lymphoma (DHL) on outcome in elderly patients, we performed a joint analysis of cases with available molecular data from the R-CHOP14v21 (N?=?217) and RICOVER-60 (N?=?204) trials. Results:Elderly DLBCL patients received high dose intensities with median total doses of??98% for all agents. Toxicities were similar in both arms with the exception of more grade??3 neutropenia (P?<?0.0001) and fewer grade??3 thrombocytopenia (P?=?0.05) in R-CHOP-21 versus R-CHOP-14. The elderly patient population had a favorable 5-year overall survival (OS) of 69% (95% CI: 65-73). We did not identify any subgroup of patients that showed differential response to either regimen. In multivariable analysis including individual factors of the IPI, gender, bulk, B2M and albumin levels, only age and B2M were of independent prognostic significance for OS. Molecular analyses demonstrated a significant impact of MYC-R (HR?=?1.96; 95% CI: 1.22-3.16; P?=?0.01) and DHL (HR?=?2.21; 95% CI: 1.18-4.11; P?=?0.01) on OS in the combined trial cohorts, independent of other prognostic factors. Conclusions:Our data support equivalence of both R-CHOP application forms in elderly DLBCL patients. Elderly MYC-R and DHL patients have inferior prognosis and should be considered for alternative treatment approaches. Trial numbers:ISCRTN 16017947 (R-CHOP14v21); NCT00052936 (RICOVER-60).
Project description:The international staging system (ISS), based on serum beta-2 microglobulin and albumin, is used to predict survival in multiple myeloma, but its prognostic significance in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) remains unknown. Herein, we retrospectively analyzed 215 de novo DLBCL patients. According to ISS, there were 90 of 215 (41.9%) patients in stage I, 98 of 215 (45.6%) in stage II and 27 of 215 (12.6%) in stage III group. Patients with ISS stage II/III showed shorter overall survival (OS) and event free survival (EFS) than those with stage I treated with R-CHOP (p = 0.012 and p = 0.043, respectively), but not those treated with CHOP regimen (p > 0.05). Multivariable analysis revealed that ISS, independent of IPI, indicated different survival in both OS (HR, 5.690; 95% CI, 1.270-25.495, p = 0.023) and EFS (HR, 2.116; 95% CI, 1.005-4.455, p = 0.049) in DLBCL patients treated with R-CHOP. ISS could identify patients with better outcome in intermediate-high/high IPI risk patients (p < 0.05). Our data suggests that advanced ISS stage is associated with inferior outcome in DLBCL patients treated with R-CHOP. ISS could identify a subgroup of DLBCL patients with superior outcome from high IPI risk patients, which may help to avoid intensive therapy.
Project description:Novel strategies, such as chemosensitization with targeted agents, that build on the success of standard immunochemotherapy show promise for the treatment of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Here, we report a phase 1b study investigating dose escalation of the BCL2 inhibitor, venetoclax, in combination with rituximab or obinutuzumab and cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-/G-CHOP) chemotherapy in B-cell NHL. Objectives included safety assessment and determination of a recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D). Fifty-six patients were enrolled, most with follicular lymphoma (43%) or diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL; 32%). Dose-limiting toxicities were reported in 3/14 patients at the first venetoclax dose (200 mg/d), after which dosing was changed from daily to 10 days per cycle and escalated to 800 mg. A further reduction to 5 days per cycle occurred at the 800-mg dose level in the G-CHOP arm. Cytopenias were predominant among grade 3/4 events and reported at a higher rate than expected, particularly in the G-CHOP arm; however, safety was manageable. Overall response rates were 87.5% (R-CHOP and G-CHOP combinations); complete response (CR) rates were 79.2% and 78.1%, respectively. Most double-expressor (BCL2+ and MYC+) DLBCL patients (87.5%; n = 7/8) achieved CR. Although the maximum tolerated dose was not reached, the RP2D for venetoclax with R-CHOP was established at 800 mg days 4 to 10 of cycle 1 and days 1 to 10 of cycles 2 to 8; higher doses were not explored, and this dosing schedule demonstrated an acceptable safety profile. This regimen is subsequently being evaluated in first-line DLBCL in the phase 2 portion of the study. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02055820.
Project description:The efficiency of upfront consolidation with high-dose chemotherapy/autologous stem-cell transplantation (HDCT/ASCT) for newly diagnosed high-risk diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) may be influenced by induction chemotherapy. To select better induction chemotherapy regimens for HDCT/ASCT, a randomized phase II study was conducted in high-risk DLBCL patients having an age-adjusted International Prognostic Index (aaIPI) score of 2 or 3. As induction chemotherapy, 6 cycles of R-CHOP-14 (arm A) or 3 cycles of R-CHOP-14 followed by 3 cycles of CHASER (arm B) were planned, and patients who responded proceeded to HDCT with LEED and ASCT. The primary endpoint was 2-y progression-free survival (PFS), and the main secondary endpoints included overall survival, overall response rate, and adverse events (AEs). In total, 71 patients were enrolled. With a median follow-up of 40.3 mo, 2-y PFS in arms A and B were 68.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 50.5%-81.2%) and 66.7% (95% CI: 48.8%-79.5%), respectively. Overall survival at 2 y in arms A and B was 74.3% (95% CI: 56.4%-85.7%) and 83.3% (95% CI: 66.6%-92.1%). Overall response rates were 82.9% in arm A and 69.4% in arm B. During induction chemotherapy, 45.7% and 75.0% of patients in arms A and B, respectively, had grade ? 3 non-hematologic toxicities. One patient in arm A and 6 in arm B discontinued induction chemotherapy due to AEs. In conclusion, R-CHOP-14 showed higher 2-y PFS and less toxicity compared with R-CHOP-14/CHASER in patients with high-risk DLBCL, suggesting the former to be a more promising induction regimen for further investigations (UMIN-CTR, UMIN000003823).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Treatment resistance is a major clinical challenge of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) where approximately 40% of the patients have refractory disease or relapse. Since DLBCL is characterized by great clinical and molecular heterogeneity, the purpose of the present study was to investigate whether miRNAs associated to single drug components of R-CHOP can improve robustness of individual markers and serve as a prognostic classifier. METHODS:Fifteen DLBCL cell lines were tested for sensitivity towards single drug compounds of the standard treatment R-CHOP: rituximab (R), cyclophosphamide (C), doxorubicin (H), and vincristine (O). For each drug, cell lines were ranked using the area under the dose-response curve and grouped as either sensitive, intermediate or resistant. Baseline miRNA expression data were obtained for each cell line in untreated condition, and differential miRNA expression analysis between sensitive and resistant cell lines identified 43 miRNAs associated to growth response after exposure towards single drugs of R-CHOP. Using the Affymetrix HG-U133 platform, expression levels of miRNA precursors were assessed in 701 diagnostic DLBCL biopsies, and miRNA-panel classifiers predicting disease progression were build using multiple Cox regression or random survival forest. Classifiers were validated and ranked by repeated cross-validation. RESULTS:Prognostic accuracies were assessed by Brier Scores and time-varying area under the ROC curves, which revealed better performance of multivariate Cox models compared to random survival forest models. The Cox model including miR-146a, miR-155, miR-21, miR-34a, and miR-23a~miR-27a~miR-24-2 cluster performed the best and successfully stratified GCB-DLBCL patients into high- and low-risk of disease progression. In addition, combination of the Cox miRNA-panel and IPI substantially increased prognostic performance in GCB classified patients. CONCLUSION:As a proof of concept, we found that expression data of drug associated miRNAs display prognostic utility and adding these to IPI improves prognostic stratification of GCB-DLBCL patients treated with R-CHOP.
Project description:Rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) is the standard treatment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Primary DLBCL of the central nervous system (CNS) (primary central nervous system lymphoma [PCNSL]) is an exception because of the low CNS bioavailability of related drugs. NGR-human tumor necrosis factor (NGR-hTNF) targets CD13+ vessels, enhances vascular permeability and CNS access of anticancer drugs, and provides the rationale for the treatment of PCNSL with R-CHOP. Herein, we report activity and safety of R-CHOP preceded by NGR-hTNF in patients with PCNSL relapsed/refractory to high-dose methotrexate-based chemotherapy enrolled in a phase 2 trial. Overall response rate (ORR) was the primary endpoint. A sample size of 28 patients was considered necessary to demonstrate improvement from 30% to 50% ORR. NGR-hTNF/R-CHOP would be declared active if ?12 responses were recorded. Treatment was well tolerated; there were no cases of unexpected toxicities, dose reductions or interruptions. NGR-hTNF/R-CHOP was active, with confirmed tumor response in 21 patients (75%; 95% confidence interval, 59%-91%), which was complete in 11. Seventeen of the 21 patients with response to treatment received consolidation (ASCT, WBRT, and/or lenalidomide maintenance). At a median follow-up of 21 (range, 14-31) months, 5 patients remained relapse-free and 6 were alive. The activity of NGR-hTNF/R-CHOP is in line with the expression of CD13 in both pericytes and endothelial cells of tumor vessels. High plasma levels of chromogranin A, an NGR-hTNF inhibitor, were associated with proton pump inhibitor use and a lower remission rate, suggesting that these drugs should be avoided during TNF-based therapy. Further research on this innovative approach to CNS lymphomas is warranted. The trial was registered as EudraCT: 2014-001532-11.
Project description:Standard therapy for gastric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is considered to be chemotherapy with or without involved-field radiation therapy. Although R-CHOP therapy alone is widely used for DLBCL with gastric lesions (DLBCL-GL), the outcome and incidence of treatment-related gastric complications following R-CHOP are not well known. This study aimed to evaluate the outcome after R-CHOP therapy in patients with gastric DLBCL including gastric complications and to identify risk factors for the complications. Consecutive patients with newly diagnosed DLBCL-GL treated with R-CHOP between 2003 and 2014 were retrospectively evaluated. DLBCL-GL was defined only when pathologically confirmed in the stomach. Of the 96 patients with DLBCL-GL, 63 patients were diagnosed with gastric symptoms. Eighty-eight patients (92%) completed six to eight cycles of R-CHOP. The complete remission (CR) rate was 86%, and 3-year and 5-year overall survival rates were 80% and 73%, respectively. Patients were well stratified according to the Revised International Prognostic Index (R-IPI). Complication rate was 8% (8/96); seven patients had bleeding and three had stenosis. No patients had gastric perforation. Bleeding occurred during the first cycle of R-CHOP in five patients (5/7, 71%). Patients with gastric complications had a lower R-CHOP completion rate (50%, P = 0.001) and a lower CR rate (25%, P < 0.001) than those without complications. A low serum albumin level at diagnosis was the only risk factor identified for gastric complications (P = 0.001) and six of the eight patients with complications were shown to be at stage IV. Further studies of DLBCL-GL are warranted to identify patients at high risk for gastric complications and to provide better treatment strategies.
Project description:Expression of CD44 splice isoforms has been previously reported to correlate with inferior outcomes in DLBCL patients treated with CHOP therapy. However, it is unclear whether this observation remains valid in the R-CHOP era. In this study, we correlated CD44H and CD44v6 status with survival outcomes among DLBCL patients with an emphasis on the comparison between CHOP- and R-CHOP-treated subgroups. Our results suggest that rituximab has significantly decreased the prognostic value of CD44H. We also observed that the therapeutic benefit of rituximab is largely restricted to CD44H-positive cases in this cohort.