Silver Nanowire-Induced Sensitivity Enhancement of Optical Oxygen Sensors Based on AgNWs-Palladium Octaethylporphine-Poly(methyl methacrylate) Microfiber Mats Prepared by Electrospinning.
ABSTRACT: Sensitivity enhancement of optical oxygen sensors is crucial for the characterization of nearly anoxic systems and oxygen quantification in trace amounts. In this work, for the first time we presented the introduction of silver nanowires (AgNWs) as a sensitivity booster for optical oxygen sensors based on AgNWs-palladium octaethylporphine-poly(methyl methacrylate) (AgNWs@PdOEP-PMMA) microfiber mats prepared by electrospinning. Herein, a series of sensing microfiber mats with different loading ratios of high aspect ratio AgNWs were fabricated, and the corresponding sensitivity enhancement was systematically investigated. With increasing incorporated ratios, the AgNWs@PdOEP-PMMA-sensing microfiber mats exhibited a swift response (approx. 1.8 s) and a dramatic sensitivity enhancement (by 243% for the range of oxygen concentration 0-10% and 235% for the range of oxygen concentration 0-100%) when compared to the pure PdOEP-PMMA microfiber mat. Additionally, the as-prepared sensing films were experimentally confirmed to be highly photostable and reproducible. The advantages of AgNW-induced sensitivity enhancement could be useful for the rational design and realization of revolutionary highly sensitive sensors and expected to be readily applicable to many other high-performance gas sensor devices.
Project description:We developed hybrid slot antenna structures for microbial sensing in the THz frequency range, where silver nanowires (AgNWs) were employed to increase the sensitivity. In order to fabricate the hybrid devices, we partially etched the AgNW in the slot antenna region, where we can expect the field enhancement effect at the AgNW tip. We measured the resonant-frequency shift observed upon the deposition of a polymer layer, and observed that the sensitivity increased upon the introduction of AgNWs, with an enhancement factor of more than four times (approximately six times in terms of figure-of-merit). The sensitivity increased with the AgNW density until saturation. In addition, we tested devices with PRD1 viruses, and obtained an enhancement factor of 3.4 for a slot antenna width of 3??m. Furthermore, we performed finite-difference time-domain simulations, which confirmed the experimental results. The sensitivity enhancement factor decreased with the decrease of the slot width, consistent with the experimental findings. Two-dimensional mapping of the electric field confirmed the strong field localization and enhancement at the AgNW tips.
Project description:The translocation of cytochrome c (cyt c) from mitochondria and out of cell is an important signal of cell apoptosis. Monitoring this process extracellularly without invasion and cytotoxicity to cells is of great importance to understand certain diseases at the cellular level; however, it requires sensors with ultrahigh sensitivity and miniature size. This study reports an optical microfiber aptasensor with a silver-decorated graphene (Ag@RGO) nanointerface for real-time cellular cyt c monitoring. Owing to an interfacial sensitization effect coupled with the plasmonic electromagnetic enhancement of silver nanoparticles and chemical enhancement of graphene platforms, which enhances the energy density on microfiber surface obviously, the lowest limit of detection achieved is 6.82 × 10-17 m, which is approximately five orders of magnitude lower than those of existing methods. This microfiber successfully detects the ultralow concentrations of cyt c present during the initial stage of apoptosis in situ. As the microfiber functionalized by Ag@RGO nanointerface can be varied to meet any specific detection objective, this work opens up new opportunities to quantitatively monitor biological functions occurring at the cellular level.
Project description:For wearable health monitoring systems and soft robotics, stretchable/flexible pressure sensors have continuously drawn attention owing to a wide range of potential applications such as the detection of human physiological and activity signals, and electronic skin (e-skin). Here, we demonstrated a highly stretchable pressure sensor using silver nanowires (AgNWs) and photo-patternable polyurethane acrylate (PUA). In particular, the characteristics of the pressure sensors could be moderately controlled through a micro-patterned hole structure in the PUA spacer and size-designs of the patterned hole area. With the structural-tuning strategies, adequate control of the site-specific sensitivity in the range of 47~83 kPa<sup>-1</sup> and in the sensing range from 0.1 to 20 kPa was achieved. Moreover, stacked AgNW/PUA/AgNW (APA) structural designed pressure sensors with mixed hole sizes of 10/200 µm and spacer thickness of 800 µm exhibited high sensitivity (~171.5 kPa<sup>-1</sup>) in the pressure sensing range of 0~20 kPa, fast response (100~110 ms), and high stretchability (40%). From the results, we envision that the effective structural-tuning strategy capable of controlling the sensing properties of the APA pressure sensor would be employed in a large-area stretchable pressure sensor system, which needs site-specific sensing properties, providing monolithic implementation by simply arranging appropriate micro-patterned hole architectures.
Project description:One-dimensional photonic crystal (1DPC) sensors have emerged as contenders for traditional surface plasmon resonance sensors, owing to their potential for the detection of bigger molecules and particles due to their higher interaction volume in the sensing medium. Two-dimensional layered nanomaterials, most notably graphene and dichalcogenides (e.g., MoS?, MoSe?, WS?, and WSe?), have shown higher refractive index sensitivity because of their absorption as well as adsorption property. The proposed configuration of 1DPC presented consists of alternate layers of the aforementioned nanomaterials and silicon. The performance parameters, namely the sensitivity, resolution, quality factor, and the evanescent field penetration depth, are calculated and compared with 1DPC having poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) in place of silicon. Increased shift in resonance angle and quality factor are observed by replacing PMMA with silicon, but at the cost of decreased resolution. Further, our results show that although the sensitivity and quality factor of the 1DPC sensor is less than that of the conventional surface plasmon resonance sensor (SPR) with a gold thin film, it has much higher resolution and penetration depth to make it suitable for large molecules.
Project description:Dynamic analysis of oxygen (O?) has been limited by the lack of a real-time, quantitative, and biocompatible sensor. To address these demands, we designed a ratiometric optode matrix consisting of the phosphorescence quenching dye platinum (II) octaethylporphine ketone (PtOEPK) and nanocystal quantum dots (NQDs), which when embedded within an inert polymer matrix allows long-term pre-designed excitation through fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). Depositing this matrix on various glass substrates allowed the development of a series of optical sensors able to measure interstitial oxygen concentration [O?] with several hundred millisecond temporal resolution in varying biological microdomains of active brain tissue.
Project description:A facile fabrication strategy of transparent and upconversion photoluminescent nylon 6 (PA6) nanofiber mats was developed based on PA6 nanofiber mats, carboxylic acid-functionalized upconversion nanoparticles (UCNP-COOH), and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) solution. UCNP-COOH were prepared by a solvothermal method, followed by the ligand exchange process. The electrospinning method and the spin-coating process were employed to combine PA6 nanofiber mats with UCNP-COOH and PMMA to introduce upconversion photoluminescent properties and transparency into the nanocomposite mats, respectively. The prepared UCNP-COOH/PA6/PMMA nanofiber mats are transparent and exhibit green emission, which are similar to UCNP-COOH when they were excited under 980 nm laser. The upconversion luminescent intensity of the functional nanofiber mats can be tailored by adjusting the weight fraction of UCNP-COOH as fillers. This facile strategy can be readily used to other types of intriguing nanocomposites for diverse applications.
Project description:An emerging class of novel heme-based oxygen sensors containing a globin fold binds and senses environmental O2 via a heme iron complex. Structure-function relationships of oxygen sensors containing a heme-bound globin fold are different from those containing heme-bound PAS and GAF folds. It is thus worth reconsidering from an evolutionary perspective how heme-bound proteins with a globin fold similar to that of hemoglobin and myoglobin could act as O2 sensors. Here, we summarize the molecular mechanisms of heme-based oxygen sensors containing a globin fold in an effort to shed light on the O2-sensing properties and O2-stimulated catalytic enhancement observed for these proteins.
Project description:For early-stage diagnostics, there is a strong demand for sensors that can rapidly detect biomarkers at ultralow concentration or even at the single-molecule level. Compared with other types of sensors, optical microfibers are more convenient for use as point-of-care devices in early-stage diagnostics. However, the relatively low sensitivity strongly hinders their use. To this end, an optical microfiber is functionalized with a plasmonic nanointerface consisting of black phosphorus-supported Au nanohybrids. The microfiber is able to detect epidermal growth factor receptor (ErbB2) at concentrations ranging from 10 zM to 100 nM, with a detection limit of 6.72 zM, enabling detection at the single-molecule level. The nanointerface-sensitized microfiber is capable of differentiating cancer cells from normal cells and treating cancer cells through cellular photothermal therapy. This work opens up a possible approach for the integration of cellular diagnosis and treatment.
Project description:PMMA-based cements are the most used bone cements in vertebroplasty and total hip arthroplasty. However, they present several drawbacks, including susceptibility to bacterial infection, monomer leakage toxicity, and high polymerization temperature, which can all lead to damage to the surrounding tissues and their failure. In the present study, silver nanowires (AgNWs) have been introduced to bestow antibacterial properties; chitosan (CS) to promote porosity and to reduce the polymerization temperature, without negatively affecting the mechanical performance; and methacryloyl chitosan (CSMCC) to promote cross-linking with methyl methacrylate (MMA) and reduce the quantity of monomer required for polymerization. Novel PMMA cements were formulated containing AgNWs (0 and 1% w/w) and CS or CSMCC at various concentrations (0, 10, 20, and 30% w/w), testing two different ratios of powder and MMA (P/L). Mechanical, thermal, antibacterial, and cytotoxic properties of the resulting composite cements were tested. Cements with concentrations of CS > 10% presented a significantly reduced polymerization temperature. The mechanical performances were affected for concentrations > 20% with a P/L concentration equal to 2:1. Concentrations of AgNWs as low as 1% w/w conferred antimicrobial activity against S. aureus, whereas biofilm formation on the surface of the cements was increased when CS was included in the preparation. The combination of CS and AgNWs allowed a higher concentration of Ag+ to be released over time with enhanced antimicrobial activity. Inclusion of AgNWs did not affect cell viability on the scaffolds. In conclusion, a combination of CS and AgNWs may be beneficial for reducing both polymerization temperature and biofilm formation, without significantly affecting mesenchymal stem cell proliferation on the scaffolds. No advantages have been noticed as a result of the reducing P/L ratio or using CSMCC instead of CS.
Project description:Flexible, highly sensitive, easy fabricating process, low-cost pressure sensors are the trend for flexible electronic devices. Inspired by the softness, comfortable, environmental friendliness and harmless of natural latex mattress, herein, we report an agile approach of constructing a flexible 3D-architectured conductive network by dip-coating silver nanowires (AgNWs) on the natural rubber latex foam (NRLF) substrate that provide the 3D micro-network structure as the skeleton. The variation of the contact transformed into the electrical signal among the conductive three-dimensional random networks during compressive deformation is the piezoresistive effect of AgNWs/NRLF pressure sensors. The resulting AgNWs/NRLF pressure sensors exhibit desirable electrical conductivity (0.45-0.50 S/m), excellent flexibility (58.57 kPa at 80% strain), good hydrophobicity (~128° at 5th dip-coated times) and outstanding repeatability. The AgNWs/NRLF sensors can be assembled on a glove to detect hand motion sensitively such as bending, touching and holding, show potential application such as artificial skin, human prostheses and health monitoring in multifunctional pressure sensors.