Prevalence of Functional GI Diseases and Pelvic Floor Symptoms in Marfan Syndrome and Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome: A National Cohort Study.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Prior studies have shown a high prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, diagnoses of functional GI diseases (FGIDs), and pelvic floor symptoms associated with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS). It is unclear if Marfan syndrome (MFS), another common hereditary noninflammatory connective tissue disorder, is also associated these symptoms. This study evaluates the prevalence of and compares FGIDs and pelvic floor symptoms in a national cohort of EDS and MFS patients. METHODS:A questionnaire was sent to members of local and national MFS and EDS societies. The questionnaire evaluated the presence of GI and pelvic floor symptoms and diagnoses. The presence of FGIDs was confirmed using Rome III criteria. Quality of life was evaluated and scored with the CDC quality of life. KEY RESULTS:Overall, 3934 patients completed the questionnaire, from which 1804 reported that they had some form of EDS and 600 had MFS. In total, 93% of patients with EDS complained of GI symptoms and qualified for at least one FGID compared with 69.8% of patients with MFS. When comparing EDS prevalence of upper and lower GI symptoms as well as FGIDs, subjects with EDS reported significantly higher prevalence of Rome III FGIDs as compared with those with MFS. Irritable bowel syndrome (57.8% vs. 27.0%, P<0.001), functional dyspepsia (FD) (55.4% vs. 25.0%, P<0.001), postprandial distress (49.6% vs. 21.7%, P<0.001), heartburn (33.1% vs. 16.8%, P<0.001), dysphagia (28.5% vs. 18.3%, P<0.001), aerophagia (24.7% vs. 12.3%, P<0.001), and nausea (24.7% vs. 7.2%, P<0.001) were all significantly greater in the EDS population compared with MFS population. The prevalence of FGIDs was similar across subtypes of EDS. In general, participants with EDS were more likely to have nearly all pelvic floor symptoms as compared with participants with MFS. CONCLUSIONS:The prevalence of FGIDs and pelvic floor symptoms in EDS is higher than that found in MFS. The prevalence of FGIDs were similar across EDS subtypes. This study supports the mounting evidence for FGIDs in those with connective tissue diseases, but more specifically, in EDS.
Project description:AIMS:Bowel symptoms, pelvic organ prolapse, and sexual dysfunction are common, but their frequency among women with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) has not been well described. Our aims were to describe pelvic floor symptoms among women with and without urinary incontinence (UI) and among subtypes of UI. METHODS:Women with LUTS seeking care at six U.S. tertiary care centers enrolled in prospective cohort study were studied. At baseline, participants completed the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory (PFDI-20), Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire (PISQ-IR), and PROMIS GI Diarrhea, Constipation, and Fecal Incontinence Scales. RESULTS:Mean age among the 510 women was 56.4?±?14.4 years. Women who reported UI (n?=?420) had more diarrhea and constipation symptoms (mean scores 49.5 vs 46.2 [P?=?0.01] and 51.9 vs 48.4 [P?<?0.01], respectively) at baseline. Among sexually active women, mean PISQ-IR subscale scores were lower among those with UI (condition specific: 89.8 vs 96.7, P?<?0.01; condition impact: 79.8 vs 92.5, P?<?0.01). Women with mixed urinary incontinence (MUI) (n?=?240) reported more prolapse symptoms, fecal incontinence, and worse sexual function compared to those with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and urgency urinary incontinence (UUI). CONCLUSIONS:Women presenting with LUTS with UI reported significantly worse constipation, diarrhea, fecal incontinence, and sexual function compared to women without UI. In women with UI, sexual function and pelvic organ prolapse (POP) symptoms were worse in those with MUI compared to SUI and UUI.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Pelvic floor myofascial pain, which is predominantly identified in the muscles of the levator ani and obturator internus, has been observed in women with chronic pelvic pain and other pelvic floor disorder symptoms, and is hypothesized to contribute to their symptoms. OBJECTIVES:To describe the prevalence of pelvic floor myofascial pain in patients presenting with pelvic floor disorder symptoms and to investigate whether severity of pelvic floor myofascial pain on examination correlates with degree of pelvic floor disorder symptom bother. STUDY DESIGN:All new patients seen at 1 tertiary referral center between 2014 and 2016 were included in this retrospectively assembled cross-sectional study. Pelvic floor myofascial pain was determined by transvaginal palpation of the bilateral obturator internus and levator ani muscles and scored as a discrete number on an 11-point verbal pain rating scale (range, 0-10) at each site. Scores were categorized as none (0), mild (1-3), moderate (4-6), and severe (7-10) for each site. Pelvic floor disorder symptom bother was assessed by the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory short form scores. The correlation between these 2 measures was calculated using Spearman rank and partial rank correlation coefficients. RESULTS:A total of 912 new patients were evaluated. After exclusion of 79 with an acute urinary tract infection, 833 patients were included in the final analysis. Pelvic floor myofascial pain (pain rated >0 in any muscle group) was identified in 85.0% of patients: 50.4% rated as severe, 25.0% moderate, and 9.6% mild. In unadjusted analyses and those adjusted for postmenopausal status, severity of pelvic floor myofascial pain was significantly correlated with subjective prolapse symptoms such as pelvic pressure and heaviness but not with objective prolapse symptoms (seeing or feeling a vaginal bulge or having to push up on a bulge to start or complete urination) or leading edge. Severity of myofascial pain at several individual pelvic floor sites was also independently correlated with lower urinary tract symptoms, including pain in the lower abdomen (myofascial pain at all sites) and difficulty emptying the bladder (right obturator internus and left levator ani); and with defecatory dysfunction, including sensation of incomplete rectal emptying (pain at all sites combined and the right obturator internus), anal incontinence to flatus (pain at all sites combined), and pain with defecation (pain at all sites combined, and the right obturator internus and left levator ani). CONCLUSION:Pelvic floor myofascial pain was common in patients seeking evaluation for pelvic floor disorder symptoms. Location and severity of pelvic floor myofascial pain was significantly correlated with degree of symptom bother, even after controlling for postmenopausal status. Given the high prevalence of pelvic floor myofascial pain in these patients and correlation between pain severity and degree of symptom bother, a routine assessment for pelvic floor myofascial pain should be considered for all patients presenting for evaluation of pelvic floor symptoms.
Project description:INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS:Vaginal bulging is considered the key symptom for genital organ prolapse. The aim was to investigate the age-related prevalence and frequency of symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse (sPOP) and other pelvic floor symptoms in nonpregnant nullipara aged 25-64 years. METHODS:This national postal and web-based questionnaire survey was conducted in 2014 and included four independent random samples of women aged 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, and 55-64 years. The association of sPOP with demographics and with other pelvic floor conditions and with clustering to other pelvic floor conditions, was presented in women with and without sPOP. Logistic regression was used to identify and rank variables associated with symptomatic prolapse. RESULTS:The response rate was 52% (n = 10,187) and 726 nullipara confirmed sPOP. Women with sPOP were younger (p < 0.001), shorter (p < 0.001), and more often overweight and obese (p < 0.01) compared with asymptomatic women. Previous surgery for prolapse was reported by 15 women only (0.16%). Symptomatic POP decreased from 9.8% in the youngest age group (25-34 years) to 6.1% in the oldest (55-64 years) (p < 0.0001). Symptomatic POP was more often experienced as bothersome (p = 0.012), and aggravated by straining and heavy lifting (p = 0.003), in older women. Vaginal/vulval chafing/rubbing feeling was most prevalent among the youngest 14.2%, decreasing to 7.8% among the oldest (<0.0001). This symptom occurred three to five times more often in those with sPOP (p < 0.0001). Clustering of pelvic floor symptoms was four times more prevalent in women with sPOP (23.2% versus 6.1%) (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS:The high prevalence of sPOP in this study was contradictory to most earlier reports, which have shown that genital prolapse is rare in nullipara. The explanation of our results may be the low probability of the clinical condition, the dominance of weak and infrequent symptoms, and not least clustering of alternative conditions mimicking sPOP.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of pelvic floor muscle training and watchful waiting on pelvic floor symptoms in a primary care population of women aged 55 years and over with symptomatic mild pelvic organ prolapse. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Dutch primary care. PARTICIPANTS: Women aged 55 years or over with symptomatic mild prolapse (leading edge above the hymen) were identified by screening. Exclusion criteria were current prolapse treatment or treatment in the previous year, malignancy of pelvic organs, current treatment for another gynaecological disorder, severe/terminal illness, impaired mobility, cognitive impairment, and insufficient command of the Dutch language. INTERVENTIONS: Pelvic floor muscle training versus watchful waiting. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was change in bladder, bowel, and pelvic floor symptoms measured with the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory-20 (PFDI-20), three months after the start of treatment. Secondary outcomes were changes in condition specific and general quality of life, sexual function, degree of prolapse, pelvic floor muscle function, and patients' perceived change in symptoms. RESULTS: Of the 287 women who were randomised to pelvic floor muscle training (n=145) or watchful waiting (n=142), 250 (87%) completed follow-up. Participants in the intervention group improved by (on average) 9.1 (95% confidence interval 2.8 to 15.4) points more on the PFDI-20 than did participants in the watchful waiting group (P=0.005). Of women in the pelvic floor muscle training group, 57% (82/145) reported an improvement in overall symptoms from the start of the study compared with 13% (18/142) in the watchful waiting group (P<0.001). Other secondary outcomes showed no significant difference between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Although pelvic floor muscle training led to a significantly greater improvement in PFDI-20 score, the difference between the groups was below the presumed level of clinical relevance (15 points). Nevertheless, 57% of the participants in the intervention group reported an improvement of overall symptoms. More studies are needed to identify factors related to success of pelvic floor muscle training and to investigate long term effects.Trial registration Dutch Trial Register (www.trialregister.nl) identifier: NTR2047.
Project description:Background:It is not only to evaluate the efficacy and safety of mace (Arils of Myristica fragrans Houtt) but also to compare pelvic floor muscle training vs. pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) for improving symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of woman with mixed urinary incontinence (MUI). Methods:A prospective, single-blind randomized controlled study was conducted. Patients (n = 60) were randomly allocated (1:1) to receive either mace powder or placebo (1.5 g) orally twice daily along with pelvic floor muscle training in both groups for three consecutive months. The primary outcomes included symptom evaluation with Patient Global Impression Index of Improvement (PGI-I) and the Patient Global Impression Index of Severity (PGI-S) for MUI. For safety, clinical examination and biochemical parameters were assessed. Secondary outcomes included Short form of Urogenital Distress Inventory Questionnaire-6 (UDI-6) and quality of life assessment with questionnaire tools such as Short form of Incontinence Impact Questionnaire-7 (IIQ-7), Short form of the Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire (PISQ-12) and ICIQ-SF. The data were statistically interpreted with 5% level of significance. Results:After treatment (at third month), the patient reported cure for PGI-I and PGI-S was 46.66% and 90% for the mace group, whereas 0% and 16.66% for the control group, respectively (P < 0.001), statistically significant. No side effects were reported in the mace group. The mean difference noted in terms of scores, at the third month from baseline for UDI-6 (51.09 vs. 24.78), IIQ-7 (45.48 vs. 23.49), PISQ (11.33 vs. 5.40), and ICIQ-SF (8.10 vs. 2.43) scores were higher in the mace than that in the control group (P < 0.001). Conclusion:Mace is effective and safe for the subjective improvement of mixed urinary incontinence symptoms and for the improvement of women's HRQoL than the placebo.Clinical Trial Registry No.: CTRI/2017/04/008342.
Project description:BACKGROUND:This study was performed to compare changes in urinary incontinence (UI) symptoms and pelvic floor structure during pregnancy between nulliparous and multiparous women. METHODS:A cross-sectional survey was performed among pregnant women from July 2016 to January 2017. In total, 358 pregnant women from two hospitals underwent an interview and pelvic floor transperineal ultrasound assessment. A questionnaire regarding sociodemographic, gynecological, obstetric features and the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form (ICIQ-SF) were used for the interview. Imaging data sets were analyzed offline to assess the bladder neck vertical position (BNVP), urethral angles (?, ?, and ? angles), and hiatal area (HA) at rest and at maximal Valsalva maneuver (VM). RESULTS:After excluding 16 women with invalid data, 342 women were included. The prevalence (?2 = 9.15, P = 0.002), frequency (t = 2.52, P = 0.014), usual amount of UI (t = 2.23, P = 0.029) and scores of interference with daily life (t = 2.03, P = 0.045) during pregnancy were higher in multiparous than nulliparous women. A larger bladder neck descent (BND) (F = 4.398, P < 0.001), HA (F = 6.977, P < 0.001), ? angle (F = 2.178, P = 0.030), ? angle (F = 4.404, P < 0.001), and ? angle (F = 2.54, P = 0.011) at VM were discovered in pregnant women with UI than without UI. Multiparous women had a significantly higher BND (t = 2.269, P = 0.024) and a larger ? angle (F = 2.894, P = 0.004), ? angle (F = 2.473, P = 0.014), and ? angle (F = 3.255, P = 0.001) at VM than did nulliparous women. CONCLUSION:Multiparous women experienced more obvious UI symptoms and pelvic floor structure changes during pregnancy than did nulliparous women.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The association of fructose and lactose intolerance and malabsorption with the symptoms of different functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) remains unclear. AIM: To investigate the prevalence of fructose and lactose intolerance (symptom induction) and malabsorption and their association with clinical gastrointestinal (GI) as well as non-GI symptoms in FGID and the outcome of dietary intervention. METHODS: Fructose and lactose intolerance (defined by positive symptom index) and malabsorption (defined by increased hydrogen/methane) were determined in 1372 FGID patients in a single centre using breath testing. Results were correlated with clinical symptoms in different FGID Rome III subgroups. The effectiveness of a targeted saccharide-reduced diet was assessed after 6-8 weeks. RESULTS: Intolerance prevalence across all FGIDs was 60% to fructose, 51% to lactose and 33% to both. Malabsorption occurred in 45%, 32% and 16% respectively. There were no differences in intolerance or malabsorption prevalence between FGID subgroups. FGID symptoms correlated with symptoms evoked during testing (r = 0.35-0.61. P < 0.0001), but not with malabsorption. Non-GI symptoms occurred more commonly in patients with intolerances. Methane breath levels were not associated with constipation using several cut-off thresholds. Adequate symptom relief was achieved in >80% of intolerant patients, irrespective of malabsorption. CONCLUSIONS: Fructose and lactose intolerances are common in FGID and associated with increased non-GI symptoms, but not with specific FGID subtypes. Symptoms experienced during breath testing, but not malabsorption, correlate with FGID symptoms. Effective symptom relief with dietary adaptation is not associated with malabsorption. Mechanisms relating to the generation of GI and non-GI symptoms due to lactose and fructose in FGID need to be explored further.
Project description:There is growing appreciation that functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) such as functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome are heterogeneous conditions linked by subtle inflammation within the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The literature suggests that while the symptoms of these diseases may manifest with similar clinical presentations, there are significant differences in triggers and disease severity among patients classified into the same subtype. It is hypothesized that the subtle inflammation observed in these patients is related to an imbalance in GI homeostasis. Disruption of the delicate homeostatic balance within the GI tract can result from any number or combination of factors, including dysbiosis, loss of barrier integrity, genetic predisposition, or immune responses to dietary or luminal antigens. This article discusses the interplay between the immune system, microbiota, and luminal environment in FGIDs. In addition, the article proposes emerging immune pathways, including those involving T-helper type 17 response and innate lymphoid cells, as potential regulators of the subtle inflammation characteristic of FGIDs that warrant investigation in future studies.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are classified based on their gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, without considering their frequent extra-GI symptoms. This study defined subgroups of patients using both GI and extra-GI symptoms and examined underlying mechanisms with fructose and lactose breath tests. METHODS:Latent class analysis defined distinct clusters of patients with FGID based on their long-term GI and extra-GI symptoms. Sensory and breath gas responses after fructose and lactose ingestion were compared across symptom clusters to investigate differences in sensory function and fermentation by intestinal microbiota. RESULTS:Six symptom clusters were identified in 2,083 patients with FGID. Clusters were characterized mainly by GI fermentation-type (cluster 1), allergy-like (cluster 2), intense pain-accentuated GI symptoms (cluster 3), central nervous system (cluster 4), musculoskeletal (cluster 5), and generalized extra-GI (cluster 6) symptoms. In the 68% of patients with complete breath tests, the areas under the curve of GI and central nervous system symptoms after fructose and lactose ingestion differed across the clusters (P < 0.001). The clusters with extensive long-term extra-GI symptoms had greater symptoms after the sugars and were predominantly women, with family or childhood allergy histories. Importantly, the areas under the curves of hydrogen and methane breath concentrations were similar (P > 0.05) across all symptom clusters. Rome III criteria did not distinguish between the symptom clusters. DISCUSSION:Patients with FGID fall into clusters defined extensively by extra-GI symptoms. Greater extra-GI symptoms are associated with evidence of generalized sensory hypersensitivity to sugar ingestion, unrelated to intestinal gas production. Possible underlying mechanisms include metabolites originating from the intestinal microbiota and somatization.
Project description:Combined spinal-epidural analgesia (CSEA) is sometimes used for difficult births, but whether it contributes to postpartum pelvic muscle disorder is unclear. This randomized controlled trial examined whether CSEA given during labor affects the electrophysiological index of postpartum pelvic floor muscle function.A consecutive sample of primiparous women who delivered vaginally at term were randomly assigned to a CSEA group (n = 143) and control group (n = 142) between June 2013 and June 2014. All were assessed 6-8 weeks later for electrophysiological function of pelvic floor muscle.The two groups were similar in the degree of muscle strength, muscle fatigue, and pelvic dynamic pressure of pelvic floor muscle. The CSEA and control groups showed similar proportions of women with normal muscle strength (score ?4) in type I pelvic fibers (23.1% vs. 14.1%, P = 0.051) and type II pelvic fibers (28.0% vs. 24.6%, P = 0.524). The groups also contained similar proportions of women who showed no fatigue in type I fibers (54.5% vs. 48.6%, P = 0.315) or type II fibers (88.8% vs. 87.3%, P = 0.699). Similarly low proportions of women in the CSEA group and control group showed normal pelvic dynamic pressure (11.2% vs. 7.7%, P = 0.321). However, women in the CSEA group spent significantly less time in labor than those in the control group (7.25 vs. 9.52 h, P <0.001).CSEA did not affect the risk of postpartum pelvic muscle disorder in this cohort of primiparous women who gave birth vaginally. A significant shorter duration of labour was observed in the CSEA-group.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02334150.