Total Antioxidant Status (TAS), Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) in Oropharyngeal Cancer Associated with EBV Infection.
ABSTRACT: A growing number of studies reveal that oxidative stress is associated with viral infections or cancer development. However, there are few reports assessing the relationships between oxidative stress, viral infection, and carcinogenesis. The present study analyzed the level of total antioxidant status (TAS) as well as the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in patients with oropharyngeal cancer both Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive and EBV-negative in comparison with the control group. The correlations between these parameters and EBV type (wild-type LMP1 (wt-LMP1) or LMP1 with deletion (del-LMP1)), level of antibodies against EBV, the degree of tumor differentiation, and TNM classification were also investigated. Fresh frozen tumor tissue samples collected from 66 patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma were tested using nested PCR assay for EBV DNA detection. Spectrophotometric methods were used to measure TAS values as well as SOD and GPx activities in homogenates of tissue, using diagnostic kits produced by Randox Laboratories. Sera from all individuals were investigated using ELISA method to detect the presence of Epstein-Barr virus capsid antigen (EBVCA) IgM and IgG, Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen (EBNA) IgG, and early antigen (EA) IgG antibodies. The level of TAS and activities of antioxidant enzymes (GPx and SOD) were significantly decreased in tissues with oropharyngeal cancer, particularly in EBV-positive cases. In 82.3% of patients, wt-LMP1 was detected. Significantly lower TAS, GPx, and SOD values were stated in patients infected with wild-type EBV. The presence of antibodies against early antigen (anti-EA) was detected in over 80% of patients, which suggests reactivation of EBV infection. The correlation between the degree of tumor differentiation and TN classification, especially in EBV-positive patients, was also observed. Determination of these parameters may be useful in evaluating tumor burden in patients with various stages of oropharyngeal cancer and could be an important prognostic factor. Future studies are needed to understand the role of EBV lytic reactivation induced by oxidative stress.
Project description:Recent reports have pointed to the link between persistent inflammation, oxidative stress, and carcinogenesis; however most of the studies concerning the role of viruses in head and neck cancer (HNC) are focused mainly on one type of virus. Our present study aimed to study the relationship between Epstein-Barr virus/human papilloma virus (EBV/HPV) coinfection and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) level in oropharyngeal cancer. Fresh-frozen tumor tissue samples were collected from 128 patients with oropharyngeal cancer infected with EBV or HPV or with EBV/HPV coinfection. After DNA extraction, EBV and HPV DNA was detected using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. GPx and SOD activity was determined in homogenates of cancer tissue using diagnostic kits produced by Randox Laboratories. Both GPx and SOD activity was statistically lower in patients with EBV/HPV coinfection than in a single EBV or HPV infection. Analysis of GPx and SOD activity in relation to histological grading and tumor, node (TN) classification revealed that in poorly-differentiated tumors, the level of antioxidant enzymes was lower compared with well-differentiated lesions and in cases with greater tumor dimensions and lymph-node involvement, both GPx and SOD activity was decreased. Further studies are necessary to clarify the influence of interplay between EBV, HPV, and oxidative stress on malignant transformation of upper aerodigestive tract epithelial cells.
Project description:We report the diversity of latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) gene founder sequences and the level of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome variability over time and across anatomic compartments by using virus genomes amplified directly from oropharyngeal wash specimens and peripheral blood B cells during acute infection and convalescence. The intrahost nucleotide variability of the founder virus was 0.02% across the region sequences, and diversity increased significantly over time in the oropharyngeal compartment (P = 0.004). The LMP1 region showing the greatest level of variability in both compartments, and over time, was concentrated within the functional carboxyl-terminal activating regions 2 and 3 (CTAR2 and CTAR3). Interestingly, a deletion in a proline-rich repeat region (amino acids 274 to 289) of EBV commonly reported in EBV sequenced from cancer specimens was not observed in acute infectious mononucleosis (AIM) patients. Taken together, these data highlight the diversity in circulating EBV genomes and its potential importance in disease pathogenesis and vaccine design.This study is among the first to leverage an improved high-throughput deep-sequencing methodology to investigate directly from patient samples the degree of diversity in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) populations and the extent to which viral genome diversity develops over time in the infected host. Significant variability of circulating EBV latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) gene sequences was observed between cellular and oral wash samples, and this variability increased over time in oral wash samples. The significance of EBV genetic diversity in transmission and disease pathogenesis are discussed.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Evidence suggests that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) plays a role in triggering or perpetuating disease activity in multiple sclerosis (MS).<h4>Methods</h4>We investigated 100 subjects (50 clinically isolated syndrome [CIS], 25 relapsing-remitting [RR] MS, 25 primary progressive [PP] MS) for 1) evidence of EBV reactivation and 2) disease activity as indicated by serial gadolinium (Gd)-enhanced MRIs over a 5-year period. EBV DNA in blood was quantified by real-time quantitative PCR and EBV serology for anti-Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA-1) immunoglobulin G (IgG), anti-viral capsid antigen (VCA) IgG, and anti-EBV IgM. Data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis, analysis of variance, and logistic regression analysis.<h4>Results</h4>All subjects had serologic evidence of previous EBV infection, but no lytic reactivation was detected. Significant differences in EBNA-1 IgG titers were found between subgroups, highest in the RRMS cohort compared with PPMS (p < 0.001) and CIS (p < 0.001). Gd-enhancing lesions on MRI correlated with EBNA-1 IgG (r = 0.33, p < 0.001) and EBNA-1:VCA IgG ratio (r = 0.36, p < 0.001). EBNA-1 IgG also correlated with change in T2 lesion volume (r = 0.27, p = 0.044) and Expanded Disability Status Scale score (r = 0.3, p = 0.035).<h4>Conclusions</h4>The correlation between elevated Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA-1) immunoglobulin G (IgG) and gadolinium-enhancing lesions suggests an association between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and multiple sclerosis (MS) disease activity. The heightened immune response to EBV in MS is specifically related to EBNA-1 IgG, a marker of the latent phase of the virus. The lack of association between acute viral reactivation in the peripheral blood and Gd(+) lesions suggests a limited role of the former in driving disease activity.
Project description:Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a B cell transforming virus that causes B cell malignancies under conditions of immune suppression. EBV orchestrates B cell transformation through its latent membrane proteins (LMPs) and Epstein-Barr nuclear antigens (EBNAs). We here identify secondary mutations in mouse B cell lymphomas induced by LMP1, to predict and identify key functions of other EBV genes during transformation. We find aberrant activation of early B cell factor 1 (EBF1) to promote transformation of LMP1-expressing B cells by inhibiting their differentiation to plasma cells. EBV EBNA3A phenocopies EBF1 activities in LMP1-expressing B cells, promoting transformation while inhibiting differentiation. In cells expressing LMP1 together with LMP2A, EBNA3A only promotes lymphomagenesis when the EBNA2 target Myc is also overexpressed. Collectively, our data support a model where proproliferative activities of LMP1, LMP2A, and EBNA2 in combination with EBNA3A-mediated inhibition of terminal plasma cell differentiation critically control EBV-mediated B cell lymphomagenesis.
Project description:Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latently infects most of the human population and is strongly associated with lymphoproliferative disorders. EBV encodes several latency proteins affecting B cell proliferation and survival, including latent membrane protein 2A (LMP2A) and the EBV oncoprotein LMP1. LMP1 and LMP2A signaling mimics CD40 and BCR signaling, respectively, and has been proposed to alter B cell functions including the ability of latently-infected B cells to access and transit the germinal center. In addition, several studies suggested a role for LMP2A modulation of LMP1 signaling in cell lines by alteration of TRAFs, signaling molecules used by LMP1. In this study, we investigated whether LMP1 and LMP2A co-expression in a transgenic mouse model alters B cell maturation and the response to antigen, and whether LMP2A modulates LMP1 function. Naïve LMP1/2A mice had similar lymphocyte populations and antibody production by flow cytometry and ELISA compared to controls. In the response to antigen, LMP2A expression in LMP1/2A animals rescued the impairment in germinal center generation promoted by LMP1. LMP1/2A animals produced high-affinity, class-switched antibody and plasma cells at levels similar to controls. In vitro, LMP1 upregulated activation markers and promoted B cell hyperproliferation, and co-expression of LMP2A restored a wild-type phenotype. By RT-PCR and immunoblot, LMP1 B cells demonstrated TRAF2 levels four-fold higher than non-transgenic controls, and co-expression of LMP2A restored TRAF2 levels to wild-type levels. No difference in TRAF3 levels was detected. While modulation of other TRAF family members remains to be assessed, normalization of the LMP1-induced B cell phenotype through LMP2A modulation of TRAF2 may be a pathway by which LMP2A controls B cell function. These findings identify an advance in the understanding of how Epstein-Barr virus can access the germinal center in vivo, a site critical for both the genesis of immunological memory and of virus-associated tumors.
Project description:Despite advances in T-cell immunotherapy against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected lymphomas that express the full EBV latency III program, a critical barrier has been that most EBV+ lymphomas express the latency I program, in which the single Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen (EBNA1) is produced. EBNA1 is poorly immunogenic, enabling tumors to evade immune responses. Using a high-throughput screen, we identified decitabine as a potent inducer of immunogenic EBV antigens, including LMP1, EBNA2, and EBNA3C. Induction occurs at low doses and persists after removal of decitabine. Decitabine treatment of latency I EBV+ Burkitt lymphoma (BL) sensitized cells to lysis by EBV-specific cytotoxic T cells (EBV-CTLs). In latency I BL xenografts, decitabine followed by EBV-CTLs results in T-cell homing to tumors and inhibition of tumor growth. Collectively, these results identify key epigenetic factors required for latency restriction and highlight a novel therapeutic approach to sensitize EBV+ lymphomas to immunotherapy.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>To identify the epitope on ?-synuclein (?-syn) to which antibodies against the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) bind and to determine whether antibodies targeting this mimicry domain are present in human sera.<h4>Methods</h4>Reactivity of the ?-syn-cross-reacting anti-LMP1 monoclonal antibody CS1-4 to a synthetic peptide containing the putative mimicry domain was compared to those in which this domain was mutated and to murine and rat ?-syn (which differ from human ?-syn at this site) in Western blots. Using ELISA, sera from EBV+ (n = 4) and EBV- (n = 12) donors as well as those with infectious mononucleosis (IM; n = 120), and Hodgkin disease (HD; n = 33) were interrogated for antibody reactivity to synthetic peptides corresponding to regions of ?-syn and LMP1 containing the mimicry domain.<h4>Results</h4>CS1-4 showed strong reactivity to wild-type human ?-syn, but not to the mutant peptides or rodent ?-syn. Control EBV- and EBV+ sera showed no reactivity to ?-syn or LMP1 peptides. However, a significant proportion of IM and HD sera contained immunoglobulin M (IgM) (59% and 70%, in IM and HD, respectively), immunoglobulin G (IgG) (40% and 48%), and immunoglobulin A (IgA) (28% and 36%) antibodies to both peptides, as well as a significant correlation in the titers of IgM (? = 0.606 and 0.664, for IM and HD, respectively), IgG (0.526 and 0.836), and IgA (0.569 and 0.728) antibodies targeting LMP1 and ?-syn peptides.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Anti-EBV-LMP1 antibodies cross-reacting with a defined epitope in ?-syn are present in human patients. These findings may have implications for the pathogenesis of synucleinopathies.
Project description:The association between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and the development of head and neck cancer was reported by many researchers. The aim of the present study was to detect EBV DNA and EBV antibodies in 110 Polish patients with oropharyngeal and laryngeal cancer compared to 40 healthy individuals.Frozen tumor tissue fragments were tested using nested PCR assay for EBV DNA detection. Sera from all individuals were investigated using ELISA tests to detect the presence of VCA IgM and IgG, EBNA IgG, EA IgG.EBV DNA was detected in 52.7% of the patients (25% in controls). EBVCA were detected in 94.5%, EBNA in 96.4% and EA in 94.5% of patients. The significantly higher level of EA in the patients suggests EBV reactivation. The majority of patients (83%) were infected with wild-type EBV.Our study showed that this variant seems to be associated with oropharyngeal and laryngeal cancer in the Polish population.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) up-regulates the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I antigen presentation machinery (APM). This appears counterintuitive with immune evasion in EBV-associated tumours like nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).<h4>Methods</h4>Latent membrane protein 1-transfected epithelial cell lines were used as a model system to study the impact of LMP1 and c-Myc on HLA class I components. The expression of components of the HLA class I APM, c-Myc and Ki-67 was analysed in LMP1+ and LMP1- NPC by immunohistochemistry.<h4>Results</h4>In epithelial cells, LMP1 up-regulated HLA class I APM. This effect could be counteracted by c-Myc, which itself was up-regulated by LMP1 apparently through IL6 induction and Jak3/STAT3 activation. Studies of NPC biopsies revealed down-regulation of HLA class I APM expression. No difference was observed between LMP1+ and LMP1- NPC. However, expression of Ki-67 and c-Myc were up-regulated in LMP1+ tumours.<h4>Conclusion</h4>These findings raise the possibility that c-Myc activation in NPC might antagonise the effect of LMP1 on HLA class I expression thus contributing to immune escape of tumour cells.
Project description:The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded latent membrane protein-1 (LMP1), a functional homologue of the tumor necrosis factor receptor family, substantially contributes to EBV's oncogenic potential by activating nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB). miR-155 is an oncogenic miRNA critical for B-cell maturation and immunoglobulin production in response to antigen. We report that miR-155 expression is much higher in EBV-immortalized B cells than in EBV-negative B cells. LMP1, but not LMP2, up-regulated the expression of miR-155, when transfected in EBV-negative B cells. We analyzed two putative NF-kappaB binding sites in the miR-155 promoter; both sites recruited NF-kappaB complex, in nuclear extract from EBV-immortalized cells. The exogenous expression of LMP1, in EBV-negative background, is temporally correlated to induction of p65 with binding on both NF-kappaB sites and with miR-155 overexpression. The induction of p65 binding together with increased RNA polymerase II binding, confirms that LMP1-mediated activation of miR-155 occurs transcriptionally. In reporter assays, miR-155 promoter lacking NF-kappaB binding sites was no longer activated by LMP1 expression and an intact AP1 site is needed to attain maximum activation. Finally, we demonstrate that LMP1-mediated activation of miR-155 in an EBV-negative background correlates with reduction of protein PU.1, which is a possible miR target.