Metal-Free Construction of Fused Pyrimidines via Consecutive C-C and C-N Bond Formation in Water.
ABSTRACT: A facile and efficient protocol has been developed for mild construction of fused pyrimidines via l-proline-catalyzed reaction of 4-hydroxy coumarins, aldehydes, and 2-aminobenzothiazoles/urea. The reaction has been carried out rapidly and efficiently in water under mild and metal-free conditions. Current etiquette has efficiently synthesized the heterocycles and avoids the use of hazardous solvents over conventional organic solvents. A plausible reaction mechanism has been established in this study. This study represents the first case in which l-proline as a homogeneous catalyst has been explored in the synthesis of fused pyrimidines in water in view of simple procedure and acceptable efficiency. This method gives the target product in excellent yield with ease of workup.
Project description:A palladium-catalyzed intramolecular dehydrogenative coupling reaction was developed for the synthesis of fused imidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidines and pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines. The developed protocol provides a practical approach for the synthesis of biologically important substituted pyrimidines from easily available substrates, with a broad substrate scope under mild reaction conditions.
Project description:A convenient and practical method for the synthesis of 2-alkylthio-4-amino-5-cyano-6-aryl(alkyl)pyrimidines has been developed via a three-component, one-pot reaction from aldehydes, malononitrile and S-alkylisothiouronium salts in water at room temperature. A series of polysubstituted pyrimidines were prepared by this method in moderate to excellent yields. In addition, two kinds of pyrimidine-fused heterocyclic derivatives with potential pharmacological activity were constructed from our 2-alkylthio-4-amino-5-cyano-6-arylpyrimidines.
Project description:We have found that ?-amino acid amide derivatives of 2-aminobenzothiazoles undergo a time-dependent, thermal rearrangement in which the amine group attacks the 2-position carbon of the thiazole ring to form a 5,5-spiro ring system. This is followed by sulfur leaving and air oxidation to the corresponding symmetrical disulfide. The isolated yields of such products are quite high (>70%) if there is conformational bias to further promote the intramolecular reaction such as for the 2-aminobenzothiazole amides derived from proline or 4-aminopiperidine-4-carboxylic acid. This rearrangement has not been described previously for ?-amino acid amide derivatives of 2-aminobenzothiazoles. However, a related reaction involving 2-semicarbazido benzothiazoles has been recently reported.
Project description:Since the first synthesis of trifluoromethyl ethers in 1935, the trifluoromethoxy (OCF3) group has made a remarkable impact in medicinal, agrochemical, and materials science research. However, our inability to facilely incorporate the OCF3 group into molecules, especially heteroaromatics, has limited its potential across a broad spectrum of technological applications. Herein, we report a scalable and operationally simple protocol for regioselective trifluoromethoxylation of a wide range of functionalized pyridines and pyrimidines under mild reaction conditions. The trifluoromethoxylated products are useful scaffolds that can be further elaborated by amidation and palladium-catalysed cross coupling reactions. Mechanistic studies suggest that a radical O-trifluoromethylation followed by the OCF3-migration reaction pathway is operable. Given the unique properties of the OCF3 group and the ubiquity of pyridine and pyrimidine in biologically active molecules and functional materials, trifluoromethoxylated pyridines and pyrimidines could serve as valuable building blocks for the discovery and development of new drugs, agrochemicals, and materials.
Project description:Pyrimidines have always received considerable attention because of their importance in synthesis and elucidation of biochemical roles, in particular that of vitamin B1. Herein, we describe a reaction pathway in a Grignard reagent-based synthesis of substituted pyrimidines. A general synthesis of ?-keto-2-methyl-4-amino pyrimidines and their C6-substituted analogues from 4-amino-5-cyano-2-methylpyrimidine is reported. The presence of the nitrile substituent in the starting material also results in an unusual reaction pathway leading to C6-substituted 1,2-dihydropyrimidines. Grignard reagents that give normal pyrimidine products under standard reaction conditions can be switched to give dihydropyrimidines by holding the reaction at 0 °C before quenching.
Project description:The three possible structural isomers of 4-(pyridyl)pyrimidine were employed for the synthesis of new pyrrolo[1,2-c]pyrimidines and new indolizines, by 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction of their corresponding N-ylides generated in situ from their corresponding cycloimmonium bromides. In the case of 4-(3-pyridyl)pyrimidine and 4-(4-pyridyl)pyrimidine the quaternization reactions occur as expected at the pyridine nitrogen atom leading to pyridinium bromides and consequently to new indolizines via the corresponding pyridinium N-ylides. However, in the case of 4-(2-pyridyl)pyrimidine the steric hindrance directs the reaction to the pyrimidinium N-ylides and, subsequently, to the formation of the pyrrolo[1,2-c]pyrimidines. The new pyrrolo[1,2-c]pyrimidines and the new indolizines were structurally characterized through NMR spectroscopy. The X-ray structures of two of the starting materials, 4-(2-pyridyl)pyrimidine and 4-(4-pyridyl)pyrimidine, are also reported.
Project description:In an attempt to find novel ?-glucosidase inhibitors, an efficient, straightforward reaction to synthesize a library of fully substituted 6-amino-pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidines 3 has been investigated. Heating a mixture of ?-azidochalcones 1 and 3-aminopyrazoles 2 under the mild condition afforded desired compounds with a large substrate scope in good to excellent yields. All obtained products were evaluated as ?-glucosidase inhibitors and exhibited excellent potency with IC50 values ranging from 15.2?±?0.4?µM to 201.3?±?4.2?µM. Among them, compound 3d was around 50-fold more potent than acarbose (IC50?=?750.0?±?1.5?µM) as standard inhibitor. Regarding product structures, kinetic study and molecular docking were carried out for two of the most potent ones.
Project description:Various novel pyrano [2,3-d]pyrimidines 5 and furopyrano [2,3-d]pyrimidines 7 were synthesized in 80-99% yields via a multicomponent domino Knoevenagel/hetero-Diels-Alder reaction of 1,3-dimethyl barbituric acid with an aromatic aldehyde and ethyl vinyl ether/2,3-dihydrofuran in presence of 1 mol% of indium(III) chloride. The reaction also proceeds in aqueous media without using any catalyst, but the yield is comparatively less (65-70%).
Project description:A novel one-flask synthetic method was developed in which 5-aminopyrazoles were reacted with N,N-substituted amides in the presence of PBr?. Hexamethyldisilazane was then added to perform heterocyclization to produce the corresponding pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidines in suitable yields. These one-flask reactions thus involved Vilsmeier amidination, imination reactions, and the sequential intermolecular heterocyclization. To study the reaction mechanism, a series of 4-formyl-1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl-N,N-disubstituted formamidines, which were conceived as the chemical equivalent of 4-(iminomethyl)-1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl-formamidine, were prepared and successfully converted into pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidines. The experiments demonstrated that the reaction intermediates were the chemical equivalents of 4-(iminomethyl)-1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)formamidines. The rate of the reaction could be described as being proportional to the reactivity of amine reactants during intermolecular heterocyclization, especially when hexamethyldisilazane was used.
Project description:A mild and efficient protocol for the synthesis of a 2,6-disubstituted pyrimidine-5-carboxylate library via a Morita-Baylis-Hillman (MBH) adduct is described. Herein, the three step methodology involves the use of substituted alpha-iodomethylene beta-keto ester intermediates obtained after oxidation of the MBH adducts, which are condensed with various types of amidine or guanidine derivatives, to generate the 2, 6-disubstituted pyrimidines-5-carboxylate libraries.