Accuracy and feasibility of high-speed dual fluoroscopy and model-based tracking to measure in vivo ankle arthrokinematics.
ABSTRACT: The relationship between altered tibiotalar and subtalar kinematics and development of ankle osteoarthritis is unknown, as skin marker motion analysis cannot measure articulations of each joint independently. Here, we quantified the accuracy and demonstrated the feasibility of high-speed dual fluoroscopy (DF) to measure and visualize the three-dimensional articulation (i.e., arthrokinematics) of the tibiotalar and subtalar joints. Metal beads were implanted in the tibia, talus and calcaneus of two cadavers. Three-dimensional surface models of the cadaver and volunteer bones were reconstructed from computed tomography images. A custom DF system was positioned adjacent to an instrumented treadmill. DF images of the cadavers were acquired during maximal rotation about three axes (dorsal-plantar flexion, inversion-eversion, internal-external rotation) and simulated gait (treadmill at 0.5 and 1.0 m/s). Positions of implanted beads were tracked using dynamic radiostereometric analysis (DRSA). Bead locations were also calculated using model-based markerless tracking (MBT) and compared, along with joint angles and translations, to DRSA results. The mean positional difference between DRSA and MBT for all frames defined bias; standard deviation of the difference defined precision. The volunteer was imaged with DF during treadmill gait. From these movements, joint kinematics and tibiotalar and subtalar bone-to-bone distance were calculated. The mean positional and rotational bias (±standard deviation) of MBT was 0.03±0.35 mm and 0.25±0.81°, respectively. Mean translational and rotational precision was 0.30±0.12 mm and 0.63±0.28°, respectively. With excellent measurement accuracy, DF and MBT may elucidate the kinematic pathways responsible for osteoarthritis of the tibiotalar and subtalar joints in living subjects.
Project description:Evidence suggests that the tibiotalar and subtalar joints provide near six degree-of-freedom (DOF) motion. Yet, kinematic models frequently assume one DOF at each of these joints. In this study, we quantified the accuracy of kinematic models to predict joint angles at the tibiotalar and subtalar joints from skin-marker data. Models included 1 or 3 DOF at each joint. Ten asymptomatic subjects, screened for deformities, performed 1.0m/s treadmill walking and a balanced, single-leg heel-rise. Tibiotalar and subtalar joint angles calculated by inverse kinematics for the 1 and 3 DOF models were compared to those measured directly in vivo using dual-fluoroscopy. Results demonstrated that, for each activity, the average error in tibiotalar joint angles predicted by the 1 DOF model were significantly smaller than those predicted by the 3 DOF model for inversion/eversion and internal/external rotation. In contrast, neither model consistently demonstrated smaller errors when predicting subtalar joint angles. Additionally, neither model could accurately predict discrete angles for the tibiotalar and subtalar joints on a per-subject basis. Differences between model predictions and dual-fluoroscopy measurements were highly variable across subjects, with joint angle errors in at least one rotation direction surpassing 10° for 9 out of 10 subjects. Our results suggest that both the 1 and 3 DOF models can predict trends in tibiotalar joint angles on a limited basis. However, as currently implemented, neither model can predict discrete tibiotalar or subtalar joint angles for individual subjects. Inclusion of subject-specific attributes may improve the accuracy of these models.
Project description:Accurate in vivo quantification of subtalar joint kinematics can provide important information for the clinical evaluation of subtalar joint function; the analysis of outcome of surgical procedures of the hindfoot; and the design of a replacement subtalar joint prosthesis. The objective of the current study was to explore the potential of full weight-bearing clinical computed tomography (CT) to evaluate the helical axis and centre of rotation of the subtalar joint during inversion and eversion motion. A subject specific methodology was proposed for the definition of the subtalar joint motion combining three-dimensional (3D) weight-bearing imaging at different joint positions with digital volume correlation (DVC). The computed subtalar joint helical axis parameters showed consistency across all healthy subjects and in line with previous data under simulated loads. A sphere fitting approach was introduced for the computation of subtalar joint centre of rotation, which allows to demonstrate that this centre of rotation is located in the middle facet of the subtalar joint. Some translation along the helical axis was also observed, reflecting the elasticity of the soft-tissue restraints. This study showed a novel technique for non-invasive quantitative analysis of bone-to-bone motion under full weight-bearing of the hindfoot. Identifying different joint kinematics in patients with ligamentous laxity and instability, or in the presence of stiffness and arthritis, could help clinicians to define optimal patient-specific treatments.
Project description:Accurate measurements of in-vivo hip kinematics may elucidate the mechanisms responsible for impaired function and chondrolabral damage in hips with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). The objectives of this study were to quantify the accuracy and demonstrate the feasibility of using dual fluoroscopy to measure in-vivo hip kinematics during clinical exams used in the assessment of FAI. Steel beads were implanted into the pelvis and femur of two cadavers. Specimens were imaged under dual fluoroscopy during the impingement exam, FABER test, and rotational profile. Bead locations measured with model-based tracking were compared with those measured using dynamic radiostereometric analysis. Error was quantified by bias and precision, defined as the average and standard deviation of the differences between tracking methods, respectively. A normal male volunteer was also imaged during clinical exams. Bias and precision along a single axis did not exceed 0.17 and 0.21 mm, respectively. Comparing kinematics, positional error was less than 0.48 mm and rotational error was less than 0.58°. For the volunteer, kinematics were reported as joint angles and bone-bone distance. These results demonstrate that dual fluoroscopy and model-based tracking can accurately measure hip kinematics in living subjects during clinical exams of the hip.
Project description:An ankle brace is commonly used by patients after they suffer from initial ankle sprains, reducing the incidents of recurrent sprain or limiting laxity in joints with functional ankle instability (FAI). However, whether the application of a semirigid ankle brace can improve the abnormal ankle gait kinematics of patients with FAI remains unknown. This study aimed to determine the effect of a semirigid ankle brace on the gait kinematics of ankle joints through 3D-2D fluoroscopy image registration. A total of 8 subjects with FAI (3 males and 5 females, 10 feet) as FAI group and 10 subjects without FAI (6 males and 4 females, 10 feet) as control group were enrolled in this study. Three-dimensional bone models created from computed tomography images were matched to fluoroscopic images to compute the 6 degrees of freedom (DOF) talocrural, subtalar, and ankle joints complex kinematics for control and FAI group with or without brace during the stance phase of walking. FAI patients had significantly less ROMs in inversion/eversion rotation of the talocrural and subtalar joint after wearing semirigid ankle brace. Laxity was observed in most of the displacements of the talocrural and subtalar joints in FAI group. The brace partly altered the ankle joints movement in opposite directions, especially joint rotation, and restricted the talocrural and subtalar joints in the dorsiflexion position during the touch down phase of walking.
Project description:We studied the use of powered ankle-foot orthoses (PAFOs) and walking stability of the wearers, focusing on the ankle joint, which is known to play a critical role in gait stability. Recognizing that the subtalar joint is an important modulator of walking stability, we conducted the walking experiment on a treadmill by applying varying assistance techniques to the 2-degree-of-freedom (DOF) PAFO, which has the subtalar joint as the rotating axis, and the commonly used 1-DOF PAFO. The participants were 8 healthy men (mean±SD: height, 174.8±7.1 cm; weight, 69.8±6.5 kg; and age, 29.1±4.8 years) with no history of gait abnormality. Center of pressure (COP) was measured with an in-shoe pressure sensor, and stability was estimated on the basis of the angular acceleration measured with the inertial measurement unit attached to the trunk. The experimental results of the 2-DOF PAFO, with or without assistance, showed a significantly higher stability than those of the 1-DOF PAFO (up to 23.78%, p<0.0326). With the 1-DOF PAFO, the stability deteriorated with the increase in the degree of assistance provided. With the 2-DOF PAFO, this tendency was not observed. Thus, the importance of the subtalar joint was proven using PAFOs. The mean position analysis of the COP during the stance phase confirmed that the COP highly correlated with stability (Pearson correlation coefficient: -0.6607). Thus, we conclude that only the 2-DOF PAFO can maintain walking stability, regardless of the assistance characteristics, by preserving the COP in the medial position through eversion. Awareness regarding the role of the subtalar joint is necessary during the manufacture or use of PAFOs, as lack of awareness could lead to the degradation of the wearer's gait stability, regardless of effective assistance, and deteriorate the fundamental functionality of PAFO.
Project description:This study presents an investigation of the changes in foot posture, joint kinematics, joint moments and joint contact forces in the lower extremity following a 5 k treadmill run. A relationship between knee and ankle joint loading and foot posture index (FPI) is developed. Twenty recreational male heel-strike runners participated in this study. All participants had a history of running exercise and were free from lower extremity injuries and foot deformities. Foot posture was assessed from a six-item FPI to quantitatively classify high supination to high pronation foot poses. The FPI is scored using a combination of observations and foot palpations. The three-dimensional marker trajectories, ground reaction force and surface electromyography (EMG) were recorded at pre and post-gait sessions conducted over-ground and 5 k running was conducted on a treadmill. Joint kinematics, joint moments and joint contact forces were computed in OpenSim. Simulated EMG activations were compared against experimental EMG to validate the model. A paired sample t-test was conducted using a 1D statistical parametric mapping method computed temporally. Hip joint moments and contact forces increased during initial foot contact following 5 k running. Knee abduction moment and superior-inferior knee contact force increased, whereas the knee extension moment decreased. Ankle plantarflexion moment and ankle contact forces increased during stance. FPI was found to be moderately correlated with peak knee and ankle moments. Recreational male runners presented increased static foot pronation after 5 k treadmill running. These findings suggest that following mid distance running foot pronation may be an early indicator of increased lower limb joint loading. Furthermore, the FPI may be used to quantify the changes in knee and ankle joint moments.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Treadmill exercise is commonly used as an alternative to over-ground walking or running. Increasing evidence indicated the kinetics of treadmill exercise is different from that of over-ground. Biomechanics of treadmill or over-ground exercises have been investigated in terms of energy consumption, ground reaction force, and surface EMG signals. These indexes cannot accurately characterize the musculoskeletal loading, which directly contributes to tissue injuries. This study aimed to quantify the differences of lower limb joint angles and muscle forces in treadmills and over-ground exercises. 10 healthy volunteers were required to walk at 100 and 120 steps/min and run at 140 and 160 steps/min on treadmill and ground. The joint flexion angles were obtained from the motion capture experiments and were used to calculate the muscle forces with an inverse dynamic method. RESULTS:Hip, knee, and ankle joint motions of treadmill and over-ground conditions were similar in walking, yet different in running. Compared with over-ground running, joint motion ranges in treadmill running were smaller. They were also less affected by stride frequency. Maximum Gastrocnemius force was greater in treadmill walking, yet maximum Rectus femoris and Vastus forces were smaller. Maximum Gastrocnemius and Soleus forces were greater in treadmill running. CONCLUSIONS:Treadmill exercise results in smoother joint kinematics. In terms of muscle force, treadmill exercise requires lower loading on knee extensor, yet higher loading on plantar flexor, especially on Gastrocnemius. The findings and the methodology can provide the basis for rehabilitation therapy customization and sophistic treadmill design.
Project description:Subtalar joint anatomy is complex and can vary significantly between individuals.Movement is affected by several adjacent joints, ligaments and periarticular tendons.The subtalar joint has gained interest from foot and ankle surgeons in recent years, but its importance in hindfoot disorders is still under debate.The purpose of this article is to give a general overview of the anatomy, biomechanics and radiographic assessment of the subtalar joint.The influence of the subtalar joint on the evolution of ankle joint osteoarthritis is additionally discussed. Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2017;2:309-316. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.2.160050.
Project description:The purpose of this study was to compare the inter-limb joint kinematics, joint moments, muscle forces, and joint reaction forces in patients after an Achilles tendon rupture (ATR) via subject-specific musculoskeletal modeling. Six patients recovering from a surgically repaired unilateral ATR were included in this study. The bilateral Achilles tendon (AT) lengths were evaluated using ultrasound imaging. The three-dimensional marker trajectories, ground reaction forces, and surface electromyography (sEMG) were collected on both sides during self-selected speed during walking, jogging and running. Subject-specific musculoskeletal models were developed to compute joint kinematics, joint moments, muscle forces and joint reaction forces. AT lengths were significantly longer in the involved side. The side-to-side triceps surae muscle strength deficits were combined with decreased plantarflexion angles and moments in the injured leg during walking, jogging and running. However, the increased knee extensor femur muscle forces were associated with greater knee extension degrees and moments in the involved limb during all tasks. Greater knee joint moments and joint reaction forces versus decreased ankle joint moments and joint reaction forces in the involved side indicate elevated knee joint loads compared with reduced ankle joint loads that are present during normal activities after an ATR. In the frontal plane, increased subtalar eversion angles and eversion moments in the involved side were demonstrated only during jogging and running, which were regarded as an indicator for greater medial knee joint loading. It seems after an ATR, the elongated AT accompanied by decreased plantarflexion degrees and calf muscle strength deficits indicates ankle joint function impairment in the injured leg. In addition, increased knee extensor muscle strength and knee joint loads may be a possible compensatory mechanism for decreased ankle function. These data suggest patients after an ATR may suffer from increased knee overuse injury risk.
Project description:Flip-flops may change walking gait pattern, increase muscle activity and joint loading, and predispose wearers to foot problems, despite that quantitative evidence is scarce. The purpose of this study was to examine the lower limb muscle co-contraction and joint contact force in flip-flops gait, and compare with those of barefoot and sports shoes walking. Ten healthy males were instructed to perform over-ground walking at self-selected speed under three footwear conditions: 1) barefoot, 2) sports shoes, and 3) thong-type flip-flops. Kinematic, kinetic and EMG data were collected and input to a musculoskeletal model to estimate muscle force and joint force. One-way repeated measures ANOVA was conducted to compare footwear conditions. It was hypothesized that flip-flops would induce muscle co-contraction and produce different gait kinematics and kinetics. Our results demonstrated that the musculoskeletal model estimation had a good temporal consistency with the measured EMG. Flip-flops produced significantly lower walking speed, higher ankle and subtalar joint range of motion, and higher shear ankle joint contact force than sports shoes (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences between flip-flops and barefoot conditions in terms of muscle co-contraction index, joint kinematics, and joint loading of the knee and ankle complex (p > 0.05). The variance in walking speed and footwear design may be the two major factors that resulted in the comparable joint biomechanics in flip-flops and barefoot walking. From this point of view, whether flip-flops gait is potentially harmful to foot health remains unclear. Given that shod walking is more common than barefoot walking on a daily basis, sports shoes with close-toe design may be a better footwear option than flip-flops for injury prevention due to its constraint on joint motion and loading.