Direct comparison of the in vitro and in vivo stability of DFO, DFO* and DFOcyclo* for 89Zr-immunoPET.
ABSTRACT: PURPOSE:Currently, the most commonly used chelator for labelling antibodies with 89Zr for immunoPET is desferrioxamine B (DFO). However, preclinical studies have shown that the limited in vivo stability of the 89Zr-DFO complex results in release of 89Zr, which accumulates in mineral bone. Here we report a novel chelator DFOcyclo*, a preorganized extended DFO derivative that enables octacoordination of the 89Zr radiometal. The aim was to compare the in vitro and in vivo stability of [89Zr]Zr-DFOcyclo*, [89Zr]Zr-DFO* and [89Zr]Zr-DFO. METHODS:The stability of 89Zr-labelled chelators alone and after conjugation to trastuzumab was evaluated in human plasma and PBS, and in the presence of excess EDTA or DFO. The immunoreactive fraction, IC50, and internalization rate of the conjugates were evaluated using HER2-expressing SKOV-3 cells. The in vivo distribution was investigated in mice with subcutaneous HER2+ SKOV-3 or HER2- MDA-MB-231 xenografts by PET/CT imaging and quantitative ex vivo tissue analyses 7 days after injection. RESULTS:89Zr-labelled DFO, DFO* and DFOcyclo* were stable in human plasma for up to 7 days. In competition with EDTA, DFO* and DFOcyclo* showed higher stability than DFO. In competition with excess DFO, DFOcyclo*-trastuzumab was significantly more stable than the corresponding DFO and DFO* conjugates (p < 0.001). Cell binding and internalization were similar for the three conjugates. In in vivo studies, HER2+ SKOV-3 tumour-bearing mice showed significantly lower bone uptake (p < 0.001) 168 h after injection with [89Zr]Zr-DFOcyclo*-trastuzumab (femur 1.5 ± 0.3%ID/g, knee 2.1 ± 0.4%ID/g) or [89Zr]Zr-DFO*-trastuzumab (femur 2.0 ± 0.3%ID/g, knee 2.68 ± 0.4%ID/g) than after injection with [89Zr]Zr-DFO-trastuzumab (femur 4.5 ± 0.6%ID/g, knee 7.8 ± 0.6%ID/g). Blood levels, tumour uptake and uptake in other organs were not significantly different at 168 h after injection. HER2- MDA-MB-231 tumour-bearing mice showed significantly lower tumour uptake (p < 0.001) after injection with [89Zr]Zr-DFOcyclo*-trastuzumab (16.2 ± 10.1%ID/g) and [89Zr]Zr-DFO-trastuzumab (19.6 ± 3.2%ID/g) than HER2+ SKOV-3 tumour-bearing mice (72.1 ± 14.6%ID/g and 93.1 ± 20.9%ID/g, respectively), while bone uptake was similar. CONCLUSION:89Zr-labelled DFOcyclo* and DFOcyclo*-trastuzumab showed higher in vitro and in vivo stability than the current commonly used 89Zr-DFO-trastuzumab. DFOcyclo* is a promising candidate to become the new clinically used standard chelator for 89Zr immunoPET.
Project description:PURPOSE:All clinical 89Zr-immuno-PET studies are currently performed with the chelator desferrioxamine (DFO). This chelator provides hexadentate coordination to zirconium, leaving two coordination sites available for coordination with, e.g., water molecules, which are relatively labile ligands. The unsaturated coordination of DFO to zirconium has been suggested to result in impaired stability of the complex in vivo and consequently in unwanted bone uptake of 89Zr. Aiming at clinical improvements, we report here on a bifunctional isothiocyanate variant of the octadentate chelator DFO* and the in vitro and in vivo comparison of its 89Zr-DFO*-mAb complex with 89Zr-DFO-mAb. METHODS:The bifunctional chelator DFO*-pPhe-NCS was prepared from previously reported DFO* and p-phenylenediisothiocyanate. Subsequently, trastuzumab was conjugated with either DFO*-pPhe-NCS or commercial DFO-pPhe-NCS and radiolabeled with Zr-89 according to published procedures. In vitro stability experiments were carried out in saline, a histidine/sucrose buffer, and blood serum. The in vivo performance of the chelators was compared in N87 tumor-bearing mice by biodistribution studies and PET imaging. RESULTS:In 0.9 % NaCl 89Zr-DFO*-trastuzumab was more stable than 89Zr-DFO-trastuzumab; after 72 h incubation at 2-8 °C 95 % and 58 % intact tracer were left, respectively, while in a histidine-sucrose buffer no difference was observed, both products were???92 % intact. In vivo uptake at 144 h post injection (p.i.) in tumors, blood, and most normal organs was similar for both conjugates, except for skin, liver, spleen, ileum, and bone. Tumor uptake was 32.59?±?11.95 and 29.06?±?8.66 % ID/g for 89Zr-DFO*-trastuzumab and 89Zr-DFO-trastuzumab, respectively. The bone uptake was significantly lower for 89Zr-DFO*-trastuzumab compared to 89Zr-DFO-trastuzumab. At 144 h p.i. for 89Zr-DFO*-trastuzumab and 89Zr-DFO-trastuzumab, the uptake in sternum was 0.92?±?0.16 and 3.33?±?0.32 % ID/g, in femur 0.78?±?0.11 and 3.85,?±?0.80 and in knee 1.38?±?0.23 and 8.20?±?2.94 % ID/g, respectively. The uptake in bone decreased from 24 h to 144 h p.i. about two fold for the DFO* conjugate, while it increased about two fold for the DFO conjugate. CONCLUSIONS:Zr-DFO*-trastuzumab showed superior in vitro stability and in vivo performance when compared to 89Zr-DFO-trastuzumab. This makes the new octadentate DFO* chelator a candidate successor of DFO for future clinical 89Zr-immuno-PET.
Project description:The positron-emitting radionuclide (89)Zr (t(1/2) = 3.17 days) was used to prepare (89)Zr-radiolabeled trastuzumab for use as a radiotracer for characterizing HER2/neu-positive breast tumors. In addition, pharmacodynamic studies on HER2/neu expression levels in response to therapeutic doses of PU-H71 (a specific inhibitor of heat-shock protein 90 [Hsp90]) were conducted.Trastuzumab was functionalized with desferrioxamine B (DFO) and radiolabeled with [(89)Zr]Zr-oxalate at room temperature using modified literature methods. ImmunoPET and biodistribution experiments in female, athymic nu/nu mice bearing sub-cutaneous BT-474 (HER2/neu positive) and/or MDA-MB-468 (HER2/neu negative) tumor xenografts were conducted. The change in (89)Zr-DFO-trastuzumab tissue uptake in response to high- and low-specific-activity formulations and co-administration of PU-H71 was evaluated by biodistribution studies, Western blot analysis and immunoPET. (89)Zr-DFO-trastuzumab radiolabeling proceeded in high radiochemical yield and specific-activity 104.3+/-2.1 MBq/mg (2.82+/-0.05 mCi/mg of mAb). In vitro assays demonstrated >99% radiochemical purity with an immunoreactive fraction of 0.87+/-0.07. In vivo biodistribution experiments revealed high specific BT-474 uptake after 24, 48 and 72 h (64.68+/-13.06%ID/g; 71.71+/-10.35%ID/g and 85.18+/-11.10%ID/g, respectively) with retention of activity for over 120 h. Pre-treatment with PU-H71 was followed by biodistribution studies and immunoPET of (89)Zr-DFO-trastuzumab. Expression levels of HER2/neu were modulated during the first 24 and 48 h post-administration (29.75+/-4.43%ID/g and 41.42+/-3.64%ID/g, respectively). By 72 h radiotracer uptake (73.64+/-12.17%ID/g) and Western blot analysis demonstrated that HER2/neu expression recovered to baseline levels.The results indicate that (89)Zr-DFO-trastuzumab provides quantitative and highly-specific delineation of HER2/neu positive tumors, and has potential to be used to measure the efficacy of long-term treatment with Hsp90 inhibitors, like PU-H71, which display extended pharmacodynamic profiles.
Project description:Antibody-based PET tracers are exceptionally well-suited for determination of the in vivo biodistribution and quantification of therapeutic antibodies. The continued expansion in antibody-based therapeutics has accordingly driven the development towards more robust conjugation strategies in order to reliably predict the performance of such agents. We therefore aimed to evaluate the effect of site-specific labeling by enzymatic remodeling on the stability, immuno-reactivity and tumor-targeting properties of the monoclonal antibody (mAb) trastuzumab and compare it to conventional, random labeling in a HER2-positive xenograft mouse model. Methods: Trastuzumab was conjugated with the p-SCN-Bn-Desferrioxamine (SCN-Bn-DFO) chelator randomly on lysine residues or site-specifically on enzymatically modified glycans using either ?-galactosidase or endoglycosidase S2 prior to 89Zr radiolabeling. 89Zr-DFO-trastuzumab was injected into SK-OV-3 tumor-bearing NMRI nude mice. The antibody dose was titrated with either 100 µg or 500 µg of unlabeled trastuzumab. Mice underwent small animal PET/CT imaging 24, 70 and 120 hours post-injection for longitudinal assessment. Parallel experiments were conducted with an isotype control matched antibody. In vivo imaging was supported by conventional ex vivo biodistribution and HER2 immuno-histochemistry. Furthermore, site-specifically labeled 89Zr-DFO-trastuzumab was evaluated in a panel of subcutaneous patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models. Additionally, the affinity, in vitro stability and immuno-reactivity were assessed for all tracers. Results: Site-specific labeling significantly increased PET tumor uptake (One-way ANOVA, p<0.0001) at all time-points when compared to random labeling. Mean tumor uptakes were 6.7 ± 1.7, 13.9 ± 3.3 and 15.3 ± 3.8 % injected dose per gram tissue (%ID/g) at 70 hours post-injection, for random, ?-galactosidase or endoglycosidase S2 labeled probes, respectively. Co-injection with unlabeled trastuzumab increased the circulation time of tracers but did not alter tumor uptake notably. Site-specific probes presented with a superior in vitro stability and immuno-reactivity compared to the randomly labeled probe. Ex vivo biodistribution confirmed the data obtained by in vivo PET imaging, and site-specific 89Zr-DFO-trastuzumab successfully detected HER2-positive tumors in PDX mouse models. Conclusion: 89Zr-DFO-trastuzumab is well-matched for specific immuno-PET imaging of HER2-positive tumors and site-specific labeling of trastuzumab by the SiteClickTM technology minimizes the impact of the DFO chelator on immuno-reactivity, stability and biodistribution. These findings support further development of site-specifically radiolabeled mAbs for immuno-PET.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) is an essential biomarker for tumor treatment. Affibody is an ideal vector for preparing HER2 specific probes because of high affinity and rapid clearance from normal tissues, etc. Zirconium-89 is a PET imaging isotope with a long half-life and suitable for monitoring biological processes for more extended periods. In this study, a novel 89Zr-labeled HER2 affibody, [89Zr]Zr-DFO-MAL-Cys-MZHER2, was synthesized, and its imaging characters were also assessed. RESULTS:The precursor, DFO-MAL-Cys-MZHER2, was obtained with a yield of nearly 50%. The radiochemical yield of [89Zr]Zr -DFO-MAL-Cys-MZHER2 was 90.2 ± 1.9%, and the radiochemical purity was higher than 95%. The total synthesis time was only 30?min. The probe was stable in PBS and serum. The tracer accumulated in HER2 overexpressing human ovarian cancer SKOV-3 cells. In vivo studies in mice bearing tumors showed that the probe was highly retained in SKOV-3 xenografts even for 48?h. The tumors were visualized with good contrast to normal tissues. ROI analysis revealed that the average uptake values in the tumor were greater than 5% IA/g during 48?h postinjection. On the contrary, the counterparts of MCF-7 tumors kept low levels ( ~ 1% IA/g). The outcome was consistent with the immunohistochemical analysis and ex vivo autoradiography. The probe quickly cleared from the normal organs except kidneys and mainly excreted through the urinary system. CONCLUSION:The novel HER2 affibody for PET imaging was easily prepared with satisfactory labeling yield and radiochemical purity. [89Zr]Zr-DFO-MAL-Cys-MZHER2 is a potential candidate for detecting HER2 expression. It may play specific roles in clinical cancer theranostics.
Project description:While radiolabelled antibodies have found great utility as PET and SPECT imaging agents in oncological investigations, a notable shortcoming of these agents is their propensity to accumulate non-specifically within tumour tissue. The degree of this non-specific contribution to overall tumour uptake is highly variable and can ultimately lead to false conclusions. Therefore, in an effort to obtain a reliable measure of inter-individual differences in non-specific tumour uptake of radiolabelled antibodies, we demonstrate that the use of dual-isotope imaging overcomes this issue, enables true quantification of epitope expression levels, and allows non-invasive in vivo immunohistochemistry. The approach involves co-administration of (i) an antigen-targeting antibody labelled with zirconium-89 (89Zr), and (ii) an isotype-matched non-specific control IgG antibody labelled with indium-111 (111In). As an example, the anti-HER2 antibody trastuzumab was radiolabelled with 89Zr, and co-administered intravenously together with its 111In-labelled non-specific counterpart to mice bearing human breast cancer xenografts with differing HER2 expression levels (MDA-MB-468 [HER2-negative], MDA-MB-231 [low-HER2], MDA-MB-231/H2N [medium-HER2], and SKBR3 [high-HER2]). Simultaneous PET/SPECT imaging using a MILabs Vector4 small animal scanner revealed stark differences in the intratumoural distribution of [89Zr]Zr-trastuzumab and [111In]In-IgG, highlighting regions of HER2-mediated uptake and non-specific uptake, respectively. Normalisation of the tumour uptake values and tumour-to-blood ratios obtained with [89Zr]Zr-trastuzumab against those obtained with [111In]In-IgG yielded values which were most strongly correlated (R?=?0.94; P?=?0.02) with HER2 expression levels for each breast cancer type determined by Western blot and in vitro saturation binding assays, but not non-normalised uptake values. Normalised intratumoural distribution of [89Zr]Zr-trastuzumab correlated well with intratumoural heterogeneity HER2 expression.
Project description:New bifunctional hexa- and octadentate analogues of the hydroxamate-containing siderophore desferrichrome (DFC) have been synthesized and evaluated as 89Zr-chelating agents for immunoPET applications. The in vitro and in vivo inertness of these new ligands, Orn3-hx (hexadentate) and Orn-4hx derivatives (octadentate), was compared to the gold standard hexadentate, hydroxamate-containing chelator for 89Zr desferrioxamine (DFO). Density functional theory was employed to model the geometries of the resulting Zr(IV) complexes and to predict their relative stabilities as follows: Zr(Orn4-hx) > Zr(DFC) > Zr(Orn3-hx). Transchelation challenge experiments of the corresponding radiochemical complexes with excess ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) indicated complex stability in accordance with DFT calculations. Radiolabeling of these ligands with 89Zr was quantitative (0.25 ?mol of ligand, pH 7.4, room temperature, 20 min). For antibody conjugation, the isothiocyanate (NCS) functional group was introduced to the N terminus of Orn3-hx and Orn-4hx. An additional trifunctional derivative that bears a silicon-rhodamine fluorophore on the C-terminus and NCS on the N terminus was also furnished. As proof of concept, all NCS derivatives were conjugated to the HER2-targeting antibody, trastuzumab. Radiolabeling of immunoconjugates with 89Zr was accomplished with radiochemical yields of 16 ± 2% to 95 ± 2%. These constructs were administered to naive mice (male, C57BL/6J, n = 4) to assess in vivo inertness, which is inversely correlated with uptake of 89Zr in bone, after 96 h circulation time. We found bone uptake to range from 7.0 ± 2.2 to 10.7 ± 1.3% ID/g, values that compare well to the corresponding DFO conjugate (7.1 ± 0.8% ID/g). In conclusion, we have rationally designed linear, bifunctional and trifunctional desferrichrome analogues suitable for the mild and inert radiolabeling of antibodies with the radionuclide 89Zr.
Project description:Herein we describe the development and application of a bioorthogonal fluorogenic chelate linker that can be used for facile creation of labeled imaging agents. The chelate linker is based on the trans-cyclooctene(TCO)-tetrazine(Tz) chemistry platform and incorporates deferoxamine (DFO) as a (89)Zr PET tracer and a BODIPY fluorophore for multimodal imaging. The rapid (<3 min) ligation between mAb-TCO and Tz-BODIPY-DFO chelator is monitored using fluorescence and allows for determination of labeling completion. Utilizing BODIPY as the linker between mAb and DFO facilitates in chelator quantification using spectrophotometry, allowing for an alternative to traditional methods (mass and isotope dilution assay). Radiolabeling with (89)Zr to form (89)Zr-DFO-BODIPY-trastuzumab was found to be quantitative after incubation at room temperature for 1 h (1.5 mCi/mg specific activity). The cell binding assay using HER2+ (BT474) and HER2- (BT20) cell lines showed significant binding to (89)Zr-DFO-BODIPY-trastuzumab (6.45 ± 1.87% in BT474 versus 1.47 ± 0.39% in BT20). In vivo PET imaging of mice bearing BT20 or BT474 xenografts with (89)Zr-DFO-BODIPY-trastuzumab showed high tumor conspicuity, and biodistribution confirmed excellent, specific probe uptake of 237.3 ± 14.5% ID/g in BT474 xenografts compared to low, nonspecific probe uptake in BT20 xenografts (16.4 ± 5.6% ID/g) 96 h p.i. . Ex vivo fluorescence (465ex/520em) of selected tissues confirmed superb target localization and persistence of the fluorescence of (89)Zr-DFO-BODIPY-trastuzumab. The described platform is universally adaptable for simple antibody labeling.
Project description:We report the nuclear and optical in vitro and in vivo imaging of SKOV-3 cells by targeting HER2 with a bimodal trastuzumab conjugate. Previously, we have shown that desferrichrome derivatives provide a robust and versatile radiolabeling platform for the radioisotope zirconium-89. Here, we appended silicon-rhodamine functionalized linear desferrichrome to trastuzumab. This construct was radiolabeled and used to image cellular binding and antibody uptake in vitro and in vivo. The robust extinction coefficient of the SiR deep-red emissive fluorophore enables direct quantification of the number of appended chelators and fluorophore molecules per antibody. Subsequent radiolabeling of the multifunctional immunoconjugate with 89Zr was achieved with a 64 ± 9% radiochemical yield, while the reference immunoconjugate desferrioxamine (DFO)-trastuzumab exhibited a yield of 84 ± 9%. In vivo PET imaging (24, 48, 72, and 96 h post injection) and biodistribution experiments (96 h post injection) in HER2+ tumor bearing mice revealed no statistically significant difference of the two 89Zr-labeled conjugates at each time point evaluated. The bimodal conjugate permitted successful in vivo fluorescence imaging (96 h post injection) and subsequent fluorescence-guided, surgical resection of the tumor mass. This report details the first successful application of a fluorophore-functionalized desferrichrome derivative for targeted imaging, motivating further development and application of this scaffold as a multimodal imaging platform.
Project description:A novel octadentate 3-hydroxypyridin-2-one (2,3-HOPO) based di-macrocyclic ligand was evaluated for chelation of (89)Zr; subsequently, it was used as a bi-functional chelator for preparation of (89)Zr-labeled antibodies. Quantitative chelation of (89)Zr(4+) with the octadentate ligand forming (89)ZrL complex was achieved under mild conditions within 15 minutes. The (89)Zr-complex was stable in vitro in presence of DTPA, but a slow degradation was observed in serum. In vivo, the hydrophilic (89)Zr-complex showed prevalently renal excretion; and an elevated bone uptake of radioactivity suggested a partial release of (89)Zr(4+) from the complex. The 2,3-HOPO based ligand was conjugated to the monoclonal antibodies, HER2-specific trastuzumab and an isotypic anti-gD antibody, using a p-phenylene bis-isothiocyanate linker to yield products with an average loading of less than 2 chelates per antibody. Conjugated antibodies were labeled with (89)Zr under mild conditions providing the PET tracers in 60-69% yield. Despite the limited stability in mouse serum; the PET tracers performed very well in vivo. The PET imaging in mouse model of HER2 positive ovarian carcinoma showed tumor uptake of (89)Zr-trastuzumab (29.2 ± 12.9 %ID/g) indistinguishable (p = 0.488) from the uptake of positive control (89)Zr-DFO-trastuzumab (26.1 ± 3.3 %ID/g). In conclusion, the newly developed 3-hydroxypyridin-2-one based di-macrocyclic chelator provides a viable alternative to DFO-based heterobifunctional ligands for preparation of (89)Zr-labeled monoclonal antibodies for immunoPET studies.
Project description:The preparation and in vitro evaluation of a theranostic conjugate composed of trastuzumab, paclitaxel (PTX), and deferoxamine (DFO)-chelated 89Zr have been reported. These comounds have potential applications against HER2 receptor positive breast cancers. We conjugated DFO and PTX to trastuzumab by exploiting simple conjugation chemistry. The conjugate (DFO-trastuzumab-PTX) showed excellent radiolabeling efficiency with 89Zr and the labeled conjugate had high in vitro stability in human serum. Furthermore, DFO-trastuzumab-PTX displayed comparable cytotoxicity with PTX and 89Zr-DFO-trastuzumab-PTX exhibited HER2 receptor-mediated binding on HER2-positive MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. The results of our in vitro study indicate high potential of 89Zr-DFO-trastuzumab-PTX to be utilized in the theranostic application against HER2-postive breast cancers.