Establishment of hepatocellular carcinoma patient-derived xenografts from image-guided percutaneous biopsies.
ABSTRACT: While patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have been successfully generated from resected tissues, no reliable methods have been reported for the generation of PDXs from patients who are not candidates for resection and represent the vast majority of patients with HCC. Here we compare two methods for the creation of PDXs from HCC biopsies and find that implantation of whole biopsy samples without the addition of basement membrane matrix favors the formation of PDX tumors that resemble Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-driven B-cell lymphomas rather than HCC tumors. In contrast, implantation with Matrigel supports growth of HCC cells and leads to a high rate of HCC tumor formation from these biopsies. We validate the resulting PDXs, confirm their fidelity to the patients' disease and conclude that minimally invasive percutaneous liver biopsies can be used with relatively high efficiency to generate PDXs of HCC.
Project description:Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Treatment options for patients with advanced-stage disease are limited. A major obstacle in drug development is the lack of an in vivo model that accurately reflects the broad spectrum of human HCC. Patient-derived xenograft (PDX) tumor mouse models could overcome the limitations of cancer cell lines. PDX tumors maintain the genetic and histologic heterogeneity of the originating tumors and are used for preclinical drug development in various cancers. Controversy exists about their genetic and molecular stability through serial passaging in mice. We aimed to establish PDX models from human HCC biopsies and to characterize their histologic and molecular stability during serial passaging. A total of 54 human HCC needle biopsies that were derived from patients with various underlying liver diseases and tumor stages were transplanted subcutaneously into immunodeficient, nonobese, diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency gamma-c mice; 11 successfully engrafted. All successfully transplanted HCCs were Edmondson grade III or IV. HCC PDX tumors retained the histopathologic, transcriptomic, and genomic characteristics of the original HCC biopsies over 6 generations of retransplantation. These characteristics included Edmondson grade, expression of tumor markers, tumor gene signature, tumor-associated mutations, and copy number alterations. Conclusion: PDX mouse models can be established from undifferentiated HCCs, with an overall success rate of approximately 20%. The transplanted tumors represent the entire spectrum of the molecular landscape of HCCs and preserve the characteristics of the originating tumors through serial passaging. HCC PDX models are a promising tool for preclinical personalized drug development.
Project description:Patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) are increasingly used in cancer research as a tool to inform cancer biology and drug response. Most available breast cancer PDXs have been generated in the metastatic setting. However, in the setting of operable breast cancer, PDX models both sensitive and resistant to chemotherapy are needed for drug development and prospective data are lacking regarding the clinical and molecular characteristics associated with PDX take rate in this setting.The Breast Cancer Genome Guided Therapy Study (BEAUTY) is a prospective neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) trial of stage I-III breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant weekly taxane+/-trastuzumab followed by anthracycline-based chemotherapy. Using percutaneous tumor biopsies (PTB), we established and characterized PDXs from both primary (untreated) and residual (treated) tumors. Tumor take rate was defined as percent of patients with the development of at least one stably transplantable (passed at least for four generations) xenograft that was pathologically confirmed as breast cancer.Baseline PTB samples from 113 women were implanted with an overall take rate of 27.4% (31/113). By clinical subtype, the take rate was 51.3% (20/39) in triple negative (TN) breast cancer, 26.5% (9/34) in HER2+, 5.0% (2/40) in luminal B and 0% (0/3) in luminal A. The take rate for those with pCR did not differ from those with residual disease in TN (p?=?0.999) and HER2+ (p?=?0.2401) tumors. The xenografts from 28 of these 31 patients were such that at least one of the xenografts generated had the same molecular subtype as the patient. Among the 35 patients with residual tumor after NAC adequate for implantation, the take rate was 17.1%. PDX response to paclitaxel mirrored the patients' clinical response in all eight PDX tested.The generation of PDX models both sensitive and resistant to standard NAC is feasible and these models exhibit similar biological and drug response characteristics as the patients' primary tumors. Taken together, these models may be useful for biomarker discovery and future drug development.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models increasingly are used in translational research. However, the engraftment rates of patient tumor samples in immunodeficient mice to PDX models vary greatly. METHODS:Tumor tissue samples from 308 patients with non-small cell lung cancer were implanted in immunodeficient mice. The patients were followed for 1.5 to approximately 6 years. The authors performed histological analysis of PDXs and some residual tumor tissues in mice with failed PDX growth at 1 year after implantation. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay were performed to measure the levels of Epstein-Barr virus genes and human immunoglobulin G in PDX samples. Patient characteristics were compared for PDX growth and overall survival as outcomes using Cox regression analyses. Disease staging was based on the 7th TNM staging system. RESULTS:The overall engraftment rate for PDXs from patients with non-small cell lung cancer was 34%. Squamous cell carcinomas had a higher engraftment rate (53%) compared with adenocarcinomas. Tumor samples from patients with stage II and stage III disease and from larger tumors were found to have relatively high engraftment rates. Patients whose tumors successfully engrafted had worse overall survival, particularly those individuals with adenocarcinoma, stage III or stage IV disease, and moderately differentiated tumors. Lymphoma formation was one of the factors associated with engraftment failure. Human CD8-positive and CD20-positive cells were detected in residual samples of tumor tissue that failed to generate a PDX at 1 year after implantation. Human immunoglobulin G was detected in the plasma of mice that did not have PDX growth at 14 months after implantation. CONCLUSIONS:The results of the current study indicate that the characteristics of cancer cells and the tumor immune microenvironment in primary tumors both can affect engraftment of a primary tumor sample.
Project description:Patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) have become a prominent cancer model system, as they are presumed to faithfully represent the genomic features of primary tumors. Here we monitored the dynamics of copy number alterations (CNAs) in 1,110 PDX samples across 24 cancer types. We observed rapid accumulation of CNAs during PDX passaging, often due to selection of preexisting minor clones. CNA acquisition in PDXs was correlated with the tissue-specific levels of aneuploidy and genetic heterogeneity observed in primary tumors. However, the particular CNAs acquired during PDX passaging differed from those acquired during tumor evolution in patients. Several CNAs recurrently observed in primary tumors gradually disappeared in PDXs, indicating that events undergoing positive selection in humans can become dispensable during propagation in mice. Notably, the genomic stability of PDXs was associated with their response to chemotherapy and targeted drugs. These findings have major implications for PDX-based modeling of human cancer.
Project description:Patient derived xenografts (PDXs) represent an essential tool in oncologic research, and we sought to further expand our repertoire of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) while determining potential boundaries for this system.We consented new patients for PDX development and determined if a 24-h time delay from tumor excision to xenograft implantation affected PDX establishment. We developed a tissue microarray (TMA) from formalin fixed, paraffin embedded PDXs and their subsequent passages and carried out quantitative immunohistochemistry for EGFR, pEGFR, pAkt, pERK and ERCC1. First and last passaged PDXs were compared via a paired t-test to examine for the stability of protein expression across passages. We performed a similar comparison of the mutational profile of the patient tumor and resulting xenografts using a targeted sequencing approach.No patient/tumor characteristics influenced PDX take rate and the 24-h time delay from tumor excision to xenograft implantation did not affect PDX establishment, growth or histology. There was no significant difference in biomarker expression between the first and last passaged PDXs for EGFR, pEGFR, pAkt, and ERCC1. For pERK there was a significant difference (p=0.002), but further analysis demonstrated this only arose in three of 15 PDXs. Targeted sequencing revealed striking stability of passenger and likely driver mutations from patient to xenograft.The stability of protein expression across PDX passages will hopefully allow greater investigation of predictive biomarkers in order to identify ones for further pre-clinical and clinical investigation.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Patient derived xenografts (PDXs) for head and neck cancer (HNC) and other cancers represent powerful research platforms. Most groups implant patient tissue into immunodeficient mice immediately although the significance of this time interval is anecdotal. We tested the hypothesis that the time from tumor excision to implantation is crucial for PDX passaging and establishment.<h4>Methods</h4>We examined whether time or storage medium affected PDX viability for passaging two established HNC PDXs (UW-SCC34, UW-SCC52). Tumors were harvested, stored in ice-cold media or saline for 0-48 hours, and implanted into new mice. Tumor growth was compared by two-way ANOVA with respect to time and storage condition. Three new HNC PDXs (UW-SCC63-65) were generated by implanting patient tissue into mice immediately (Time 0) and 24 hours after receiving tissue from the operating room.<h4>Results</h4>Similar quantities of tumor were implanted into each mouse. At the end of the experiment, no significant difference was seen in mean tumor weight between the media and saline storage conditions for UW-SCC34 or UW-SCC52 (p?=?0.650 and p?=?0.177, respectively). No difference in tumor formation prevalence was seen on the basis of time from harvest to implantation (?13 of 16 tumors grew at every time point). Histological analysis showed strong similarity to the initial tumor across all groups. Tumors developed at both Time 0 and 24 hours for UW-SCC63 and UW-SCC64.<h4>Conclusions</h4>We demonstrated that neither storage medium nor time from tumor excision to implantation (up to 48 hours) affected viability or histological differentiation in a subsequent passage for two HNC PDXs. Moreover, we revealed that fresh patient tissue is viable up to 24 hours post-resection. This information is important as it applies to the development and sharing of PDXs.
Project description:BACKGROUND:We investigated whether head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) reaffirm patient responses to anti-cancer therapeutics. METHODS:Tumors from HNSCC patients were transplanted into immunodeficient mice and propagated via subsequent implantation. We evaluated established PDXs by histology, genomic profiling, and in vivo anti-cancer efficacy testing to confirm them as the authentic in vivo platform. RESULTS:From 62 HNSCCs, 15 (24%) PDXs were established. The primary cancer types were tongue (8), oropharynx (3), hypopharynx (1), ethmoid sinus cancer (1), supraglottic cancer (1), and parotid gland (1); six PDXs (40%) were established from biopsy specimens from advanced HNSCC. PDXs mostly retained donor characteristics and remained stable across passages. PIK3CA (H1047R), HRAS (G12D), and TP53 mutations (H193R, I195T, R248W, R273H, E298X) and EGFR, CCND1, MYC, and PIK3CA amplifications were identified. Using the acquisition method, biopsy showed a significantly higher engraftment rate when compared with that of surgical resection (100% [6/6] vs. 16.1% [9/56], P?<?0.001). Specimens obtained from metastatic sites showed a significantly higher engraftment rate than did those from primary sites (100% [9/9] vs. 11.3% [6/53], P?<?0.001). Three PDX models from HPV-positive tumors were established, as compared to 12 from HPV-negative (15.8% [3/19] and 27.9% [12/43] respectively, P?=?0.311), suggesting that HPV positivity tends to show a low engraftment rate. Drug responses in PDX recapitulated the clinical responses of the matching patients with pan-HER inhibitors and pan-PI3K inhibitor. CONCLUSIONS:Genetically and clinically annotated HNSCC PDXs could be useful preclinical tools for evaluating biomarkers, therapeutic targets, and new drug discovery.
Project description:The lack of a general clinic-relevant model for human cancer is a major impediment to the acceleration of novel therapeutic approaches for clinical use. We propose to establish and characterize primary human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) xenografts that can be used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of adoptive chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells and accelerate the clinical translation of CAR T cells used in HCC.Primary HCCs were used to establish the xenografts. The morphology, immunological markers, and gene expression characteristics of xenografts were detected and compared to those of the corresponding primary tumors. CAR T cells were adoptively transplanted into patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models of HCC. The cytotoxicity of CAR T cells in vivo was evaluated.PDX1, PDX2, and PDX3 were established using primary tumors from three individual HCC patients. All three PDXs maintained original tumor characteristics in their morphology, immunological markers, and gene expression. Tumors in PDX1 grew relatively slower than that in PDX2 and PDX3. Glypican 3 (GPC3)-CAR T cells efficiently suppressed tumor growth in PDX3 and impressively eradicated tumor cells from PDX1 and PDX2, in which GPC3 proteins were highly expressed.GPC3-CAR T cells were capable of effectively eliminating tumors in PDX model of HCC. Therefore, GPC3-CAR T cell therapy is a promising candidate for HCC treatment.