Influence of Dissolved-Aluminum Concentration on Sulfur-Oxidizing Bacterial Activity in the Biodeterioration of Concrete.
ABSTRACT: Several studies undertaken on the biodeterioration of concrete sewer infrastructures have highlighted the better durability of aluminate-based materials. The bacteriostatic effect of aluminum has been suggested to explain the increase in durability of these materials. However, no clear demonstration of the negative effect of aluminum on cell growth has been yet provided in the literature. In the present study, we sought to investigate the inhibitory potential of dissolved aluminum on nonsterile microbial cultures containing sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms. Both kinetic (maximum specific growth rate) and stoichiometric (oxygen consumption yield) parameters describing cells activity were accurately determined by using respirometry measurements coupled with modeled data obtained from fed-batch cultures run for several days at pH below 4 and with increasing total aluminum (Altot) concentrations from 0 to 100?mM. Short-term inhibition was observed for cells poorly acclimated to high salinity. However, inhibition was significantly attenuated for cells grown on mortar substrate. Moreover, after a rapid adaptation, and for an Altot concentration up to 100?mM, both kinetic and stoichiometric growth parameters remained similar to those obtained in control culture conditions where no aluminum was added. This argued in favor of the impact of ionic strength change on the growth of sulfur-oxidizing microorganism rather than an inhibitory effect of dissolved aluminum. Other assumptions must therefore be put forward in order to explain the better durability of cement containing aluminate-based materials in sewer networks. Among these assumptions, the influence of physical or chemical properties of the material (phase reactivity, porosity, etc.) might be proposed.IMPORTANCE Biodeterioration of cement infrastructures represents 5 to 20% of observed deteriorations within the sewer network. Such biodeterioration events are mainly due to microbial sulfur-oxidizing activity which produces sulfuric acid able to dissolve cementitious material. Calcium aluminate cement materials are more resistant to biodeterioration compared to the commonly used Portland cement. Several theories have been suggested to describe this resistance, and the bacteriostatic effect of aluminum seems to be the most plausible explanation. However, results reported by the several studies on this exact topic are highly controversial. This present study provides a comprehensive analysis of the influence of dissolved aluminum on growth parameters of long-term cultures of sulfur-oxidizing bacterial consortia sampled from different origins. Kinetic and stoichiometric parameters estimated by respirometry measurements and modeling showed that total dissolved-aluminum concentrations up to 100?mM were not inhibitory, but it is more likely that a sudden increase in the ionic strength affects cell growth. Therefore, it appears that the bacteriostatic effect of aluminum on microbial growth cannot explain the better durability of aluminate based cementitious materials.
Project description:In order to solve the problems of the sudden loss of fluidity and low expansion rate of CAM I (cement asphalt mortar type I) in a construction site with high environmental temperature, this paper studies the effect of temperature on the fluidity, expansion ratio and pH value of CAM I. The mechanism of action was analyzed by IR (infrared spectrometry), SEM (scanning electron microscopy) and other test methods. The results showed that a high temperature accelerates aluminate formation in cement paste. Aluminate adsorbs emulsifiers leading to demulsification of emulsified asphalt, and wrapped on the surface of cement particles, this causes CAM I to lose its fluidity rapidly. The aluminum powder gasification reaction is inhibited, resulting in an abnormal change in the expansion ratio. Based on findings, the application of an appropriate amount of superplasticizers can effectively improve the workability and expansion characteristics of CAM I at a high temperature.
Project description:This paper proposes the mixing design of concrete having modified sulfur-coated aggregate (MSCA) to enhance the durability of Portland cement concrete. The mechanical properties and durability of the proposed MSCA concrete were evaluated experimentally. Melting-modified sulfur was mixed with aggregate in order to coat the aggregate surface at a speed of 20 rpm for 120 s. The MSCA with modified sulfur corresponding to 5% of the cement weight did not significantly affect the flexural strength in a prism concrete beam specimen, regardless of the water-cement ratio (W/C). However, a dosage of more than 7.5% decreased the flexural strength. On the other hand, the MSCA considerably improved the resistance to the sulfuric acid and the freezing-thawing, regardless of the sulfur dosage in the MSCA. The coating modified sulfur of 5% dosage consequently led to good results for the mechanical properties and durability of MSCA concrete.
Project description:Concrete wastewater infrastructures are important to modern society but are susceptible to sulfuric acid attack when exposed to an aggressive environment. Fibre-reinforced mortar has been adopted as a promising coating and lining material for degraded reinforced concrete structures due to its unique crack control and excellent anti-corrosion ability. This paper aims to evaluate the performance of polyethylene (PE) fibre-reinforced calcium aluminate cement (CAC)-ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) blended strain-hardening mortar after sulfuric acid immersion, which represented the aggressive sewer environment. Specimens were exposed to 3% sulfuric acid solution for up to 112 days. Visual, physical and mechanical performance such as water absorption ability, sorptivity, compressive and direct tensile strength were evaluated before and after sulfuric acid attack. In addition, micro-structure changes to the samples after sulfuric acid attack were also assessed by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to further understand the deterioration mechanism. The results show that overall fibre-reinforced calcium aluminate cement (CAC)-based samples performed significantly better than fibre-reinforced ordinary Portland cement (OPC)-based samples as well as mortar samples in sulfuric acid solution in regard to visual observations, penetration depth, direct tensile strength and compressive reduction. Gypsum generation in the cementitious matrix of both CAC and OPC-based systems was the main reason behind the deterioration mechanism after acid attack exposure. Moreover, laboratory sulfuric acid testing has been proven for successfully screening the cementitious material against an acidic environment. This method can be considered to design the service life of concrete wastewater pipes.
Project description:The rheological behavior of cement paste and the improvement of its flowability takes center stage in many research projects. An improved flowability can be achieved by the addition of superplasticizers (SP), such as polycarboxylate ethers (PCE). In order to be able to use these PCEs effectively and in a variety of ways and to make them resistant to changes in the environment, it is crucial to understand the influence of SPs on cement hydration. For that reason, the topic of this paper was the incompatibility of a specific SP and an ordinary Portland cement (OPC). The incompatible behavior was analyzed using rheological tests, such as the spread flow test and penetration test, and the behavior was compared by means of an ultrasound technique and explained by the phase content measured by in-situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) the heat evolution measured by calorimetry, and scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. We showed that the addition of the SP in a high dosage led to a prevention of the passivation of the most reactive and aluminum-containing clinker phases, aluminate and brownmillerite. This induced the aluminate reaction to take place in the initial period and led to an immediate stiffening of the cement paste and, therefore, to the complete loss of workability. The results showed that in addition to the ettringite, which began to form directly after water addition, hemicarbonate precipitated. The fast stiffening of the paste could be prevented by delayed addition of the SP or by additional gypsum. This fast stiffening was not desirable for SPs, but in other fields, for example, 3D printing, this undesirable interaction could be used to improve the properties of printable mortar.
Project description:An alkali-activated blend of aluminum cement and class F fly ash is an attractive solution for geothermal wells where cement is exposed to significant thermal shocks and aggressive environments. Set-control additives enable the safe cement placement in a well but may compromise its mechanical properties. This work evaluates the effect of a tartaric-acid set retarder on phase composition, microstructure, and strength development of a sodium-metasilicate-activated calcium aluminate/fly ash class F blend after curing at 85 °C, 200 °C or 300 °C. The hardened materials were characterized with X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray computed tomography, and combined scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and tested for mechanical strength. With increasing temperature, a higher number of phase transitions in non-retarded specimens was found as a result of fast cement hydration. The differences in the phase compositions were also attributed to tartaric acid interactions with metal ions released by the blend in retarded samples. The retarded samples showed higher total porosity but reduced percentage of large pores (above 500 µm) and greater compressive strength after 300 °C curing. Mechanical properties of the set cements were not compromised by the retarder.
Project description:The present study concerns a development of calcium aluminate cement (CAC) concrete to enhance the durability against an externally chemically aggressive environment, in particular, chloride-induced corrosion. To evaluate the inhibition effect and concrete properties, CAC was partially mixed with ordinary Portland cement (OPC), ranging from 5% to 15%, as a binder. As a result, it was found that an increase in the CAC in binder resulted in a dramatic decrease in the setting time of fresh concrete. However, the compressive strength was lower, ranging about 20 MPa, while OPC indicated about 30-35 MPa at an equivalent age. When it comes to chloride transport, there was only marginal variation in the diffusivity of chloride ions. The corrosion resistance of CAC mixture was significantly enhanced: its chloride threshold level for corrosion initiation exceeded 3.0% by weight of binder, whilst OPC and CAC concrete indicated about 0.5%-1.0%.
Project description:Mineral wools are the most common insulation materials in buildings worldwide. However, mineral wool waste is often considered unrecyclable because of its fibrous nature and low density. In this paper, rock wool (RW) and glass wool (GW) were studied as alkali-activated material precursors without any additional co-binders. Both mineral wools were pulverized by a vibratory disc mill in order to remove the fibrous nature of the material. The pulverized mineral wools were then alkali-activated with a sodium aluminate solution. Compressive strengths of up to 30.0 MPa and 48.7 MPa were measured for RW and GW, respectively, with high flexural strengths measured for both (20.1 MPa for RW and 13.2 MPa for GW). The resulting alkali-activated matrix was a composite-type in which partly-dissolved fibers were dispersed. In addition to the amorphous material, sodium aluminate silicate hydroxide hydrate and magnesium aluminum hydroxide carbonate phases were identified in the alkali-activated RW samples. The only crystalline phase in the GW samples was sodium aluminum silicate. The results of this study show that mineral wool is a very promising raw material for alkali activation.
Project description:Crystalline calcium aluminates are a critical setting agent in cement. To date, few have explored the microscopic and dynamic mechanism of the transitions from molten aluminate liquids, through the supercooled state to glassy and crystalline phases, during cement clinker production. Herein, the first in situ measurements of viscosity and density are reported across all the principal molten phases, relevant to their eventual crystalline structures. Bulk atomistic computer simulations confirm that thermophysical properties scale with the evolution of network substructures interpenetrating melts on the nanoscale. It is demonstrated that the glass transition temperature (T g) follows the eutectic profile of the liquidus temperature (T m), coinciding with the melting zone in cement production. The viscosity has been uniquely charted over 14 decades for each calcium-aluminate phase, projecting and justifying the different temperature zones used in cement manufacture. The fragile-strong phase transitions are revealed across all supercooled phases coinciding with heterogeneous nucleation close to 1.2T g, where sintering and quenching occur in industrial-scale cement processing.
Project description:In this study, the membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) is proposed to achieve simultaneous removal of ammonium, dissolved methane, and sulfide from main-stream and side-stream anaerobic digestion liquors. To avoid dissolved methane stripping, oxygen is introduced through gas-permeable membranes, which also from the substratum for the growth of a biofilm likely comprising ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AOB), anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) bacteria, denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidation (DAMO) microorganisms, aerobic methane oxidizing bacteria (MOB), and sulfur oxidizing bacteria (SOB). A mathematical model is developed and applied to assess the feasibility of such a system and the associated microbial community structure under different operational conditions. The simulation studies demonstrate the feasibility of achieving high-level (>97.0%), simultaneous removal of ammonium, dissolved methane, and sulfide in the MBfRs from both main-stream and side-stream anaerobic digestion liquors through adjusting the influent surface loading (or hydraulic retention time (HRT)) and the oxygen surface loading. The optimal HRT was found to be inversely proportional to the corresponding oxygen surface loading. Under the optimal operational conditions, AOB, DAMO bacteria, MOB, and SOB dominate the biofilm of the main-stream MBfR, while AOB, Anammox bacteria, DAMO bacteria, and SOB coexist in the side-stream MBfR to remove ammonium, dissolved methane, and sulfide simultaneously.
Project description:Microbially-induced concrete corrosion in headspaces threatens wastewater infrastructure worldwide. Models for predicting corrosion rates in sewer pipe networks rely largely on information from culture-based investigations. In this study, the succession of microbes associated with corroding concrete was characterized over a one-year monitoring campaign using rRNA sequence-based phylogenetic methods. New concrete specimens were exposed in two highly corrosive manholes (high concentrations of hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide gas) on the Colorado Front Range for up to a year. Community succession on corroding surfaces was assessed using Illumina MiSeq sequencing of 16S bacterial rRNA amplicons and Sanger sequencing of 16S universal rRNA clones. Microbial communities associated with corrosion fronts presented distinct succession patterns which converged to markedly low ?-diversity levels (< 10 taxa) in conjunction with decreasing pH. The microbial community succession pattern observed in this study agreed with culture-based models that implicate acidophilic sulfur-oxidizer Acidithiobacillus spp. in advanced communities, with two notable exceptions. Early communities exposed to alkaline surface pH presented relatively high ?-diversity, including heterotrophic, nitrogen-fixing, and sulfur-oxidizing genera, and one community exposed to neutral surface pH presented a diverse transition community comprised of less than 20% sulfur-oxidizers.