Binge Drinking and Prescription Opioid Misuse in the U.S., 2012-2014.
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION:Prescription opioids were responsible for approximately 17,000 deaths in the U.S. in 2016. One in five prescription opioid deaths also involve alcohol. Drinkers who misuse prescription opioids (i.e., use without a prescription or use only for the experience or feeling it causes) are at a heightened risk of overdose. However, little is known about the relationship between drinking patterns and prescription opioid misuse. METHODS:Data were analyzed from 160,812 individuals (aged ?12 years) who responded to questions about prescription opioid misuse and alcohol consumption in the 2012, 2013, or 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (analyzed in 2017-2018). The prevalence of self-reported past-30-days prescription opioid misuse was assessed by sociodemographic characteristics, other substance use (i.e., cigarettes, marijuana), and drinking patterns. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to calculate AORs. RESULTS:From 2012 to 2014, 1.6% (95% CI=1.5, 1.7) of all individuals aged ?12 years (estimated 4.2 million) and 3.5% (95% CI=3.3, 3.8) of binge drinkers (estimated 2.2 million) reported prescription opioid misuse. Prescription opioid misuse was more common among binge drinkers than among nondrinkers (AOR=1.7, 95% CI=1.5, 1.9). Overall, the prevalence of prescription opioid misuse increased significantly with binge drinking frequency (p-value<0.001). CONCLUSIONS:More than half of the 4.2 million people who misused prescription opioids during 2012-2014 were binge drinkers, and binge drinkers had nearly twice the odds of misusing prescription opioids, compared with nondrinkers. Widespread use of evidence-based strategies for preventing binge drinking might reduce opioid misuse and overdoses involving alcohol.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Alcohol is often consumed with opioids and alcohol misuse interferes with treatment for opioid use disorder (OUD). Drug misuse is associated with worse alcohol use disorder (AUD) treatment outcomes, yet no studies have investigated the role of opioid misuse in AUD treatment outcomes. METHODS:We conducted secondary analyses of the medication conditions of the COMBINE study (n = 1,226), a randomized clinical trial of medications (acamprosate and/or naltrexone) and behavioral interventions (medication management and/or behavioral intervention) for alcohol dependence. We examined associations between baseline opioid misuse and the use of cannabis and other drugs with time to first drinking day, time to first heavy drinking day, and the frequency and intensity of drinking during treatment and 1 year following treatment, based on latent profile analysis. Opioid misuse was defined as use of illicit or prescription opioids without a prescription or not as directed in the previous 6 months, in the absence of OUD. Self-reported cannabis and other drug use were also examined. Seventy individuals (5.7%) met the opioid misuse definition and 542 (44.2%) reported use of cannabis or other drugs without opioid misuse. We also examined medication adherence as a potential mediator. RESULTS:Baseline opioid misuse significantly predicted the time to first heavy drinking day (OR = 1.38 [95% CI: 1.13, 1.64], p = 0.001) and a higher probability of being in a heavier and more frequent drinking profile at the end of treatment (OR = 2.90 [95% CI: 1.43, 5.90], p = 0.003), and at 1 year following treatment (OR = 2.66 [95% CI: 1.26, 5.59], p = 0.01). Cannabis and other drug use also predicted outcomes. Medication adherence partially mediated the association between opioid misuse, cannabis use, other drug use, and treatment outcomes. CONCLUSIONS:Opioid misuse and other drug use were associated with poorer AUD treatment outcomes, which was partially mediated by medication adherence. Clinicians and researchers should assess opioid misuse and other drug use in patients undergoing AUD treatment.
Project description:Alcohol is the most widely used addictive substance. Severe alcohol abuse is diagnosed as "alcohol use disorder" (AUD). A common and harmful drinking pattern is binge drinking that elevates a person's blood alcohol concentration to ? 0.08%. Such drinking may be an early indicator of AUD. Opioid misuse and dependence have become worldwide crises. Patterned consumption of various opioids can develop into opioid use disorder (OUD). An intertwined epidemic exists between opioid abuse, alcohol addiction, and binge drinking. Currently, studies on the interaction of AUD and OUD are limited and the underlying mechanisms linking these disorders remains unclear. We reviewed studies on AUD and OUD and utilized Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) to identify mechanisms of AUD and OUD interaction and potential gene targets for therapeutic agents. According to IPA Canonical Pathways Analysis, Gamma-aminobutyric Acid (GABA) Receptor Signaling, Neuroinflammation Signaling Pathway, Opioid Signaling Pathway and Dopamine-DARPP32 Feedback in cAMP Signaling are potential contributors to the interaction of AUD and OUD.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Prescription opioid misuse has become a leading cause of unintentional injury and death among adolescents and young adults in the United States. However, there is limited information on how adolescents and young adults obtain prescription opioids. There are also inadequate recent data on the prevalence of additional drug abuse among those misusing prescription opioids. In this study, we evaluated past-year prevalence of prescription opioid use and misuse, sources of prescription opioids, and additional substance use among adolescents and young adults. METHODS AND FINDINGS:This was a retrospective analysis of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) for the years 2015 and 2016. Prevalence of opioid use, misuse, use disorder, and additional substance use were calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), stratified by age group and other demographic variables. Sources of prescription opioids were determined for respondents reporting opioid misuse. We calculated past-year prevalence of opioid use and misuse with or without use disorder, sources of prescription opioids, and prevalence of additional substance use. We included 27,857 adolescents (12-17 years of age) and 28,213 young adults (18-25 years of age) in our analyses, corresponding to 119.3 million individuals in the extrapolated national population. There were 15,143 respondents (27.5% [95% CI 27.0-28.0], corresponding to 32.8 million individuals) who used prescription opioids in the previous year, including 21.0% (95% CI 20.4-21.6) of adolescents and 32.2% (95% CI 31.4-33.0) of young adults. Significantly more females than males reported using any prescription opioid (30.3% versus 24.8%, P < 0.001), and non-Hispanic whites and blacks were more likely to have had any opioid use compared to Hispanics (28.9%, 28.1%, and 25.8%, respectively; P < 0.001). Opioid misuse was reported by 1,050 adolescents (3.8%; 95% CI 3.5-4.0) and 2,207 young adults (7.8%; 95% CI 7.3-8.2; P < 0.001). Male respondents using opioids were more likely to have opioid misuse without use disorder compared with females (23.2% versus 15.8%, respectively; P < 0.001), with similar prevalence by race/ethnicity. Among those misusing opioids, 55.7% obtained them from friends or relatives, 25.4% from the healthcare system, and 18.9% through other means. Obtaining opioids free from friends or relatives was the most common source for both adolescents (33.5%) and young adults (41.4%). Those with opioid misuse reported high prevalence of prior cocaine (35.5%), hallucinogen (49.4%), heroin (8.7%), and inhalant (30.4%) use. In addition, at least half had used tobacco (55.5%), alcohol (66.9%), or cannabis (49.9%) in the past month. Potential limitations of the study are that we cannot exclude selection bias in the study design or socially desirable reporting among participants, and that longitudinal data are not available for long-term follow-up of individuals. CONCLUSIONS:Results from this study suggest that the prevalence of prescription opioid use among adolescents and young adults in the US is high despite known risks for future opioid and other drug use disorders. Reported prescription opioid misuse is common among adolescents and young adults and often associated with additional substance abuse, underscoring the importance of drug and alcohol screening programs in this population. Prevention and treatment efforts should take into account that greater than half of youths misusing prescription opioids obtain these medications through friends and relatives.
Project description:To investigate associations of frequency, quantity, binge, and problem drinking with cognitive function in older Eastern European adults.The investigation included 14,575 participants, aged 47 to 78 years at cognitive assessment in 2006-2008 from Novosibirsk (Russia), Krakow (Poland), and 6 Czech towns participating in the HAPIEE (Health, Alcohol, and Psychosocial Factors in Eastern Europe) prospective cohort study. Average response rates were 59% at baseline (2002-2005) and 63% in 2006-2008. Alcohol consumption was assessed at baseline and in 2006-2008. Cognitive tests included immediate and delayed word recall, semantic fluency (animal naming), and letter cancellation. Associations between alcohol indices and cognitive scores were analyzed cross-sectionally (all measures from 2006 to 2008) and prospectively (alcohol and covariates from 2002 to 2005 and cognition from 2006 to 2008).In cross-sectional analyses, nondrinkers had lower cognitive scores and female moderate drinkers had better cognitive performance than light drinkers. Heavy, binge, and problem drinking were not consistently associated with cognitive function. Few associations were replicated in prospective analyses. Participants who stopped drinking during follow-up had worse cognition than stable drinkers; in men, regression coefficients (95% confidence interval) ranged from -0.26 (-0.36, -0.16) for immediate recall to -0.14 (-0.24, -0.04) for fluency.Regular and episodic heavy drinking were not consistently associated with cognitive function. Worse cognition in participants who stopped drinking during follow-up suggests that inclusion of less healthy ex-drinkers may partly explain poorer cognition in nondrinkers.
Project description:Aim:To determine the association of sociodemographic characteristics and type of alcoholic beverage consumed during binge drinking in Serbia. Method:We conducted a secondary analysis of data from the 2014 national survey on Serbian lifestyles focusing on substance abuse and gambling. The sample consisted of 5385 individuals. The respondents were divided into non-binge drinkers and binge drinkers, according to the quantity of alcohol consumed during one occasion. Binge drinkers reported consuming more than 60 g of pure alcohol (7.5 units of alcohol) during one occasion at least once during the previous year. Results:The prevalence of binge drinking in the past year among 2676 female and 2709 male participants aged 18-64 years was 28.4%. The multivariate logistic regression model showed that binge drinkers were more likely to be male (95% CI 3.58-4.94), single (95% CI 1.01-1.53), to be former (95% CI 1.06-1.62) or current smokers (95% CI 1.57-2.19), and to consume more than one type of alcoholic beverage (95% CI 2.04-3.44). There was a negative association of binge drinking with age (95% CI 0.98-0.99), living outside Northern Serbia-Vojvodina region, and drinking only spirits (95% CI 0.39-0.93). Conclusion:Focusing on the positive association of sociodemographic factors and binge drinking could help policy makers create public health interventions against alcohol misuse. These interventions should be directed to males, smokers, and those who consume more than one type of alcoholic beverage.
Project description:Importance:Deaths due to opioid overdose have tripled in the last decade. Efforts to curb this trend have focused on restricting the prescription opioid supply; however, the near-term effects of such efforts are unknown. Objective:To project effects of interventions to lower prescription opioid misuse on opioid overdose deaths from 2016 to 2025. Design, Setting, and Participants:This system dynamics (mathematical) model of the US opioid epidemic projected outcomes of simulated individuals who engage in nonmedical prescription or illicit opioid use from 2016 to 2025. The analysis was performed in 2018 by retrospectively calibrating the model from 2002 to 2015 data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Interventions:Comparison of interventions that would lower the incidence of prescription opioid misuse from 2016 to 2025 based on historical trends (a 7.5% reduction per year) and 50% faster than historical trends (an 11.3% reduction per year), vs a circumstance in which the incidence of misuse remained constant after 2015. Main Outcomes and Measures:Opioid overdose deaths from prescription and illicit opioids from 2016 to 2025 under each intervention. Results:Under the status quo, the annual number of opioid overdose deaths is projected to increase from 33?100 in 2015 to 81?700 (95% uncertainty interval [UI], 63?600-101?700) in 2025 (a 147% increase from 2015). From 2016 to 2025, 700?400 (95% UI, 590?200-817?100) individuals in the United States are projected to die from opioid overdose, with 80% of the deaths attributable to illicit opioids. The number of individuals using illicit opioids is projected to increase by 61%-from 0.93 million (95% UI, 0.83-1.03 million) in 2015 to 1.50 million (95% UI, 0.98-2.22 million) by 2025. Across all interventions tested, further lowering the incidence of prescription opioid misuse from 2015 levels is projected to decrease overdose deaths by only 3.0% to 5.3%. Conclusions and Relevance:This study's findings suggest that interventions targeting prescription opioid misuse such as prescription monitoring programs may have a modest effect, at best, on the number of opioid overdose deaths in the near future. Additional policy interventions are urgently needed to change the course of the epidemic.
Project description:Importance:The use of benzodiazepines or alcohol together with opioids increases overdose risk, but characterization of co-involvement by predominant opioid subtype is incomplete to date. Understanding the use of respiratory depressants in opioid overdose deaths (OODs) is important for prevention efforts and policy making. Objective:To assess the prevalence and number of alcohol- or benzodiazepine-involved OODs by opioid subtypes in the United States from 1999 to 2017. Design and Setting:This repeated cross-sectional analysis used data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Wide-Ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research (WONDER) database of all opioid-involved poisoning deaths from January 1, 1999, to December 31, 2017, for the United States. State-level binge drinking prevalence rates for 2015 to 2017 were obtained from the Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and benzodiazepine prescribing rates for 2012 (most recent available data) were obtained from IMS Health, a commercial database. Data were analyzed from July 10, 2018, to May 16, 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures:Prevalence of alcohol or benzodiazepine co-involvement for all OODs and by opioid subtype, nationally and by state. Results:From 1999 to 2017, 399?230 poisoning deaths involved opioids, of which 263 601 (66.0%) were male, and 204?560 (51.2%) were aged 35 to 54 years. Alcohol co-involvement for all opioid overdose deaths increased nonlinearly from 12.4% in 1999 to 14.7% in 2017. By opioid subtype, deaths involving heroin and synthetic opioids (eg, fentanyl; excluding methadone) had the highest alcohol co-involvement at 15.5% and 14.9%, respectively, in 2017. Benzodiazepine co-involvement in all OODs increased nonlinearly from 8.7% in 1999 to 21.0% in 2017. Benzodiazepines were present in 33.1% of prescription OODs and 17.1% of synthetic OODs in 2017. State-level rates of binge drinking were significantly correlated with alcohol co-involvement in all OODs (r?=?0.34; P?=?.02). State benzodiazepine prescribing rates were significantly correlated with benzodiazepine co-involvement in all OODs (r?=?0.57; P?<?.001). Conclusions and Relevance:This study found that alcohol and benzodiazepine co-involvement in opioid-involved overdose deaths was common, varied by opioid subtype, and was associated with state-level binge drinking and benzodiazepine prescribing rates. These results may inform state policy initiatives in harm reduction and overdose prevention efforts.
Project description:The dramatic increase in opioid misuse, opioid use disorder (OUD), and opioid-related overdose deaths in the United States has led to public outcry, policy statements, and funding initiatives. Meanwhile, alcohol misuse and alcohol use disorder (AUD) are a highly prevalent public health problem associated with considerable individual and societal costs. This study provides a critical review of alcohol and opioid misuse, including issues of prevalence, morbidity, and societal costs. We also review research on interactions between alcohol and opioid use, the influence of opioids and alcohol on AUD and OUD treatment outcomes, respectively, the role of pain in the co-use of alcohol and opioids, and treatment of comorbid OUD and AUD. Heavy drinking, opioid misuse, and chronic pain individually represent significant public health problems. Few studies have examined co-use of alcohol and opioids, but available data suggest that co-use is common and likely contributes to opioid overdose-related morbidity and mortality. Co-use of opioids and alcohol is related to worse outcomes in treatment for either substance. Finally, chronic pain frequently co-occurs with use (and co-use) of alcohol and opioids. Opioid use and alcohol use are also likely to complicate the treatment of chronic pain. Research on the interactions between alcohol and opioids, as well as treatment of the comorbid disorders is lacking. Currently, most alcohol research excludes patients with OUD and there is lack of measurement in both AUD and OUD research in relation to pain-related functioning. Research in those with chronic pain often assesses opioid use, but rarely assesses alcohol use or AUD. New research to examine the nexus of alcohol, opioids, and pain, as well as their treatment, is critically needed.
Project description:Strategies are needed to identify at-risk patients for adverse events associated with prescription opioids. This study identified prescription opioid misuse in an integrated health system using electronic health record (EHR) data, and examined predictors of misuse and overdose. The sample included patients from an EHR-based registry of adults who used prescription opioids in 2011 in Kaiser Permanente Northern California, a large integrated health care system. We characterized time-at-risk for opioid misuse and overdose, and used Cox proportional hazard models to model predictors of these events from 2011 to 2014. Among 396,452 patients, 2.7% were identified with opioid misuse and 1044 had an overdose event. Older patients were less likely to meet misuse criteria or have an overdose. Whites were more likely to be identified with misuse, but not to have an overdose. Alcohol and drug disorders were related to higher risk of misuse and overdose, with the exception that marijuana disorder was not related to opioid misuse. Higher daily opioid dosages and benzodiazepine use increased the risk of both opioid misuse and overdose. We characterized several risk factors associated with misuse and overdose using EHR-based data, which can be leveraged relatively quickly to inform preventive strategies to address the opioid crisis.
Project description:Introduction: Among those who misuse prescription opioids, alcohol use disorder (AUD) is associated with progression to opioid use disorder, risk of overdose, and poor treatment outcomes. However, little is known about co-occurring AUD and prescription opioid misuse. Motives, or reasons, for substance use are important factors in substance use initiation and maintenance; characterizing common motives can help inform treatment targets. The aims of the present study were to (1) identify patterns of motives for prescription opioid misuse, and (2) examine the association between AUD and motives. Methods: Data were extracted from the 2015 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Analyses included adult respondents with past-year prescription opioid misuse (N?=?2,627), of which 24.2% had a co-occurring AUD. Latent class analysis was utilized to identify patterns of motives for prescription opioid misuse. AUD was included as a predictor of class membership. Results: We identified three classes: (1) pain relief (56.1% of the sample), (2) recreational (e.g., to get high; 29.3%), and (3) mixed motives (e.g., coping, pain relief, recreational; 14.6%). AUD was associated with greater odds of membership in the recreational (OR = 2.05, 95% CI = 1.36, 3.10, p?=?.001) and mixed motives (OR = 2.11, 95% CI = 1.21, 3.67, p?=?.008) classes, as compared to the pain relief class. Results: Pain relief was the most commonly endorsed motive for opioid misuse among those with and without AUD. These results underscore the need to improve pain management among those who misuse prescription opioids. Those with co-occurring AUD might also benefit from interventions targeting negative affect and/or positive outcome expectancies.