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Structural Basis for Plant MADS Transcription Factor Oligomerization.


ABSTRACT: MADS transcription factors (TFs) are DNA binding proteins found in almost all eukaryotes that play essential roles in diverse biological processes. While present in animals and fungi as a small TF family, the family has dramatically expanded in plants over the course of evolution, with the model flowering plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, possessing over 100 type I and type II MADS TFs. All MADS TFs contain a core and highly conserved DNA binding domain called the MADS or M domain. Plant MADS TFs have diversified this domain with plant-specific auxiliary domains. Plant type I MADS TFs have a highly diverse and largely unstructured Carboxy-terminal (C domain), whereas type II MADS have added oligomerization domains, called Intervening (I domain) and Keratin-like (K domain), in addition to the C domain. In this mini review, we describe the overall structure of the type II "MIKC" type MADS TFs in plants, with a focus on the K domain, a critical oligomerization module. We summarize the determining factors for oligomerization and provide mechanistic insights on how secondary structural elements are required for oligomerization capability and specificity. Using MADS TFs that are involved in flower organ specification as an example, we provide case studies and homology modeling of MADS TFs complex formation. Finally, we highlight outstanding questions in the field.

SUBMITTER: Lai X 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC6639411 | BioStudies | 2019-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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