Transcriptome profiling-based identification of prognostic subtypes and multi-omics signatures of glioblastoma.
ABSTRACT: Glioblastoma (GBM) is a lethal tumor, but few biomarkers and molecular subtypes predicting prognosis are available. This study was aimed to identify prognostic subtypes and multi-omics signatures for GBM. Using oncopression and TCGA-GBM datasets, we identified 80 genes most associated with GBM prognosis using correlations between gene expression levels and overall survival of patients. The prognostic score of each sample was calculated using these genes, followed by assigning three prognostic subtypes. This classification was validated in two independent datasets (REMBRANDT and Severance). Functional annotation revealed that invasion- and cell cycle-related gene sets were enriched in poor and favorable group, respectively. The three GBM subtypes were therefore named invasive (poor), mitotic (favorable), and intermediate. Interestingly, invasive subtype showed increased invasiveness, and MGMT methylation was enriched in mitotic subtype, indicating need for different therapeutic strategies according to prognostic subtypes. For clinical convenience, we also identified genes that best distinguished the invasive and mitotic subtypes. Immunohistochemical staining showed that markedly higher expression of PDPN in invasive subtype and of TMEM100 in mitotic subtype (P?
Project description:Glioma stem cells (GSCs), a subpopulation of tumor cells, contribute to tumor heterogeneity and therapy resistance. Gene expression profiling classified glioblastoma (GBM) and GSCs into four transcriptomically-defined subtypes. Here, we determined the DNA methylation signatures in transcriptomically pre-classified GSC and GBM bulk tumors subtypes. We hypothesized that these DNA methylation signatures correlate with gene expression and are uniquely associated either with only GSCs or only GBM bulk tumors. Additional methylation signatures may be commonly associated with both GSCs and GBM bulk tumors, i.e., common to non-stem-like and stem-like tumor cell populations and correlating with the clinical prognosis of glioma patients. We analyzed Illumina 450K methylation array and expression data from a panel of 23 patient-derived GSCs. We referenced these results with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) GBM datasets to generate methylomic and transcriptomic signatures for GSCs and GBM bulk tumors of each transcriptomically pre-defined tumor subtype. Survival analyses were carried out for these signature genes using publicly available datasets, including from TCGA. We report that DNA methylation signatures in proneural and mesenchymal tumor subtypes are either unique to GSCs, unique to GBM bulk tumors, or common to both. Further, dysregulated DNA methylation correlates with gene expression and clinical prognoses. Additionally, many previously identified transcriptionally-regulated markers are also dysregulated due to DNA methylation. The subtype-specific DNA methylation signatures described in this study could be useful for refining GBM sub-classification, improving prognostic accuracy, and making therapeutic decisions.
Project description:Glioblastoma (GBM) is highly invasive and the deadliest brain tumor in adults. It is characterized by inter-tumor and intra-tumor heterogeneity, short patient survival, and lack of effective treatment. Prognosis and therapy selection is driven by molecular data from gene transcription, genetic alterations and DNA methylation. The four GBM molecular subtypes are proneural, neural, classical, and mesenchymal. More effective personalized therapy heavily depends on higher resolution molecular subtype signatures, combined with gene therapy, immunotherapy and organoid technology. In this review, we summarize the principal GBM molecular classifications that guide diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutic recommendations.
Project description:We aimed to evaluate the potential of radiomics as an imaging biomarker for glioblastoma (GBM) patients and explore the molecular rationale behind radiomics using a radio-genomics approach. A total of 144 primary GBM patients were included in this study (training cohort). Using multi-parametric MR images, radiomics features were extracted from multi-habitats of the tumor. We applied Cox-LASSO algorithm to build a survival prediction model, which we validated using an independent validation cohort. GBM patients were consensus clustered to reveal inherent phenotypic subtypes. GBM patients were successfully stratified by the radiomics risk score, a weighted sum of radiomics features, corroborating the potential of radiomics as a prognostic biomarker. Using consensus clustering, we identified three distinct subtypes which significantly differed in the prognosis ("heterogenous enhancing", "rim-enhancing necrotic", and "cystic" subtypes). Transcriptomic traits enriched in individual subtypes were in accordance with imaging phenotypes summarized by radiomics. For example, rim-enhancing necrotic subtype was well described by radiomics profiling (T2 autocorrelation and flat shape) and highlighted by the inflammatory genomic signatures, which well correlated to its phenotypic peculiarity (necrosis). This study showed that imaging subtypes derived from radiomics successfully recapitulated the genomic underpinnings of GBMs and thereby confirmed the feasibility of radiomics as an imaging biomarker for GBM patients with comprehensible biologic annotation.
Project description:<b>Rationale:</b> Competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) networks play important roles in posttranscriptional regulation. Their dysregulation is common in cancer. However, ceRNA signatures have been poorly examined in the invasive and aggressive phenotypes of mesenchymal glioblastoma (GBM). This study aims to characterize mesenchymal glioblastoma at the mRNA-miRNA level and identify the mRNAs in ceRNA networks (micNET) markers and their mechanisms in tumorigenesis. <b>Methods:</b> The mRNAs in ceRNA networks (micNETs) of glioblastoma were investigated by constructing a GBM ceRNA network followed by integration with a STRING protein interaction network. The prognostic micNET markers of mesenchymal GBM were identified and validated across multiple datasets. ceRNA interactions were identified between micNETs and miR181 family members. LY2109761, an inhibitor of TGFBR2, demonstrated tumor-suppressive effects on both primary cultured cells and a patient-derived xenograft intracranial model. <b>Results:</b> We characterized mesenchymal glioblastoma at the mRNA-miRNA level and reported a ceRNA network that could separate the mesenchymal subtype from other subtypes. Six genes (TGFBR2, RUNX1, PPARG, ACSL1, GIT2 and RAP1B) that interacted with each other in both a ceRNA-related manner and in terms of their protein functions were identified as markers of the mesenchymal subtype. The coding sequence (CDS) and 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of TGFBR2 upregulated the expression of these genes, whereas TGFBR2 inhibition by siRNA or miR-181a/d suppressed their expression levels. Furthermore, mesenchymal subtype-related genes and the invasion phenotype could be reversed by suppressing the six mesenchymal marker genes. <b>Conclusions:</b> This study suggests that the micNETs may have translational significance in the diagnosis of mesenchymal GBM and may be novel therapeutic targets.
Project description:In this manuscript, we use genetic data to provide a three-faceted analysis on the links between molecular subclasses of glioblastoma, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and CD133 cell surface protein. The contribution of this paper is three-fold: First, we use a newly identified signature for epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in human mammary epithelial cells, and demonstrate that genes in this signature have significant overlap with genes differentially expressed in all known GBM subtypes. However, the overlap between genes up regulated in the mesenchymal subtype of GBM and in the EMT signature was more significant than other GBM subtypes. Second, we provide evidence that there is a negative correlation between the genetic signature of EMT and that of CD133 cell surface protein, a putative marker for neural stem cells. Third, we study the correlation between GBM molecular subtypes and the genetic signature of CD133 cell surface protein. We demonstrate that the mesenchymal and neural subtypes of GBM have the strongest correlations with the CD133 genetic signature. While the mesenchymal subtype of GBM displays similarity with the signatures of both EMT and CD133, it also exhibits some differences with each of these signatures that are partly due to the fact that the signatures of EMT and CD133 are inversely related to each other. Taken together these data shed light on the role of the mesenchymal transition and neural stem cells, and their mutual interaction, in molecular subtypes of glioblastoma multiforme.
Project description:Using molecular signatures, previous studies have defined glioblastoma (GBM) subtypes with different phenotypes, such as the proneural (PN), neural (NL), mesenchymal (MES) and classical (CL) subtypes. However, the gene programmes underlying the phenotypes of these subtypes were less known. We applied weighted gene co-expression network analysis to establish gene modules corresponding to various subtypes. RNA-seq and immunohistochemical data were used to validate the expression of identified genes. We identified seven molecular subtype-specific modules and several candidate signature genes for different subtypes. Next, we revealed, for the first time, that radioresistant/chemoresistant gene signatures exist only in the PN subtype, as described by Verhaak et al, but do not exist in the PN subtype described by Phillips et al PN subtype. Moreover, we revealed that the tumour cells in the MES subtype GBMs are under ER stress and that angiogenesis and the immune inflammatory response are both significantly elevated in this subtype. The molecular basis of these biological processes was also uncovered. Genes associated with alternative RNA splicing are up-regulated in the CL subtype GBMs, and genes pertaining to energy synthesis are elevated in the NL subtype GBMs. In addition, we identified several survival-associated genes that positively correlated with glioma grades. The identified intrinsic characteristics of different GBM subtypes can offer a potential clue to the pathogenesis and possible therapeutic targets for various subtypes.
Project description:The Cancer Genome Atlas Network recently cataloged recurrent genomic abnormalities in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). We describe a robust gene expression-based molecular classification of GBM into Proneural, Neural, Classical, and Mesenchymal subtypes and integrate multidimensional genomic data to establish patterns of somatic mutations and DNA copy number. Aberrations and gene expression of EGFR, NF1, and PDGFRA/IDH1 each define the Classical, Mesenchymal, and Proneural subtypes, respectively. Gene signatures of normal brain cell types show a strong relationship between subtypes and different neural lineages. Additionally, response to aggressive therapy differs by subtype, with the greatest benefit in the Classical subtype and no benefit in the Proneural subtype. We provide a framework that unifies transcriptomic and genomic dimensions for GBM molecular stratification with important implications for future studies.
Project description:To determine a molecular basis for prognostic differences in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), we employed a combinatorial network analysis framework to exhaustively search for molecular patterns in protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. We identified a dysregulated molecular signature distinguishing short-term (survival<225 days) from long-term (survival>635 days) survivors of GBM using whole genome expression data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). A 50-gene subnetwork signature achieved 80% prediction accuracy when tested against an independent gene expression dataset. Functional annotations for the subnetwork signature included "protein kinase cascade," "I?B kinase/NF?B cascade," and "regulation of programmed cell death" - all of which were not significant in signatures of existing subtypes. Finally, we used label-free proteomics to examine how our subnetwork signature predicted protein level expression differences in an independent GBM cohort of 16 patients. We found that the genes discovered using network biology had a higher probability of dysregulated protein expression than either genes exhibiting individual differential expression or genes derived from known GBM subtypes. In particular, the long-term survivor subtype was characterized by increased protein expression of DNM1 and MAPK1 and decreased expression of HSPA9, PSMD3, and CANX. Overall, we demonstrate that the combinatorial analysis of gene expression data constrained by PPIs outlines an approach for the discovery of robust and translatable molecular signatures in GBM.
Project description:Despite therapeutic advances, the prognosis for glioblastoma (GBM) remains poor. In particular, leptomeningeal dissemination (LMD) has a dismal prognosis. The aim of this study was to identify tumor molecular phenotype, which has a great propensity to develop LMD. Between May 2004 and December 2012, a total of 145 GBM tumor samples were obtained from data registry. A total of 20 of the 145 patients with GBM were found to develop LMD. A specialized radiologist confirmed the diagnosis of LMD on magnetic resonance imaging. To clarify the genomic signatures in GBM with LMD, we performed integrative analysis of whole transcriptome sequencing and copy number alteration in the radiological features indicating LMD phenotypes in GBM. Eleven newly diagnosed patients with GBM with LMD had worse prognosis than those without LMD (median 5.55 vs. 12.94 months, P < 0.0001). Integrating analysis using gene expression based on the change of copy number revealed that SPOCK1, EHD2, SLC2A3, and ANXA11 were highly expressed with the gain of copy number, compared with the gene expression in the non-LMD group. In addition, it was demonstrated that NME2, TMEM100, and SIVA1 were downregulated with the loss of copy number. We also found that mesenchymal subtype accounted for 50% in LMD group, whereas mesenchymal subtype consisted of 29% in non-LMD group, even though there was no statistical significance (P = 0.06). Through this radiogenomic analysis, we suggested the possibility of finding candidate genes associated with LMD and highlighted the significance of integrating approach to clarify the molecular characteristics in LMD.